BIBLIOGRAPHY. SC(G). WC.
_________About the Farm. Published for J. R. Whipple Company, Boston, Mass. in 1910. This is “An illustrated description of the New Boston Dairy and other industries at Valley View, Muzzy, and Hutchinson Farms, which are a part of the supply department of Young’s Hotel, Parker House, and Hotel Touraine.”
Adams, Mrs. Crosby. “Musical Creative Work Among Women.” Music January 1896; 165-172. Material on Lang: pp. 169-170. Photo on page 169-she would have been in her late twenties. The entry in Ebel (p. X) states: “Adams (Mrs. Crosby). American contemporary composer of piano music (Five Tone Sketches, Barcarolle, Tone Picture, etc.).”
Aldrich, Richard. “Apthorp, William Foster” in The New Grove Dictionary of American Music edited by H. Wiley Hitchcock and Stanley Sadie.London: Macmillan Press Ltd., 1986; 62. Apthorp published four major books on music and edited, with John Denison Champlin, Scribner’s Cyclopedia of Music and Musicians (1888-1890). Nelson points out that this article by Aldrich which was almost the same entry as Aldrich had first published in 1935 for the third edition of Grove’s Dictionary of Music and Musicians; Aldrich had also used the same information for articles that appeared in 1964 and 1984. “It is obvious that they [the articles] have not been updated at any time during the past fifty years.” (Nelson, p. 19) Nelson also mentions, “Apthorp is treated in more detail” in the American Supplement to Grove’s Dictionary “which also came out in 1935.” (Nelson; 19)
Allam, Dr. M. Mahdi. Joseph Lindon Smith: The Man and the Artist. Cairo: April 1949.
American National Biography, see Garraty.
Ammer, Christine. Unsung-A History of Women In American Music. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1980.
Ancestry.com. “Lang, Margaret Ruthven” an unsigned entry, one of over 75,000 found on this site.
Anonymous. Sketches of Some Historic Churches of Greater Boston. Boston: Beacon Press, reprinted 2010 by the Nabu Press.
Apollo Club Programs. Boston Public Library, Music Room Collection-has reviews clipped in.
Vol.1 #1-50 Dec. 1871-June 1878.
Vol. 2 #51-80 Dec. 1878-April 1883.
Vol. 3 #81-104 Dec. 1883-May 1887.
Vol. 4 #105-128 Nov. 1887-May 1891.
Vol. 5 #129-151 Dec. 1891-May 1896.
Vol. 6 #152-171 Nov. 1896-May 1901. End of Lang Era.
Apthorp, Mrs. Robert E., see Saturday Morning Club.
Apthorp, William Foster. By the Way-About Musicians, Vol. II. Boston: Copeland and Day, 1898. Articles of interest are: “Two Anecdotes of Von Bulow,” and “Musical Reminiscences of Boston Thirty Years Ago.” The text of the second is found in Swan. Book is available at GoogleBooks.
Apthorp, W. F. “B. J. Lang” in Music, August 1893.
Apthorp, William Foster. Musicians and Music-Lovers and Other Essays. Freeport, New York: Books For Libraries Press, 1972. Reprint of 1894 first edition.
Armstrong, Agnes. “American Guild of Organists Centennial.” The American Organist, July 1996, available online.
Ayars, Christine Merrick. Contributions to the Art of Music In America By the Music Industries of Boston 1640 to 1936. New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1937.
Bakos, Jennifer. “The New England Farmstead.” Yankee, September 2015, available online.
Baltzell, Winton James. Noted Names In Music. Boston: Oliver Ditson, 1927. The editor one of his tasks to include “the names of contemporary musicians, those of present-day significance, particularly those of American interest.” (Preface)
Barnabee, Henry Clay. Reminiscences of Henry Clay Barnabee. Edited by George Leon Varney. Boston: Chapple Publishing Company, Ltd., 1913
Barnes, Edwin N. C. American Women In Creative Music; Tuning In On American Music. Washington, D. C.: Music Education Publications, 1936.
Baer, Sarah E. “How to appreciate that which no longer exists: A case study in the life and lost works of Margaret Ruthven Lang.” A Masters Thesis, Brandeis University, 2008.
Baker, Terry. The History of the Apollo Club. Unpublished. Written around 1955.
Bauer, Emilie Frances. “Boston Notes,” The Musical Courier (July 5, 1899) p. 10.
Ed. Beckerman, Michael. Dvorak and His World. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993.
Betz, Marianne. George Whitefield Chadwick-An American Composer Revealed and Reflected. Hillsdale: Pendragon Press, 2015.
Block, Adrienne Fried. Amy Beach-Passionate Victorian. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Block, Adrienne Fried. “Lang, Margaret Ruthven” in The Norton/Grove Dictionary of Women Composers edited by Julie Anne Sadie and Rhian Samuel. New York: W. W. Norton Company, 1995. Has reproduction of the engraving of Margaret, which appeared in the “Century Magazine” of March 1898.
Block, Adrienne Fried. “Dvorak, Beach, and American Music” in A Celebration of American Music: Words and Music in Honor of H. Wiley Hitchcock, edited by Richard Crawford, R. Allen Lott, and Carol J. Oja. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1990.
Blunsom, Laurie Katharine. Gender, Genre and Professionalism; the Songs of Clara Rogers, Helen Hopekirk, Amy Beach, Margaret Ruthven Lang and Mabel Daniels, 1880-1925. Ann Arbor: UMI Dissertations, Brandeis University, 1999.
BMYB. The Boston Musical Year Book, edited by G. H. Wilson began with a review of the 1883-1884 Season. It later became The Musical Year Book of the United States with its fourth volume. For its final, Tenth Volume, Philip Hale wrote the review article for the Boston Musical Season.
Bomberger, E. Douglas. A Tidal Wave of Encouragement-American Composers” Concerts in the Gilded Age. Westport: Praeger, 2002.
Bomberger, E. Douglas. “Le concert Americain au Trocadero” Sonneck Society For American Music Bulletin, Vol. XXIV, No. 1 (Spring 1998) online.
Bomberger, E. Douglas. MacDowell. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013.
A Book of Choruses for High Schools and Choral Societies: see George Whitefield Chadwick.
Boston Evening News, Saturday, January 16, 1904. Article-“Boston’s Women Composers Take High Rank.”
The Great Organ in the Boston Music Hall. Being a brief history of the enterprise from its commencement, with a description of the instrument; together with the inaugural ode, and some account of the opening ceremonies on the evening of November 2, 1863; to which is appended a short account of the principal organs in England and on the continent of Europe. Boston: Ticknor and Fields, 1866.
Boston Public Library-Music Division. “Boston Music Hall Programs: 1870-1882.” BPL XX M 119.1 Compiled and donated by Allen A. Brown on August 14, 1894. This is really a “Miscellaneous Collection” from many Boston venues, along with some from other American cities and some foreign locations also.
Boston Public Library-Music Division. “B. J. Lang Concert Programs”-see Benjamin Johnson Lang Scrapbooks.
Boston Symphony Orchestra-Archive: Barbara Perkel. E-mail November 24, 2009, together with 24 pages of photocopies from the Archive.
Boston Symphony Orchestra Program. May 2/3, 1919. Ads for Margaret’s songs and various teachers associated with the Langs.
Bowers, Jane and Judith Tick. Women Making Music. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1986.
Boylston Club. The HMA has programs from sixteen seasons of this choir.
Bradley, William F. and Courteney Guild. History of the Handel and Haydn Society of Boston Massachusetts, Vol. II. Vol. II concerns the 76th. through 119th. seasons (1890-1933) with Bradley covering 1890-1903 and Guild covering 1903-1933. New York: Da Capo, 1979.
“Brainard’s Musical World.” Published monthly from Cleveland/Chicago. In the 1880s it had two Boston Correspondents-Dux and Athenian, who gave short notices in an even-handed manner. In the July 1881 issue, it printed a short entry, No. 45 in its “Biographies of American Musicians” series which covered Lang’s career up to that point.
Briggs, Harold E. Richard Wagner and American Music-Literary Activity from 1850 to 1920. Indiana University Ph.D., 1989.
Bronsart, Hans von. Program notes for the Vox Box 2 (CDX 5067) release of von Bronsarts’s Piano Concerto in F-sharp Minor, Opus 10. No author credited.
Brooks, Rebecca Beatrice. “Historic Lyceum Building Renovated” on her website Salem, Massachusetts.
Brown, Coralynn. “Groton MA Vital records to 1850.” htpp://www. rays-place.com/town/ma/groton/gro-mar-a.htm. First accessed November 25, 2010.
Broyles, Michael. Music of the Highest Class-Elitism and Populism In Antebellum Boston. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992.
Brush, John W. Legacy of Faith-A Short History of the First Baptist Church of Boston. Groveland, MA: Boyd-James Press Inc., 1965.
Broyles, Michael.“An Address by Professor Michael Broyles on the Occasion of a Sesquicentennial Re-enactment of the First Professional Chamber Music Concert In Boston Originally Presented by the Harvard Musical Association in 1845.” Given at the Association on October 23, 1995. Available on their website.
Bull, Storm. Index to Biographies of Contemporary Composers-Volume II. Metuchen: The Scarecrow Press, 1974.
“Hans von Bulow-A Biographical Sketch-His Visit to America.” Ten pages. New York: George F. Nesbitt & Co., 1875.
Bunting, Bainbridge. Houses of Boston’s Back Bay. Cambridge: The Belnap Press of Harvard University, 1967.
Burk, John N. “Wilhelm Gericke: A Centennial Retrospect.” The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 31, No. 2 (April 1945), pp. 163-187.
Burrage, Alvah A. A Genealogical History of the Descendants of John Burrage Who Settled in Charlestown, MA in 1637. Boston: Alfred Mudge and Son., 1877.
“The Ruth Burrage Room.” Newspaper article marked 1897.
K. S. C. “Hearing For Women Composers of Four Cities.” Musical America (May 10, 1913), 32.
Campbell, Margaret. Dolmetsch: The Man and His Work. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1975.
Carman, Judith E., William K. Gaeddert and Rita M. Resch. Art Song in the United States 1801-1976; An Annotated Bibliography. Ames, Iowa: The University of Iowa Press: The National Association of Teachers of Singing, 1976.
Carter, Morris. Isabella Stewart Gardner and Fenway Court. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1925.
Cecilia. Programmes and Notices Compiled by Allen A. Brown, Vol. 1 dated September 10, 1896 (in handwriting). Has a four-page, handwritten index arranged by composer, with pieces performed and date of performance. The first program is for the HMA concert of November 19, 1874 [when the choir was still part of the orchestra], and this volume goes through May 16, 1883. It is part of the brown Collection in the Music Room of the Boston Public Library.
Census: 1860. July 20th. listing for Benjamin Lang, age 44, Pianoforte Dealer; Hannah Lang, age 42; Harriet Lang, age 18; and Ann McKinnow, age 23, Domestic from Nova Scotia.
Census: 1880. June 5th. listing for Johnson C. Burrage, age 60, Mining; Emmaline, age 58, wife, “Keeps House;” Emma. daughter, age 27, “No Occupation;” Marion, daughter, age 24, “No Occupation;” and four servants originally from Ireland.
Census: 1900. June 7th. listing for Johnson C. Burrage, age 85 [?], born April 1815, number of children-6, number of children still living-4; also living at this address, Emma, daughter, age 49, born December 1850, never married; Marion B. Morse, daughter, age 47, now a widow who never had children; and a servant and a maid, both from Ireland.
Census: 1920. January 23rd. listing for Theodore Galacar, age 46, Insurance Agent; Rosamund L., age 41; Charles, age 13 and one-half; and a cook, waitress, and a nurse.
Chadwick, George Whitefield. Memoirs. Mostly undated and unpaginated. Part of the Chadwick Collection at the New England Conservatory of Music.
Chadwick, George Whitefield, Osbourne McConathy, Edward Bailey Birge, and W. Otto Miessner. A Book of Choruses For High Schools and Choral Societies. New York: Silver, Burdett and Company, 1923. A collection that contained “much original matter” including Margaret’s Spring Flowers [composer’s note-“Composed for this book”] on a poem by Nixon Waterman, which would seem to be her last published work. Chadwick, as chief editor contributed eight pieces, while Birge supplied two as did Miessner, while Mrs. Beach and Mabel Daniels each provided one. “The aim of this volume is to present to the high school students of the country a collection of choruses comparable by every artistic standard with the material offered for their study of literature.” The earliest pieces were by Palestrina, and from this era “examples of choral music [were selected to] show the development of each historic period, culminating in a broad survey of contemporary music.” (Preface, iii)Margaret’s piece was in a homophonic style-a vocal waltz.
Chamberlin, Joseph Edgar. The Boston Transcript-A History of its First Hundred Years. Boston: Houghton and Mifflin Company, 1930.
Champlin, John Denison and William Foster Apthorp. Cyclopedia of Music and Musicians. New York: Charles Scriber’s Sons, 1899. Vol. II Articles on B. J. and Margaret.
Chase, Gilbert. America’s Music: From the Pilgrims to the Present. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1955.
Chickering-The Commemoration of the Founding of the House of Chickering & Sons Upon the Eightieth Anniversary of the Event: 1823-1903. Boston: Privately printed, The University Press, Cambridge, 1904. Engravings of the sons: Thomas E., C, Francis, and George H. B. J. Lang is listed just above Franz Liszt as one of the 78 members in the “Roll of Honor of the Chickering Piano.” (77) There are also photos of the entrance and interior of the Chickering Hall on Huntington Avenue in Boston.
The Jonas Chickering Centennial Celebration. A tribute to the life and work of Jonas Chickering, one of the world’s greatest inventors, in celebration of the hundredth anniversary of the founding by him of the house of Chickering and Sons in 1823. New York: Cheltenham for Chickering and Sons of Boston, Massachusetts, 1924. Used his portrait facing the first page.
“Christian Science Monitor,” March 25, 1911.Article-“Miss Lang Is For Modern In Music.”
Chute, James. “Van der Stucken, Frank” in The New Grove Dictionary of American Music, edited by H. Wiley Hitchcock and Stanley Sadie. London: Macmillan Press, 1986.
Cipolla, Frank J. “Patrick S. Gilmore: The Boston Years.” American Music, Autumn, 1988, Vol. 6, No. 3.
Cipolla, Wilma Reid. “Arthur Foote” in The New Grove Dictionary of American Music, edited by H. Wiley Hitchcock and Stanley Sadie. London: Macmillan Press, 1986.
Cipolla, Wilma Reid. “Marketing the American Song in Edwardian London.” American Music, Spring 1990.
Cipolla, Wilma Reid. E-mail 3/5/09 with total print figures for Margaret’s three most popular songs.
Claghorn, Charles Eugene. Biographical Dictionary of American Music. West Nyack, N.Y.: Parker Publishing Co., 1973.
Claghorn, Gene. Women Composers and Hymnists; A Concise Biographical Dictionary. Metuchen: The Scarecrow Press, 1984.
Clark, Frederic Horace. Iphigenia, Baroness of Styne. London: self-published in a private edition of 500 copies for the Pure Music Society. This is a novel based on the life of the author’s wife, the pianist Anna Steiniger (whose “autobiography” under the name of Iphigenia von Styne, it purports to be) and from his own life. He refers to himself as Leo St. Damian.
Cline, Judith Ann. Margaret Ruthven Lang: Her Life and Songs. Ann Arbor: UMI Dissertation, Washington University, 1993.
Cline, Judith. “Margaret Ruthven Lang” in Women Composers: Volume 7-Composers Born 1800-1899-Vocal Music edited by Sylvia Glickman and Martha Furman Schleifer. New Haven: G. K. Hall and Co.,19??.
Cline, Judith. E-mail July 8, 2008.
Coburn, Frederick W. “Lang, Benjamin Johnson” and Parker, James Cutler Dunn” entries in Dictionary of American Biography. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1933.
Cohen, Aaron I. International Encyclopedia of Women Composers. 1981.
Cole, Fannie L. Gwinner.“Apthorp, William Foster”, “Gottschalk, Louis Moreau,” “Perabo, Johann Ernst” and “Sherwood, William Hall” in the Dictionary of American Biography. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1927.
Collins, William F. Laurel Winners; Portraits and Silhouettes of Women Composers. Cincinnati: John Church Co., 1900.
“Contemporary American Musicians: No. 77 Margaret Ruthven Lang.” Musical America, Vol. 30 #14, Aug. 2, 1919, 21
Cook, Susan C. and Judy S. Tsou, editors. Cecilia Reclaimed: Feminist Perspectives on Gender and Music. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994.
Cooke, George Willis. John Sullivan Dwight: Brook-Farmer, Editor, and Critic of Music, A Biography. Boston; Small, Maynard & Company, 1898.
Crawford, Mary Caroline. Romantic Days in Old Boston. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1912.
Crother, Stella Reid. “Women Composers of America-3, Margaret Ruthven Lang.” Musical America, June 19, 1909, Vol. 10, No. 6, 15.
_______________ “Women Composers Interpreted,” The Musical Courier (March 28, 1908) 18.
_______________”Contemporary American Composers-No. 77.” Musical America, Vol. 31 #14 (August 2, 1919: 21).
Cousins, Frank and Phil M. Riley. The Colonial Architecture of Salem. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1919.
Curtis, George W. “Music-1872 Jubilee.” Atlantic, September 1872, 376-379.
DAHR-Discography of American Historical Recordings. “Margaret Ruthven Lang,” accessed September 15, 2018. This lists the 18 different recordings of Margaret’s songs made between 1907 and 1923 by Victor, Columbia, and one by Okeh. Matrix number, size, first recording date, title (all were Irish Love Song except one I Have a Dream), primary performer, and type of accompaniment. Some of these performances can be heard online.
Daniels, Mabel. An American Girl in Munich. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1908.
Darling, Henry Herbert. The Harvard Musical Association, History From 1837-1912. The Harvard Musical Association, 1912 [?]
Davenport, Warren. “Musical Boston,” Boston Sunday Globe, April 8, 1894, 2. This article is unsigned as was usual, but Davenport was the Music Critic for the Globe at that time and had been a member of the Apollo Club in the previous decade.
Diary-1. B. J.’s Diary kept as a young man in Salem.
Diary-2. Entries are taken from an eighty-page manuscript prepared by Rosamond Lang Galacar in 1954 from the original Diaries of her mother Frances M. Lang. Many of these original Diaries are today in the Rare Book Room of the BPL.
Dictionary of American Biography. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1927. See articles listed by author on: William Foster Apthorp (Fannie L. Gwinner Cole), Otto Dresel (Frederick H. Martens), Julius Eichberg (Arthur Elson), Louis Charles (C. A. W.-can not find the name), Elson Louis Moreau Gottschalk (Fannie L. Gwinner Cole), Edward Everett Hale (M. A. DeWolfe Howe), Theodore Thomas (John Tasker Howard), Philip Hale (Edwin Francis Edgett), B. J. Lang (F. W. Coburn), George Laurie Osgood (Frederick H. Martens), James Cutler Dunn Parker (Frederick W. Coburn), Ernst Perabo (Fannie L. Gwinner Cole), Anton Seidl (John Tasker Howard), William Hall Sherwood (Fannie L. Gwinner Cole)
Downes, Olin. Article, Boston Post, August 25, 1907.
Dorfmuller, Kurt. Internationaler Biographischer Index der Muisk (World Biographical Index of Music). Munich: K. G. Saur, 1995.
Doyle, John G. Louis Moreau Gottschalk 1829-1869. A Bibliographical Study and Catalog of Works. Detroit: The College Music Society, 1983.
DuBois, Amy. Great-niece of Margaret and Great-Granddaughter of B. J. Lang. Interview held in Manchester, England, Wednesday, August 27, 2008. At that time, several photographs were made of Lang family material.
DuBois, Fletcher. Great-nephew of Margaret and Great-Grandson of B. J. E-mails and telephone conversations beginning in June 2005.
Dumm, Robert and Karen A. Shaffer. “Amy Fay, American Pianist: Something to Write Home About” in “The Maud Powell Signature: Women in Music,” Fall 1995, Volume 1, Number 2.
Duncan, Barbara. “Allen A. Brown” in Bulletin of the American Musicological Society, No. 5 (Aug. 1941): 12-13.
Dunham, Henry M. The Life of a Musician. New York: Richmond Borough Publishing, 1931.
Dwight, John Sullivan. “The History of Music in Boston” Chapter VII in Vol. 4 of The Memorial History of Boston, edited by Justin Winsor. Boston: 1881.
Dwight, John S, and Charles C. Perkins. Story of the Handel and Haydn Society of Boston, Massachusetts, Vol. I. Boston: Alfred Mudge & Son, 1883. Also New York: Da Capo Press, 1977. Chapters 1-3 by Perkins cover 1815-1851 while Chapters 4-15 cover 1851-1890. See also, Dwight.
Eaton, Quaintance. The Boston Opera Company. New York: Appleton-Century, 1965. Chapter 11 is entitled “Two Scribes-Philip Hale and H. T. Parker.” “Philip Hale’s reign over the ‘artistic’ pages of the Herald was absolute from 1903 to 1933; Henry Taylor Parker was immovably entrenched in his corner of the Evening Transcript from 1905 to 1934.” (102) Both men died in 1934.
Ebel, Otto. Women Composers: A Biographical Handbook of Woman’s Work In Music. Brooklyn: F. H. Chandler, 1902.
Eckart, Richard Count Du Moulin, editor. Letters of Von Bulow. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1931
Edgett, Edwin Francis.“Hale, Philip” in the Dictionary of American Biography. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1935.
Edwards, Lee. “Hubert Herkomer” in The American Art Journal, Vol. 21, No. 3 (1989), 48-73. Published by Kennedy Galleries.
Elson, Arthur.“Eichberg, Julius” in the Dictionary of American Biography. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1937.
Elson, Arthur. Women’s Work In Music-Being an account of her influence on the art, in ancient as well as modern times; a summary of her musical compositions, in the different countries of the civilized world; and an estimate of their rank in comparison with those of men.Boston: The Page Company, 1903. The photo on the front of the Third Impression, April 1908 is of the Notman of Boston photo of Margaret Ruthven Lang-a photo that appeared in various magazines and books from 1898 until 1914.
Elson, Arthur. The World’s Best Music: The Musician’s Guide, Part 2. New York: The University Society, 1913.
Elson, Louis C. European Reminiscences, Musical and Otherwise–Being the Recollections of Vacation Tours in Various Countries. Philadelphia: Theo. Presser Co., 1894. Chapters 7 and 8 are concerned with his visits to Bayreuth.
Elson, Louis C. The History of American Music, Revised Edition. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1915. Louis Charles Elson (b. Boston April 17, 1848 and d. Boston February 14, 1920)-studied in Boston and Leipzig, college teacher at New England Conservatory, administrator and music critic writer on musical subjects. (Baker, 167)
Elson, Louis C. The National Music of America and its Sources. Boston: L. C. Page and Co., 1899, Fifth impression, March 1911.
Elson, Arthur and Everett E. Truette. Women’s Work In Music. Boston: L.C. Page and Co., 1931. Arthur B. Elson (b. Boston MA November 18, 1873 and d. New York February 24, 1940), son and pupil of Louis C. Elson, graduate of Harvard and MIT, composer, and writer on musical subjects. (Pratt, 197)
Engel, Carl. “George W. Chadwick,” The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 10, No. 3 (July 1924).
Engel, Carl. “Philip Hale,” The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 22, No. 1 (January 1936).
Englefield-Hull, A. A Dictionary of Modern Music and Musicians. New York: Da Capo Press, 1971. Reprint of 1924 work. Article on Margaret written by Julius Mattfield of New York who was also the American sub-editor together with Dr. Otto Kinkeldey.
Ericson, Margaret D. Women and Music: A Selective Annotated Bibliography On Women and Gender Issues In Music, 1987-1992. New York: G. K. Hall and Co., 1996.
The Etude. Cover of the July 1909 issue is devoted to “Women’s Work in Music” and has ten photos on the cover-in the lower left-hand corner is Margaret Ruthven Lang. Margaret’s photo is No. 8 in my articles, “Photos.”
Eve–Massenet. Program note by Hermann Schmidt for the Arte Nova CD c. 1998 ANO 589640.
Farwell, Arthur and W. Dermot Darby. Music In America: The Art of Music, Volume Four. Part of The Art of Music-In Fourteen Volumes. New York: The National Society of Music, 1915
Faucett, Bill F. George Whitefield Chadwick-A Bio-Bibliography. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1998.
Faucett, Bill F. George Whitefield Chadwick-His Symphonic Works. Lanham, Md.: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1996.
Faucett, Bill F. George Whitefield Chadwick-The Life and Music of the Pride of New England. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 2012.
Fauser, Annegret. Musical Encounters at the 1889 Paris World’s Fair. Rochester: University of Rochester Press, 2005.
Fay, Amy. Music Study In Germany In the Nineteenth Century, with a New Introduction by Frances Dillon. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1965. Dillon was part of the Mannes College of Music in New York City at the time of publication. This edition was an unabridged and corrected republication of the work first published by A. C. McClurg & Company, Chicago, in 1880. Dillon noted that “It is interesting to read the detailed presentation of the restrictive methods to which Tausig, and two of Amy Fay’s other teachers, Ehlert and Kullak, exposed their students. In each case, they advocated the Czerny-Reineke school, in which a quiet arm, a fixed wrist and exaggeratedly high fingers were typical…One discovers that all her teachers, with the exception of Franz Liszt, laid persistent stress on technique.” (Fay, x and xi) Fay then studied with the conductor-pianist Ludwig Deppe (1828-1890) who “was one of the first to interest himself in weight and muscular relaxation, the principle of ”muscular synergy,” which counteracted the existing system of the last half-century of keyboard methodology. it is a known fact that Deppe’s theories were to be adopted by Matthay in England, Steinhausen, Tetzel and Breithaupt in Germany, Jaell in France, Brugnoli in Italy and Leschertizky in Austria, all teachers of famous pianists.” (Fay, xii) When Fay returned to America she implemented his method in her teaching in New York, Boston and Chicago. This book was first published in 1880 “at the insistence and with the guidance of henry Wadsworth Longfellow, who personally brought the letters to his publisher. It went into twenty-one printings in America, and in 1886 was republished in London by Macmillan at the request of Sir George Grove.” (Fay, xiii and xiv) A French translation was made, and the German translation was “personally sponsored by Liszt.” (Ibid)
An edition published in 1922 by The Macmillan Company included a Prefatory Note by O. G. Sonneck. After noting the differences in America versus Europe of the 1870s and the 1920s, and that America now could provide a fine musical training, Sonneck does say: “Let the American music-student at some time in his career, but only when he is ripe for further study in a foreign country, sojourn a few years in Paris, Berlin, Leipzig, Munich, Vienna, Rome, London, and he will profitably encounter, whether it be to his taste or not, that indefinable something which the old world in matters of life, art, and art-like possessed as peculiarly its own in 1870, still possesses to-day and will possess for many, many years to come.”
Feldman, Ann E. “Being Heard: Women Composers and Patron’s at the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition.” Notes (September 1990).
Fisher, William Arms. Notes On Music In Old Boston. Boston: Oliver Ditson, 1918. Has illustrations of Orso at age 11 and Carreno at age 19. It also has B. J.’s side portrait (same as used in Elson) along with photos of Julius Eichberg and Hermine Rudersdorff, John K. Paine, Carl Zerrahn (same as used in Mathews), John S. Dwight (same as used in Ryan) and Dudley Buck
Foote, Arthur. An Autobiography. Norwood: Plimpton Press, 1946.
Foote, Arthur. “A Bostonian Remembers.” Musical Quarterly 23 (January 1937): 37-44.
Foote, Arthur. “A Near View of Mr. Lang: How He Impressed An Associate of Many Years.” Boston Transcript, May 1, 1909, pt. 3, 4.
Fox, Pamela. “The Benjamin Johnson Lang Family Papers: A Close Look at 75 Years of Musical Life in Boston.” Paper given at the Sonneck Society Meeting: Boulder, Colorado on April 18, 1986. “Summary of B. J. Lang’s Premiers: Works With Orchestra”- a supplement to this paper.
Fox, Pamela. “Hood, Helen Francis,” entry in The Norton/Grove Dictionary of Women Composers. New York/London: W. W. Norton & Company, 1995.
Fox, Pamela. “Margaret Ruthven Lang and Sexual Aesthetics of the Early Twentieth Century.” Paper given at the AMS Cleveland meeting, November 8, 1986.
Fox, Pamela.“Rebellious Tradition and Boston’s Musical Spirit of Place: Elitism, Populism, and Lives Apart.” Musical Quarterly. 1994, #78, pp. 220-249. A review of three books including Broyles Music of the Highest Class and Knight’s Charles Martin Loeffler.
Friedberg, Ruth C. American Art Song and American Poetry-Vol. I: America Comes of Age. Metuchen: The Scarecrow Press, 1981.
Friesen, Michael. “Organists and Organ Music at the 1893 Chicago World’s Columbian Exposition.” Stopt Diapason, nos. 17-21. This is the publication of the Chicago Chapter of the Organ Historical Society. These issues can be found: http://www.ohschicago.org/StoptDia.html
Fuller, Sophie. The Pandora Guide to Women Composers. London: HarperCollins Publishers, 1994.
Funeral notice. “B. J. Lang.” Boston Transcript, Apr. 9, 1909.
Galacar, Frederic R. Historic Boston. Boston: Smith and Porter [printer], 1916. This booklet contained 21 plates with brief descriptions of historic Boston locations, and it was given to the delegates and guests of the Springfield Fire and Marine Insurance Company, his company, at the 21st. convention of the National Association of Insurance Agents held in Boston that year. The only remaining copy is in the Massachusetts Statehouse Library, Room 341 according to OCLC.
Gann, Kyle. “What is American about American Music?” Article written for, and posted on American Public Media. Accessed: 11/3/11. http://musicmavericks.publicradio.org/features/essay_gann02.html
Garraty, John A. and Mark C. Carnes, General Editors. American National Biography. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. Articles on William Foster Apthorp (Ora Frishberg Saloman), Carl Bergmann (David Francis Urrows), George Whitefield Chadwick (Victor Fell Yellin), Edward Everett Hale (Francis J. Bosha), B. J. Lang (Barbara Owen), M. R. Lang (Alan Levy), William Hall Sherwood (Herbert S. Livingston). Articles filed under the subjects’ names.
Gilman, Lawrence. Edward MacDowell: A Study. New York, 1909.
Gilmore, P. S. History of the National Peace Jubilee-1869. Published by the author, Cambridge: Welch, Bigelow & Co, 1871.
Glickman, Sylvia, editor. American Keyboard Music 1866 Through 1910. Boston: G. K. Hall & Co., 1990. contains Lang’s Meditation, Op. 26.
Glickman, Sylvia, editor. American Women Composers: Piano Music: Piano Music 1865-1915. Byrn Mawr: Hildegard Publishing Co., 1990. contains Lang’s Rhapsody, Op. 21.
Glickman, Sylvia, editor. Le Chevalier. Byrn Mawr: Hildegard Publishing Co., 2000. Three-page introduction by Sylvia Glickman and Martha Furman Schleifer.
Glickman, Sylvia and Martha Furman Schleifer. From Convent to Concert Hall: A Guide to Women Composers. Westport: Greenwood Press, 2003.
Globe, Boston. “Boston’s Musical Contribution to National Convention,” July 5, 1903.
Globe, Boston.“Four Boston Composers,” February 5, 1902.
Globe, Boston.“Table Gossip,” April 30, 1905.
Globe, Boston.“Table Gossip,” February 3, 1907.
Goodrich, Wallace. “Fifty Years of the Conservatory.” NEC Magazine-review, March/April 1917
Gottschalk, Louis Moreau. Gottschalk Illustrated Concert Book. c. 1863. Opens with an engraving of Gottschalk seated at a Chickering Grand Piano. A two-page biography is followed by two-and-one-half pages of excerpts from various critical notices. Then comes four pages of description of his “most prominent” pieces with a one-page list of his published and unpublished works written between 1842 and 1863. After engravings of various co-performers, the booklet finishes with three pages of ads.
Gottschalk, Louis Moreau. Notes of a Pianist. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1881.
Gould, Elizabeth Porter. 1848-1906. A collection of clippings, programs and a poem by Gould housed at the Harvard Musical Association-listed under Lang, not Gould. Most clippings have no citation as to their origin either of date or source. Covers mainly 1893-1909.
Grant, Mark N. Maestros of the Pen. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1998.
Green, Janet M. American History and Encyclopedia of Music-Musical Biographies. New York: Irving Square, 1910. Articles on Wilhelm Gericke, Philip Hale, Georg Henschel, Lillian Henschel.
Grieve, Robert. Picturesque Boston. Providence: Reid Publishers, 1889.
Guild, Courteney and William F. Bradley. History of the Handel and Haydn Society of Boston Massachusetts, Vol. II. Vol. II concerns the 76th. through 119th. seasons (1890-1933) with Bradley covering 1890-1903 and Guild covering 1903-1933. New York: Da Capo, 1979. See entry also under Bradley.
Guion, David M. “From Yankee Doodle thro’ to Handel’s Largo: Music at the World’s Columbian Exposition.” College Music Symposium, Vol. 24, 1984, accessed August 4, 2015.
JH. Article in the Portland Maine Museum of Art magazine, c. 1986, “Recent Accession: A Portrait Drawing by Winslow Homer.”
Hale, Edward E. Jr. The Life and Letters of Edward Everett Hale. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1917.
Hale, Philip. Obit in “Time Magazine” of Monday, December 10, 1934.
Hall, Charles J. A Chronicle of American Music 1700-1995. New York: Schirmer Books, an imprint of Simon and Schuster Macmillan, 1996.
_____. History of the Handel and Haydn Society. A narrative from May 1890 until May 1897. List of program content from May 1890 until May 1912.
Handel and Haydn Society Records. Rare Book Room of the Boston Public Library. Series 1-Governance, Series 2-Financial, Series 3-Publicity, Series 4-Choral Records, and Series 5-Photos.
Hammann, James J. “History of the Farrand and Votey Organ Company”” The Tracker 32, No. 2 (1988): 19-30.
Harrison, Max. “Another Look at Hans von Bulow”-a review of Alan Walker’s Hans von Bulow. a Life and Times. “Musical Opinion,” July/August 2010, pp. 30 and 31.
Harvard Graduates’ Magazine Association. “Harvard AM Degree Citation,” Harvard Graduates’ Magazine, (Vol. XVII, 1908-09): 481.
Harvard Musical Association. Bulletins of the Library of the Harvard Musical Association beginning with Bulletin No. 1, April 1934.
Haynes, Charles. Booklet notes for Mary Garden-A Selection of Her Finest Recordings. Pearl GEMM CD 9067, 1993.
Henschel, Sir George. Musings & Memories of a Musician. London: Macmillan and Co., 1918.
“Sir George Henschel.” Obituary in The Musical Times, October 1934.
Henschel, Helen. When Soft Voices Die-A Musical Biography. London: John Westhouse Ltd., 1944.
Hichens, Robert. The Pyramid-A Novel. New York: Doubleday, Doran and Co., 1936.
Hill, Edward Burlingame. see Tyler
Hill, William Carroll. The History of the Cecilia Society Boston, Mass., 1874-1917. Boston: The Cecilia Society, 1918.
Hiller, Ferdinand. Program note by Eva Hanke (translated from the German by Roland Smithers) for Piano Concerto No. 2 in F-sharp Minor Opus 69, Hyperion CDA67655.
Hitchcock, H. Wiley and Stanley Sadie, editors. The New Grove Dictionary of American Music. London: Macmillan Press, 1986.Articles on: William Foster Apthorp (Richard Aldrich), Louis Charles Elson (Karl Kroeger), Wilhelm Gericke (Steven Ledbetter), Louis Moreau Gottschalk, (Irving Lowens), Philip Hale ((Wayne D. Shirley), Benjamin Johnson Lang (Steven Ledbetter), Margaret Ruthven Lang (Adrienne Fried Block), Anton Seidl (Hans-Hubert Schonzeler/R. Allen Lott), Theodore Thomas (Ezra Schabas), Frank Van der Stucken (James Chute). See also the second edition of 2001 listed under Sadie.
Hepner, Arthur W. Pro Bono Artium Musicarum. [A History of the Harvard Musical Association 1937-1987] Boston: Harvard Musical Association, 1987.
Hixon, Don L. and Don A. Hennessee. Women in Music: An Encyclopedic Bibliography-Volume One-Second Edition. Metuchen and London: The Scarecrow Press, Inc. 1993.
Hollins, Alfred. A Blind Musician Looks Back-An Autobiography. Edinburgh and London: William Blackwood & Sons, 1936.
Hooper-Hamersley, Rosamond (Rozzy). E-mails from the daughter of Helen Lang Hooper dated July 9, 20, 2007. Rozzy is the granddaughter of Malcolm Lang, the great-granddaughter of B. J. Lang, and the great-niece of Margaret Ruthven Lang.
Horowitz, Joseph. Classical Music in America-A History of its Rise and Fall. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 2005.
Horowitz, Joseph. Dvorak in America. Chicago: Cricket Books, 2003.
Horowitz, Joseph.“New World Symphony and Discord.”The Chronicle review-The Chronicle of Higher Education, January 11, 2008, taken from the internet.
Horowitz, Joseph. Wagner Nights-An American History. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.
Howard, John Tasker. Ethelbert Nevin. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co.,????
Howard, John Tasker. Our American Music-Three Hundred Years of It. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1930 and 1931.
Howard, John Tasker. “Seidl, Anton” in the Dictionary of American Biography. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1937.
Howe, Granville, editor. A Hundred Years of Music in America. Chicago: G. L. Howe, 1889. (see Mathews)
Howe, Mark Anthony DeWolfe. The Boston Symphony Orchestra: 1881-1931. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1931.
Howe, Mrs. Julia Ward, see Saturday Morning Club.
Howlett, D. Roger. Chair of the Program Committee, St. Botolph Club. E-mail November 30, 2009 concerning Lang as a member. E-mail January 4, 2010 concerning other members who were part of the Lang circle.
Hubbard, W. L., editor. The American History and Encyclopedia of Music; Vol. 1-Musical Biographies by Janet M Green. Toledo, New York and Chicago: Irving Square, 1908.
Hubbard, William Lines, editor. History of American Music. New York: Irving Square, 1913.
Hughes, Rupert. Contemporary American Composers. Boston: L.C. Page and Co., 1900.
Hughes, Rupert. “Music In America: IX-The Women Composers.” Godey’s Magazine, January 1896.
Hughes, Rupert. Songs By Thirty Americans, for High Voice. Boston: Oliver Ditson Company, 1904.
Hughes, Rupert.“Women Composers,” The Century Magazine, Vol. LV March 1898, #5.
Hughes, Rupert and Arthur Elson. American Composers. Boston: The Page Co., 1914.
The entry for Rupert Hughes in the History of American Music edited by W. L. Hubbard states that “One of the brightest writers of the younger generations is Richard Hughes. He became an assistant at the Criterion in New York and then went abroad to do research for a large publishing firm. Fiction and verse, essays and criticisms, which have emulated from his versatile pen have been frequently encountered in the magazines, while several books, among them Contemporary American Composers, and a very popular one entitled Love Affairs of the Great Composers, have served to make him known as one of the liveliest and wittiest of musical authors.” (Hubbard, p. 306)
Huneker, James Gibbons. The Philharmonic Society of New York and its Seventy-fifth Anniversary. New York: Printed for the Society, 1917. Photo of Anton Seidl. Grant mentions that “James Huneker [was] a writer of soft-core pornography.” (Grant, xx)
Huntington, Scot L. “In the Tracker-50 Years Ago,” The Tracker, Vol. 55, No. 2, Spring 2011.
Inventions, Piano. “Two Notable Pianofortes.” Transcript, September 30, no year. B.J. invented adding a second teacher’s grand under the student’s grand. He also invented a practice piano whose dynamic range was “pppppppp to pp.”
Jablonski, Edward. The Encyclopedia of American Music. Garden City: Doubleday and Company, 1981.
Jackson, John P. English Version of the Book Parsifal. New York: Edward Schuberth and Co., 1891.Preface of four pages-“The Story of the Grail.”
Jarman, Rufus. “Big Boom in Boston.” American Heritage, October 1969. Accessed October 10, 2020.
Jenkins, Walter S. The Remarkable Mrs. Beach, American Composer. Edited by John H. Baron. Michigan: Harmonie Park Press, 1994.
Jenks, Francis H. “Boston Musical Composers.” Boston: The New England Magazine, January 1890, New Series, Vol. I, No. 5.
Johns, Clayton. Reminiscences of a Musician. Cambridge: Washburn and Thomans, 1929.
Johnson, H. Earle. First Performances in America to 1900-Works With Orchestra. Detroit: Information Coordinators (for The College Music Society), 1979.
Johnson, H. Earle. Hallelujah, Amen! The Story of the Handel and Haydn Society of Boston. New York: Da Capo Press, 1981.
Johnson, H. Earle. “Gustave Satter, Eccentric.” Journal of the American Musicological Society, Spring 1963, Vol. 16/1, p. 61-73.
Johnson, H. Earle. Symphony Hall, Boston. New York: Da Capo Press, 1979.
Jones, F. O., editor. A Handbook of American Music and Musicians. New York: Da Capo Press, 1971. Originally published in 1886.
Jullien, Adolphe. Richard Wagner-His Life and Works. Neptune, New Jersey: Paganiniana Publications, 1981. Translated by Florence Percival Hall, and with an Introduction by B. J. Lang.
Kairoff, Peter. Program notes for “American Character-Piano Music of George Whitefield Chadwick,” Albany-Troy 745, 2005.
Karr, Ronald Dale. Lost Railroads of New England. Pepperell, Ma: Branch Line Press, 1996.
Kearns, William K. Horatio Parker, 1863-1818: His Life, Music, and Ideas. Metuchen, N. J.: The Scarecrow Press, 1990.
King, Donald C. The Theatres of Boston. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, 2005.
King, Moses. ed. King’s Handbook of Boston, fourth edition. Cambridge: Moses King Publisher, 1878, Bibliolife reprint.
Kinzey, Allen and Sand Lawn. E. M. Skinner/Aeolian-Skinner Opus List. Richmond: Organ Historical Society, 1997. Second edition.
Knight, Ellen. Charles Martin Loeffler-A Life Apart In American Music. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1993.
Krehbiel, Henry Edward. The Philharmonic Society of New York: A Memorial. New York and London: Novello, Ewer and Co., 1892.
Krehbiel, Henry Edward.“Anton Seidl,” Scribner’s Magazine, Vol. 23, June 1898. A three-page obit without a picture.
Kroeger, Karl.“Elson, Louis Charles” in The New Grove Dictionary of American Music. London: Macmillan Press Ltd., pp. 43 and 44.
Lahee, Henry C. Famous Pianists of Today and Yesterday. Boston: The Page Company, 1900.
Lang, Benjamin Johnson. “From Literature to Music.” Atlantic Monthly LXXIII (February 1894): 207-09.
Lang, Benjamin Johnson. Scrapbooks.*ML 46. L 383.Vol. 1:1861-73 (has many duplicates unbound at the end), Vol. 2: 1874-79 (has von Bulow programs from Boston and Philadelphia), Vol. 3: 1879-82, Vol. 4: 1882-86 (mainly Apollo, Cecilia, Handel and Haydn and concerts of his students), Vol. 5:1886-90, Vol. 6: 1891-96 (mainly programs of Apollo, Cecilia, Handel and Haydn. Also Annual reports of Cecilia), Vol. 7: 1896-1901, and Vol. 8: 1901-06. Donated by Malcolm Lang and Margaret Ruthven Lang on October 18, 1945.
“Lang Will Give Up Baton of Cecilia.” Boston Herald, Friday, January 20, 1907.
Lang, Frances M. Diaries. 1876, 1891, 1892, 1898, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1905, 1906, 1907, 1908, 1909, 1910, 1911, 1912, 1913, 1914, 1915, 1916, 1917, 1918, 1919, 1920. Boston: Boston Public Library, Rare Book Room.
Lang, M. R. “Facts in [the] Life of B. J. Lang.” Two handwritten pages located in the Lang papers, Box 27, # 29 in the Rare Book Room of the Boston Public Library.
Lang, M. R. ” Musical America (Aug. 2, 1919) with a photo showing her left side, looking down.
Margaret Ruthven Lang Scrapbooks. Vol. I: 1887-1906, Vol. II: 1905-1915, Vol. III: 1915-1967, and Vol. IV: 1967-1969 (”67 mostly). Boston Public Library, Rare Books Room.
The Laurel Music-Reader: see W. L. Tomlins.
The Laurel Song Book: see W. L. Tomlins.
Laurence, Anya. Women of Notes-1,000 Women Composers Born Before 1900. New York: Richards Rosen Press, 1978.
Lawton, Mary. Schumann-Heink. The Last of the Titans. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1937.
Ledbetter, Steven.“Wilhelm Gericke” and “Lang, Benjamin Johnson” in The New Grove Dictionary of American Music edited by H. Wiley Hitchcock and Stanley Sadie.London: Macmillan Press Ltd., 1986.
Ledbetter, Steven. “Higginson and Chadwick: Non-Brahmins in Boston.” American Music, Spring 2001.
Ledbetter, Steven. Program Note for Tchaikovsky’s Piano Concerto No. 1 in B-flat minor, Opus 23.
Leichtentritt, Hugo. “Music in Boston in the ‘Nineties’” in “More Books” December 1946, The Bulletin of the Boston Public Library.
_______________ A Musical Life In Two Worlds, edited by Mark DeVoto. Boston: Harvard Musical Association, 2014. Wonderful comments about Nikisch whom Leichtentritt saw as a Harvard student, and then observed years later when Nikisch conducted the Berlin Symphony.
Lindsell, Robert M. The Rail Lines of Northern New England-A Handbook of Railroad History. Pepperell, MA: Branch Line Press, 2000.
Lueders, Edward G. “Music Criticism in America” in American Quarterly, Vol. 3, No. 2 (Summer 1951): 142-151. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.
Levien, John M. Impressions of W. T. Best. London: Novello and Co., 1942.
Levy, Alan H. Edward MacDowell. Lanham, Md.: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1998.
Liepmann, Klaus. “Benjamin Johnson Lang-Boston Musician Extraordinary.” Unpublished (?) and undated article by the Music Professor of MIT.
Locke, Ralph P. “Living with Music: Isabella Stewart Gardner” in Cultivation Music in America edited by Ralph P. Locke and Cyrilla Barr. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.
Lohmann, Ludger. Program note for Rinck: Works for Organ, Naxos, 8.553925, 1997.
Lott, R. Allen. “‘A Continuous Trance’: Hans von Bulow’s Tour of America,” in The Journal Of Musicology, Vol. 12, No. 4 (Autumn 1994), pp. 529-549. Includes a complete list of all recitals, dates and locations; list of repertoire for the tour; which were solo, orchestral or chamber concerts.
Lott, R. Allen. From Paris to Peoria. Oxford-New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Lowens, Irving and S. Frederick Starr. “Louis Moreau Gottschalk” in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, edited by Stanley Sadie. London: Macmillan Publishers, Ltd., 2001.
Lowens, Margery Morgan. “Edward MacDowell” in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, edited by Stanley Sadie. London: Macmillan Publishing Ltd., 1980.
Lurie, Alison. V. R. Lang-Poems and Plays With a Memoir. New York: Random House, 1975. The flyleaf says-“V. R. Lang (called “Bunny” even by those who had never met her) was one of those rare people who are vividly remembered by everyone whose life they touch. Idiosyncratic in dress and manner, she was opinioned, charming, sometimes exasperating, sometimes lovable. A natural heroine who burned her candle at both ends, she gave marvelous parties and had an enormous circle of friends, ranging from strippers (once, when broke, she worked for a few weeks as a chorus girl at the Old Howard Burlesque House in Scollay Square) to Boston Brahmins.
As V. R. Lang, Bunny was a gifted poet who also had a genius for organization. In Cambridge, Massachusetts, in the early 1950s, she was one of the founders and the moving force behind the Poets” Theatre, and many she helped to promote-among them John Ashbery, Edward Gorey, Kenneth Koch, James Merrill, Frank O’Hara and Richard Wilbur-have since become famous in their fields.
Alison Lurie knew Bunny well in those days, and a few years after her friend died of cancer in 1956 at the age of thirty-two, she published privately this moving and witty memoir.”
Lynn, The First Church in Christ-In Commemoration of the 300th Anniversary. Lynn, Mass.: 1932.
MacDougall, Hamilton C. “The Free Lance,” The Diapason, July 1, 1943, 13.
Maitland, J. A. editor. Grove’s Dictionary of Music and Musicians. In five volumes. London: 1921.
Mann, Brian. “Teresa Carreno” in Women Composers, Volume 6-Keyboard. New York: G. K. Hall, 1999.
Marrazzo, Randi, editor. The First Solos: Songs By Women Composers-Vol. 1: High Voice. Bryn Mawr: Hildegard Publishing Company, 2000. Has Irish Love Song, Op. 22.
Marrazzo, Randi, editor. The First Solos: Songs By Women For Low Voice. Bryn Mawr: Hildegard Publishing Co., 2003. Has There Was An Old Man Who Said, “Hush!”
Marden, Jay. The owner (in 2014) of the Lang farm in New Boston, N. H. Telephone conversation on July 16, 2014.
Martens, Frederick H.“Osgood, George Laurie” in Dictionary of American Biography. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1927.
Martin, Charles F. New Hampshire Rail Trails. Pepperell, Ma: Branch Line Press, 2008.
Mathews, William Smythe Babcock, Editor-in-Chief. The Great in Music-A Systematic Course of Study in the Music of Classical and Modern Composers: First Year. Chicago: Music Magazine Publishing Co., 1900. The article on Margaret’s songs and piano pieces was written by Mr. Karleton Hackett; this followed a two page “Her Ideals as Stated by Herself” and a photo portrait. The compositions evaluated were: A Song For Candlemas, Op. 28, The Harbor of Dreams, Arcadie, Chinese Song, Revery for Pianoforte, Op. 31, A Spring Idyll, Op. 33, and Waltz of the Princess, Op. 18, No. 3.
Mathews, W. S. B., Associate Editor. A Hundred Years of Music in America; An Account of Musical Effort in America. New York: AMS Press Inc., reprinted from the Chicago edition of 1889.
McAllister, Jim. “Of Lectures and Lyceums” on his website Salem, Massachusetts, The City Guide. Accessed November 10, 2016.
McCarthy, S. Margaret William, editor. More Letters of Amy Fay: The American Years, 1879-1916. Detroit: Information Coordinators, 1986.
McCord, David. H- T- P Portrait of a Critic. New York: Coward-McCann, Inc., 1935.
McPherson and James Klein. Measure by Measure: A History of New England Conservatory from 1867. Boston: New England Conservatory, 1995.
Meggett, Joan M. Keyboard Music by Women Composers: A Catalog and Bibliography. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1981.
_________Men of Progress; one thousand biographical sketches and portraits of leaders in business and professional life in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Boston: New England Magazine, 1896.
Metcalf, Frank J. American Writers and Compilers of Sacred Music. New York, Abingdon Press, 1925.
Methuen Memorial Music Hall Website. http://www.mmmh.org/2_9_Historical-Timeline.html
Methuen-Campbell, James. Chopin Playing: From the Composer to the Present Day. New York: Taplinger Publishing Company, 1981.
Milinowski, Marta. Teresa Carreno-“By the Grace of God.” New Haven: Yale University Press, 1940.
Miller, Margo.“Oldest B.S.O. Subscriber recalls Gentle World of the Past-Life With Liszt and the Wagners.” Boston Sunday Globe, February 19, 1967, A-27.
Mitchell, Jon Ceander. Trans–Atlantic Passages. Philip Hale of the Boston Symphony Orchestra 1889-1933. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2014.
Morrison, Bryce. Program note for Liszt, a CD by Stephen Hough on Virgin Classics, VC 7 90700-2.
Mullins, John J. “Composer Margaret Lang. 101, just ‘wants to live forever.’”Newspaper article dateline “Boston (AP).” No date cited in the clipping, but it is marked “sent from Canada.” The original article appeared in the Boston Globe of Sunday, February 19, 1967.
Musical America, April 27, 1907, 4. “B. J. Lang Conducts the Cecilia Society of Boston for Last Time.”
Musical America, June 19, 1909, 15. “Women Composers of America-3. Margaret Ruthven Lang.” Author-Stella Reid Crothers.
Musical America, March 9, 1912, 23. “Music Library For Boston Students.”
Musical America, May 10, 1913, 32. “Hearing For Women Composers of Four Cities.”
Musical America, August 2, 1919, 21. “Contemporary American Musicians-No. 77 Margaret Ruthven Lang.” Author-Stella Reid Crothers. This article is shorter than the “Women Composers of America-3” listed above.
Musical America (March 9, 1912): 23. “Music Library for Boston Students.”
“Musical Boston.” See Davenport.
Musical Courier, January 1895. “Boston Music Notes-Margaret Ruthven Lang.”
Musical Courier, July 5, 1899. “Music In Boston.” Editorial comment on how some of the Boston newspapers had handled the murder by B. J’s father
Musical Courier (March 28, 1909): 18. “Women Composers Interpreted.”
Musical Record. Published by Oliver Ditson with its first issue, Saturday, September 7, 1878. Un. of Florida has issues through December 1900.
Musical Observer, January 26, 1884.“Mr. B. J. Lang.”
The National Cyclopedia of American Biography. New York: James T. White & Co., 1897. Articles on B. J. and Margaret Lang, Philip Hale, and William Apthorp.
New England Conservatory Magazine-review. December 1916-January 1917: “Passing of J. C. D. Parker,” 45 and 46. March-April 1917: “Fifty Years of the Conservatory,” 89.
New York Tribune (September 19, 1892): 4. “The World’s Fair and American Composers.”
Nutter, Charles Read. History of the Harvard Musical Association. Boston: Harvard Musical Association, 1968.
Obituary-B. J. Lang Dies of Pneumonia. Boston Globe (April 5, 1909): 94.
Obituary-B. J. Lang. Boston Herald, April 5, 1909.
Obituary-Benjamin J. Lang Dead. Boston Transcript, April 5, 1909.
Obituary-B. J. Lang. Musical America (April 10, 1909, Vol. IV, No. 22): 8.
Observer, January 26, 1884. Article about Lang’s career up to this point.
O’Donnell, Laurel. 5oth. Anniversary Concert Program loaded on her Western Massachusetts History Website, accessed August 14, 2016. http://www.hampdencountyhistory.com/springfield/orhpeus/cutter.htm
Oja, Carol J. B. New York: Institute for Studies in American Music, 1982.
Orpheum Theatre. In “www.frontrowking.com/venues/boston.”
Osborne, William. American Singing Societies and Their Partsongs. Lawton: ACDA, 1994.
Owen, Barbara. “An Eliot Organ in Boston, Massachusetts” in Fanfare For an Organ Builder-Essays presented to Noel Mander to celebrate the sixtieth anniversary of his commencement in business as an organ-builder. OXFORD: POSITIF PRESS, 1996.
Owen, Barbara. The Great Organ at Methuen. Richmond: Organ Historical Society, 2011.
Owen, Barbara. “The Opening of the Great Organ in Boston Music Hall.” Tracker (Vol. 40, #3, 1996). Has drawing of B.J. by Winslow Homer.
Owen, Barbara. The Organs and Music of King’s Chapel Boston 1713-1991. Second edition. Boston: King’s Chapel.
Paderewski, Ignace Jan and Mary Lawton. The Paderewski Memoirs. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1938.
Palffy, Eleanor. The Lady and the Painter. New York: Coward-McCann, Inc., 1951.
Patterson, Ada. Maude Adams. New York: Meyer Bros. & Co., 1907.
Pearson, Edward Hagelin. Alma Gluck-Recordings, the CD booklet for Marston 52001-2, 1997.
van Pelt, William T. The Hook Opus List. 1829-1916 in Facsimile. Richmond: The Organ Historical Society, 1991.
Pendle, Karin. Women in Music-A History: Second Edition. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001.
Perkins, Charles C. and John S. Dwight. Story of the Handel and Haydn Society of Boston, Massachusetts, Vol. I. Boston: Alfred Mudge & Son, 1883. Also New York: Da Capo Press, 1977. Chapters 1-3 by Perkins cover 1815-1851 while Chapters 4-15 by John S. Dwight cover 1851-1890. See also Dwight.
Perry, Bliss. Life and Letters of Henry Lee Higginson. Boston: The Atlantic Monthly Press, 1921.
Phoenix CD. Unsigned program note for Phoenix CD set JDT 148: Edward MacDowell-Works for Piano performed by Alan Mandel.
“Pianofortes, Two Notable.” About two of B. J.’s inventions. See: Inventions.
Pratt, S. Brainard. Threescore Years and Ten: 1827-1897. Boston: Press of Samuel Usher, 1897.
Pratt, Waldo. American Music and Musicians. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1920.
Pratt, Waldo Selden and Charles N. Boyd, editors. Grove’s Dictionary of Music and Musicians-American Supplement Being the Sixth Volume of the Complete Work: New Edition with New Material. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1946.
Pruett, Laura Moore. Louis Moreau Gottschalk, John Sullivan Dwight, and the development of Musical Culture In the United States, 1853-1865. Dissertation, Ph.D., Florida State University, 2007.
Radell, Judith and Delight Malitsky. “Clara Kathleen Rogers” in Woman Composers, Volume 6-Composers Born 1800-1899; Keyboard Music. New York: G. K. Hall & Co., 1999.
Radell, Judith and Delight Malitsky. “Clara Kathleen Rogers” in Women Composers, Volume 7-Composers Born 1800-1899; Vocal Music. New Haven: G. K. Hall & Co., 2003.
Rand, John C. One of a Thousand…One Thousand Representative Men…of Massachusetts, A.D. 1888-’89. Boston: First National Publishing Company, 1890.
Rees, Brian. Camille Saint-Saens-A Life. London: Chatto & Windus, 1999.
Rezits, Joseph. “Stephen Albert Emery” in The New Grove Dictionary of American Music. London: Macmillan Press, 1986.
Ritter, Frederic Louis. Music In America, edited and new introduction by Johannes Riedel. New York: Johnson Reprint Corp. 1970. Originally published in 1890, Ritter taught at Vassar, composed, conducted choral societies, and wrote on musical subjects.
Robbins, Phyllis. Maude Adams, An Intimate Portrait. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1956.
Rogers, Clara Kathleen. Memories of a Musical Career. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1919.
Rogers, Clara Kathleen. The Story of Two Lives. Privately printed at the Plimpton Press, 1932. Her professional name as a singer was Clara Doria.
Rose, Julie K. The World’s Columbian Exposition: Idea, Experience, Aftermath. The University of Virginia. http://xroads.virginia.edu/ma96/wce/tour. (accessed August 5, 2015)
Ryan, Thomas. Recollections of An Old Musician. New York: E.P. Dutton and Co., 1899.
Sablosky, Irving. What They Heard: Music in America, 1853-1881 From the Pages of Dwight’s Journal of Music. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1986.
Sadie, Stanley and John Tyrrell. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians-Second Edition, 2001. Articles on: B. J. Lang, Margaret Ruthven Lang, William Foster Apthorp (Richard Aldrich/Ora Frishberg Saloman)
Saerchinger, Cesar. International Who’s Who in Music. New York: Current Literature Publishing Company, 1918.
Salem Choral Society. Program for December 29, 1886, for Gounod’s Redemption. Offered on eBay during August 2017 for $36.
Sammarco, Anthony Mitchell. Boston’s South End. Charleston: Arcadia Publishing, 1998.
Sampson, Davenport, & Co. Salem Directory, 1869; a City Record of the Names of the Citizens and a Business Directory. Salem: Geo. M. Whipple & A. A. Smith, 1869.
Saturday Morning Citizen, Beverly, Massachusetts, September 3, 1887, p. 3 Gen B) Article on Mrs. William F. Apthorp.
Saturday Morning Club of Boston, the Story of-Organized by Mrs. Julia Ward Howe and Mrs. Robert E. Apthorp. Privately printed, 1932.
Schabas, Ezra.“Theodore Thomas” in The New Grove Dictionary of American Music, edited by H. Wiley Hitchcock and Stanley Sadie. London: Macmillan Press Ltd., 1986.
Schier, Stephen J. and Kenneth C. Turino. Images of America: Salem Massachusetts Volume II. Charleston, S. C.: Arcadia Publishing, 1998.
Schleifer, Martha Furman, editor. Margaret Ruthven Lang-Nonsense Rhymes and Pictures. Bryn Mawr: Hildegard Publishing Co., 1997.
Schmidt, Arthur P.-Company Archives. Library of Congress. General Correspondence, Box 44.
Folder 11: Margaret Ruthven Lang: 1901-1906 – 33 items.
Folder 12: Margaret Ruthven Lang: 1907-1922 – 13 items
Folder 13: Margaret Ruthven Lang: 1923-1931 – 28 items
Folder 14: Margaret Ruthven Lang” 1932-1949 – 57 items. Mostly royalty receipts.
Schonberg, Harold C. The Great Pianists (Completely Revised and Updated). New York: Simon and Schuster, 1963.
Schonzeler, Hans-Hubert and R. Allen Lott. “Seidl, Anton” in The New Grove Dictionary of American Music, edited by H. Wiley Hitchcock and Stanley Sadie. London: Macmillan Press Ltd., 1986.
Scrapbooks of programs for performances by B. J. Lang-donated to the Boston Public Library, Music Division, by Malcolm Lang and Margaret Ruthven Lang on October 18, 1945. *ML 46. L 383.
Vol. 1: 1861-72 (this has many duplicate programs unbound at the end of the volume)
Vol. 2: 1874-79 (this has the Von Bulow programs from the 1875 concerts in Boston and Philadelphia)
Vol. 3: 1879-82
Vol. 4: 1882-86 (mainly programs from the Apollo Club, the Cecilia, the Handel and Haydn Society and of concerts given by his pupils where he often performed the orchestral part of a concerto)
Vol. 5: 1886-90
Vol. 6: 1891-96 (mainly programs from the Apollo Club, the Cecilia and the Handel and Haydn Society. Also annual reports of the Cecilia)
Vol. 7: 1896-1901
Vol. 8: 1901-06
Sears, Elizabeth Ann. The Art Song in Boston, 1880-1914. Dissertation submitted to the Catholic University of America, 1993.
“Seidl, Anton.” Article in Grove’s Dictionary of Music. Third Edition edited by H. C. Colles, 1957.
Shepp, James W. and Daniel B. Shepp. Shepp’s World’s Fair Photographed. Chicago: Globe Bible Publishing Co., 1893.
Shirley, Wayne D. “Philip Hale” in The Grove Dictionary of American Music. London: Macmillan Press Ltd., 1986, 307.
Sitwell, Sacheverell. Liszt. London: Cassell and Company, 1955.
Smith, Corinna Lindon. Interesting People-Eighty Years With the Great and Near-Great. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1962. Smith was the daughter “of G. H. Putnam, the New York publisher, and the wife of the painter Joseph Lindon Smith, whose work you can see in the Gardner Museum and whose charming letters, often decorated with little drawings, attest to an affectionate, fruitful, and flattering friendship. ([Mr.] Smith was, in fact, Mrs. Gardner’s first choice to direct her museum after her death, but as he was not available she settled on Carter instead.)” (Vigdeman, 11 and 12)
Smith, Rollin. “The 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago,” article in “The Tracker,” Organ Historical Society.
Social Register Boston 1929. Vol. XLIII, No. 5, November 1928. New York: Social Register Association, 1928.
Sourek, Otakar. Antonin Dvorak-Letters and Reminiscences. New York: Da Capo Press, 1985.
Spalding, Walter Raymond. Music at Harvard. New York: Coward-McCann, Inc., 1935.
Starr, S. Frederick. Louis Moreau Gottschalk. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2000. Over 500 pages and no mention of B. J. Lang.
Stebbins, Richard Poate. The Making of Symphony Hall Boston-A History with Documents. Boston: Boston Symphony Orchestra, 2000
Stewart-Green, Miriam. Women Composers; A Checklist of Works for the Solo Voice. Boston: G.K. Halland Co., 1980.
Steinberg, Michael. The Concerto-A Listener’s Guide. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Stopp, Jacklin B. “The Secular Cantata in the United States: 1850-1919.” Journal of Research in Music Education, Vol. 17, No. 4 (Winter, 1969).
Storer, H. J. “The Advance of Musical Education in America,” article in The Musician, Vol. XII, No. 10, October 1907 published by Oliver Ditson in Boston.
Sutro, Florence E. Women in Music and Law. New York: Self-published, 1895. Has photos of many women composers-mainly American. Margaret, a young Mrs. Beach, right-side view of Clara Kathleen Rogers, and also Irene Hale.
Swan, John C., editor. Music in Boston-Readings From the First Three Centuries. Boston: Trustees of the Public Library of the City of Boston, 1977. Sections from the writings of Apthorp: “Musical Reminiscences of Boston Thirty Years Ago” from By the Way, Vol. II, About Musicians, Hale: Boston Home Journal, 1889-91, and Parker: Eighth Notes.
Syford, Ethel. “The Apollo Club of Boston,” New England Magazine, April 1910, 158-165.
Syford, Ethel. “Margaret Ruthven Lang,” New England Magazine, xlvi/March 1912, 22-23.
Tawa, Nicholas E. The Coming of Age of American Art Music; New England’s Classical Romanticists. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1991.
Tawa, Nicholas E. Arthur Foote: A Musician in the Frame of Time and Place. London: The Scarecrow Press, 1997. This quote is from Arthur Foote, “A Near View of Mr. Lang,” Boston Evening Transcript, (1 May 1909), 3 and 4.
Tawa, Nicholas E. From Psalm to Symphony; A History of Music in New England. Boston: Northeastern Press, 2001.
Tick, Judith. American Women Composers Before 1890. Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1983, 1979.
Tischler, Barbara L. An American Music-The Search for an American Musical Identity. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.
Todd, F. Dundas. World’s Fair Through a Camera-Snap Shots By An Artist. St. Louis: Woodward and Tiernan Print Co., 1893.
Tolles, Bryant E. and Carolyn K. Tolles. Architecture in Salem. Hanover: University Press of New England, 1983.
Tomlins, W. L. The Laurel Music-Reader. Boston: C. C. Birchard & Company, 1912. Original copyright dates of 1906 and 1908, this volume was in response to the success of The Laurel Song Book-“May it prove a worthy companion volume, its equal in excellence, interest, and popularity.”(Introduction, p. v). Two pieces by Margaret were included: To the Red-Breast, words by John Keble, and White Butterflies, words by Algernon Charles Swinburne. Her first piece is a short, fourteen measure, homophonic chorus in six-eight which she lists as her “Op. 38,” while the second is twenty-eight measures in length, and also in homophonic style. At the end of this second chorus is a footnote-“This song with piano accompaniment is published in our sheet music collection-the Laurel Octavo.”This success of this collection and The Laurel Song Book led to The School Song Book edited by Osbourne McConathy first published in 1910 which “was adopted in over five thousand cities and towns.” (Ayars, 46)
Tomlins, W. L. The Laurel Song Book. Boston: C. C. Birchard & Company, 1908. Subtitled-“For Advanced Classes in Schools, Academies, Choral Societies, etc.” Original copyright dates of 1900 and 1901. The aim of this collection was “to give to the young student of this country a collection of songs and choruses representative (in so far as is possible to a work of limited compass) of the best musical art of the world, and more especially of the art of our contemporary American composers…In the hope that a book representing much of the art and life of America today, and giving to the student so unusual a combination of the beautiful in the sister arts of poetry and music, may be found acceptable and helpful, the editor offers this work to the educators and musicians of the country.” (Introduction, iii and iv) Among the ninety “Songs and Choruses” included were two by Margaret: To the Fringed Gentian, words by William Cullen Bryant, and True Freedom, words by James Russell Lowell. Both of these works were homophonic in nature. There were also seventy-seven “Folk Songs and Hymns” included in the collection.The company of C. C. Birchard was founded in order to publish this collection. “The aim of this songbook was to furnish school music with texts of definite literary value and subjects that would interest and inspire American youth, emphasizing joy, hope, brotherhood and courage as the dominant emotions of American life. This volume was the pioneer in the use of the art songs of the great composers, as distinct from the purely folk song type of material, drawn largely from central European sources, which at one time predominated in music readers used in the schools. This book brought out for the first time in a school book works of many American composers. Texts were selected from the great poets and writers of the English-speaking world.” (Ayars, 45)
Thompson, Oscar. “An American School of Criticism: The Legacy Left by W. J. Henderson, Richard Aldrich, and Their Colleagues of the Old Guard.” Musical Quarterly, 23 (1937), 428-439).
Thompson, Vance. The Life of Ethelbert Nevin. Boston: Boston Music Co., 1913.
Tyler, Linda L. Edward Burlingame Hill: A Bio-Bibliography. New York: Greenwood Press, 1989.
Upton, George P. “Musical Societies of the United States and Their Representation at the World’s Fair.” Scribner’s Magazine, Vol. 24, No. 1, July 1893.
Upton, George P., edited by. Theodore Thomas-A Musical Autobiography: Vol. II-Concert Programmes. Chicago: A. C. McClurg & Co., 1905. Includes the complete programs, repertoire and artists, for the 1892-93 Columbian Exposition in Chicago.
Van Pelt, William T. The Hook Opus List, 1829-1935 in Facsimile. Richmond: The Organ Historical Society, 1991.
Vernon, Roland. Program note for Nimbus CD “Richard Crooks In Songs and Ballads.” (see Discography)
Vigdeman, Patricia. The Memory Palace of Isabella Stewart Gardner. Louisville: Sarabande Books, 2007.
Yankee Magazine article on the Lang Farm in New Boston, look under Jennifer Bakos.
Yellin, Victor Fell. Chadwick Yankee Composer. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1990.
Villamil, Victoria Etnier. A Singer’s Guide to the American Art Song 1870-1980. Metuchen, N. J.: The Scarecrow Press, 1993.
Youthful Voices: A Collection of Hymns and Tunes for the use of Sunday Schools-Music edited by Benjamin J. Lang.Boston: Walker, Wade and Co., 1862.
Wagner, Cosima. Diaries: Volume I- 1869-1877. Edited by Martin Gregor-Dellin and Dietrich Mack, translated by Geoffrey Skelton. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1978.
Walker, Alan. Hans von Bulow-A Life and Times. London: Oxford University Press, 2010.
Whipple, George N. “A Sketch of the Musical Societies of Salem” in Historical Collections of the Essex Institute, vol. 23. Salem: Essex Institute, 1886, online.
Williams, Alexander W. A Social History of the Greater Boston Clubs. Barre Publishing Co., Inc., 1970.
Winslow, Helen M. Literary Boston of Today. Boston: L. C. Page & Company, 1902. Half chapter and photo of Edward Everett Hale. In the 19 chapters, the only poet set by Margaret was Louise Chandler Moulton who had two of her poems set. Chapter includes her photo and a photo of her Drawing room.
Ed. Winsor, Justin. The Memorial History of Boston. Vol. 4 contains the 49 page Chapter VII-“The History of Music in Boston” by John Sullivan Dwight.
Wister, Frances Anne. Twenty-five Years of the Philadelphia Orchestra. Philadelphia: Edward Stern and Co., 1925.
White, Trumbell and William Ingelhart. The World’s Columbian Exposition. Boston: John K. Hastings, 1893.
Who Was Who in America? Vol. 1: 1897-1942. Chicago: A. N. Marquis Co., 1943.
Who’s Who of American Women-Volume I (1958-1959) Chicago: A. N. Marquis Co., 1958.
———. Highlights of the History of the Cecilia Society (1874-1946).
Wood, Nathan E.(its Minister). The History of the First Baptist Church of Boston (1665-1899). Philadelphia: American Baptist Publication Society, 1899.
The World’s Columbian Exposition: The Official Site-A Virtual Tour. Downloaded August 111, 2015. http://xroads.virginia.edu/~ma96/wce/tour2.html
Zeller, Herb. Librarian, Apollo Club. E-mails November 20, 29, 2009.