PEOPLE AND PLACES
Abel, Ludwig (b. June 14, 1835 – d. August 13, 1895) Pupil of Ferdinand David; member of the Gewandhaus Orchestra at Leipzig, the Weimar Court Orchestra (1835), leader of the Court Orchestra at Munich (1867), teacher in and (1878) Inspector of the Royal Music-School then managed by von Bulow; 1880 Royal Professor; retired on pension, 1894. Violin-virtuoso of high rank, and an excellent orchestra conductor; wrote a good Violin Method, also studies, variations, etc. (Baker-Bio. Dic, p. 2)
Adamowski, Josef. (b. July 4, 1862 in Warsaw, d. Poland-1930) (Bio-Bib, p. 2) He studied first at the Warsaw Conservatory, and then “He went to the Moscow Conservatory and studied ”cello with Fitzenhagen, composition with Tchaikovsky and piano with Pabst. Meanwhile he also entered the University and graduated. In 1883 he began concert-tours in Poland and Germany, and in 1885-87 was professor of ”cello and ensemble playing at the Conservatory of Cracow. Coming to America in 1889, he played in the Boston Symphony orchestra till 1907, and also in the Adamowski Quartet and Adamowski Trio. He had been professor in the New England Conservatory since 1903… In 1896 he married the pianist Antoinette Szumowska.” (Grove”s Am. Sup., 1925, p.109) His finance was “Antoinette Szumowska [1868-1938, Bio-Bib, p. 2], who had come to Boston armed with a letter of introduction from Paderewski to the J. Montgomery Sears”, already devoted friends of his.” (Rogers, Two Lives, p. 191) She “had already begun an international career… She played in Paris in the ”90s… She made no discs, but left some Ampico piano rolls including a [Chopin] Mazurka and three Preludes.” (Methuen-Campbell, p. 102) Josef and his brother joined the BSO during the second season (1885-86) of Gericke”s tenure. The same year Franz Kneisel replaced Listermann as concertmaster and Charles Loeffler replaced Louis Maas. (Ibid, p. 72)
Mathews, p. 293. Also have print with certificate saying published by Theodore Presser in 1900.
Adamowski, Timothie.[Timotheus] (March 24, 1858-?) (Bio-Bib, p. 2) “The artistic violinist of the Boston orchestra is widely known for his beautiful solo playing in various concert organizations, in which he has been a star. His technique is fluent and masterly, and his tone highly musical. His repertoire is very large. Biographical particulars concerning him have not been received. “Mathews, p. 292) Studied at the Warsaw Conservatory and in Paris. Came to America in 1879 “as a violin-virtuoso. He toured with Clara Louise Kellogg, Emma Thursby and Max Strakosch, and finally with his own company. Lang was part of Adamowski”s first Boston concert playing the Sonata for Violin and Piano by Grieg and probably acting as accompanist for the vocal solos by George L. Osgood. Dwight described Adamowski as one “who is fast becoming an established favorite here as a teacher and as virtuoso.” (Dwight, March 26, 1881, p. 53) In 1884-1908 he was a member of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, resigning to become teacher of the advanced violin-classes at the New England Conservatory. In 1890-94 he conducted popular concerts in the summer.” (Grove”s Am. Sup, 1925, p. 109) Lang played piano at the first concert that the Adamowski Quartet presented in Boston. The work was the Brahms Trio in C Minor Opus 101 and it was given on Monday evening November 26, 1888 at Chickering Hall. (BPL Prog., Vol. 5)
Adams, G. Arthur. In 1869, a “young” piano pupil of Lang”s who shared a concert with Mr. Sumner at Chickering Hall on Thursday afternoon, September 30, 1869. Dwight marveled that “We know not what we are coming to: so many young men and women spring up among us, who in a quiet way have in some sense mastered the highest tasks in classical pianoforte music. Here is a still, pale Massachusetts boy, the first we ever knew of whom was hearing him on this occasion actually play with certainty and good aplomb the greatest Concertos, the “Emperor” of Beethoven.” (Dwight, October 9, 1869) This certainly spoke well of Lang”s teaching ability! Adams was also the soloist in the Schumann Piano Concerto at the first of “Mr. B. J. Lang”s Second Series of Symphony Concerts” on April 11, 1872 at Mechanic”s Hall, Bedford Street. He was also one of the three soloists in Bach”s Concerto in C Major for three Pianofortes given at the fourth concert of the series on May 2, 1872. (BPL Lang Prog., Vol. 1)
Arlington Club. Conducted by William J. Winch. In July 1881 its President was John D. Long. (Musical Herald, July 1881, p. 162)
Apthorp, Robert E. Member of the HMA committee formed on January 31, 1851 to build a new music hall. The other members were: Charles C. Perkins, J. B. Upham, George Derby and J. S. Dwight. Their report was finished within a month [!], at the February 22, 1851 their “report was made and accepted.” Together with a building plan, an operational plan was also presented which included:
Sources of income:
Concerts &c 100 nights at $50.
Day occupation 50 @ $40
Religious Society (meeting on Sunday nights, led by Rev, Theodore Parker) $1,500
Mercantile Libr. Lectures $500″ (HMA Bulletin No. 6, pp. 3 and 4)
Mrs. Robert E. Apthorp, together with Mrs. Julia Ward Howe organized the “Saturday Morning Club” in 1871, a group, originally of younger women, who met for discussions, had a cooking group, and performed dramatics. Their list of lecturers was quite broad, and among noted musicians included William Foster Apthorp, John Sullivan Dwight, Arthur Foote, Philip Hale, Col. Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Dr. Samuel Langmaid, John Knowles Paine, and Thomas Whitney Surette from a list of hundreds who spoke between 1871 and 1931. (SATURDAY MORNING CLUB, pp. 91-96) In the 1888 “Clark”s Boston Blue Book” Mr. and Mrs. R. E. Apthorp are listed at 158 Mt. Vernon St. (and Mr. and Mrs. W. F. Apthorp at 14 Otis Place) Robert E. Apthorp died on Friday, February 10, 1882. (Methuen Memorial Music Hall website, 11/26/10, p. 3)
Baker, A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF MUSICIANS, p. 19
Apthorp, William Foster. Home at 2 Otis Place, Boston c. 1857, and still in 1880 (Dwight”s Journal ads). In the 1888 “Clark”s Boston Blue Book” the address is 14 Otis Place. The entry for Apthorp in Theodore Baker”s “A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF MUSICIANS, SECOND EDITION OF 1905” lists his birth date as Oct. 24, 1848. He was the “son of Robert Apthorp and Eliza Hunt. Since before the American Revolution, Apthorp”s ancestors had participated in the mercantile and intellectual life of Boston.” (Saloman, Am. Nat. Biog., Vol. 13, p. 567) He graduated from Harvard in 1869 having taken musical classes with J. K. Paine. He then took piano from B. J. Lang for 7 or 8 years longer. “Coming from an old Boston family whose efforts in the cause of art have always been most intimately linked with its progress in the city, he has won a career not less worthy than any of his line.” (Elson, Supplement, p. 3) Apthorp”s musical tastes were influeneced in part by Dwight”s “Journal” which began when Apthorp was four years old. “Since it is such a significant chronicle of the music scene in America, it would naturally reflect musical tastes of society, especially in Boston, during Apthorp”s formative years. These tastes and convictions would become a permanent ingredient of Apthorp”s personality and musical sense which, in turn, would be reflected in his own criticisms and commentaries.” (Brian, p. 39) He taught “piano and theory at the National College of Music from 1872 to 1873, then taught piano, theory, counterpoint and fugue at the New England Conservatory from 1873 to 1886. He also held classes in aesthetics and the history of music in the College of Music of Boston University until 1886” (Saloman, op. cit.) He wrote musical criticism being with the Atlantic Monthly from 1872-7. “His most remarkable work, however, was for the Boston Evening Transcript, from 1881-1903.” (Nelson, p. vi) He added the job of drama critic a year later. The Boston Evening Transcript was first published on July 24, 1830, and by the 1880s it had assumed the place of “the tea-table paper of Boston, its principal function consisting in presenting the news of the day in a manner specially acceptable in the quiet and refined homes of Boston.” (Nelson, p. 99 quoting the Boston Daily Advertiser) “Apthorp was praised for his open-mindedness, perception, and common sense, and he successfully balanced progressive and conservative viewpoints in his criticisms. He championed new music and American music. Ever mindful that the public was his true audience, his lucid, instructive writing style appealed to everyone.” (Nelson, p. vi) In all he “served as music critic for twenty-two years, from 1881 to 1903.” (Nelson, p. 99) From 1892 he edited the program books for the BSO. (p. 19) also pen and ink drawing. He died in 1913. (Foote-Auto., p. 139)
Rogers, STORY OF TWO LIVES, facing p. 190
- Born October 24, 1848 in Boston
- 1856-60-attended schools in Dresden, Berlin and Rome.
- 1863 began study piano, harmony and counterpoint with Paine and piano study was continued with Lang.
- 1869 graduated from Harvard-last year was conductor of the Pierian Sodality.
- 1872-73 taught piano and harmony at the National College of Music.
- For 13 years taught piano and various branches of theory at New England Conservatory.
- 1872 began as music editor for “The Atlantic Monthly.”
- 1876 became music critic for the “Sunday Courier.”
- 1878 was both musical and dramatic critic for the “Traveler.”
- 1881 music critic for the “Evening Transcript.” Also did dramatic criticism. Held both jobs until retired in 1903 and moved to Switzerland.
- 1892-1901 edited program books for the BSO.
- Died February 19, 1913 in Vevey, Switzerland. (American Music edited by Pratt, pp. 112 and 113)
The entry for Apthorp in Howe”s A HUNDRED YEARS OF MUSIC IN AMERICA of 1889 states that age 12 he was taken to Europe where he studied during the next four years at schools in Dresden, Berlin, and Rome. During these years he also studied art with the intention of becoming a painter. He returned to Boston in 1860, and after preparing for, entered Harvard, graduating in 1869. He had given up art on his return to American, and began piano studies with John K. Paine in 1863 and continued for four years. He then studied with B. J. Lang for six or eight years more. He taught theoretical subjects at the New England Conservatory beginning in 1874 and continuing until 1886.” The entry in DICTIONARY OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY gives his age as 8 (the year 1856) when his parents took him to Europe “for the purpose of giving him the best opportunity for studying languages and art, feeling that his latent talents lay in the latter field. In France he attended a day school” with further time in Dresden, Berlin. And Rome. “He studied art also in Florence and was a fellow student of John Singer Sargent. Returning to Boston in 1860, he fitted for college at the school of E. S. Dixwell and was graduated from Harvard in 1869. In his senior year he was conductor of the Pierian Sodality. Soon after his return from Europe, he became increasingly interested in music and in 1863 he gave up painting and studied piano, harmony, and counterpoint with J. K. Paine until 1867, when Paine went to Europe. He then studied piano with B. J. Lang for several years, but his theoretical work was self-directed. He was fully aware that the dream of his devoted parents-that he would become a great painter or a great pianist-would never be realized and he was quite content to take up teaching as a profession.” (DIC. AM. BIOG., p 335) His career as a music critic began in 1872 (aged 24) when he was hired to edit the newly established musical department of the Atlantic Monthly which he continued until December of 1877 when the department was discontinued. (See above for the next assignments) “For the last seven years or so (i.e. from 1881) he has been engaged upon Scribner”s ”Cyclopedia of Music and Musicians,” in the work of critical editor. During the last seven or eight years of the symphony concerts given in Boston by the Harvard Musical Association, he was a member of the concert and programme committees of that society.
Grant gives more about his family background. “Apthorp was the direct descendant of officers of the British Crown; one of his ancestors had been paymaster of the British Navy during the Revolutionary War. As a boy he was taken by his parents all over Europe to be educated-France, Dresden, Berlin, Rome-and as a result was fluent in many languages… His parents had first dreamed of his becoming a great painter; now they saw him as a budding concert pianist. Apthorp himself realized he wasn”t quite good enough and began a teaching career in the early 1870s; for some years he taught piano, harmony, counterpoint, fugue, and theory at New England Conservatory of Music and other Boston colleges, but retired from teaching altogether in 1886, by which time his labors as a writer on music had overtaken all else.” (Grant, p. 69)
“In his criticisms he preferred not to make pronouncements; rather, his aim was to set people thinking.” (Nelson, p. 10)
“Mr. Apthorp is one of the clearest and most satisfactory writers in music that this country has produced. The record above shows, by suggestion at least, how well his work in this capacity has been appreciated by the literary public, for each modification in his way of life has been of the essential nature of a promotion. As he is still comparatively a young man, much may be expected from him in the future.” (Howe, p. 371)
The entry for William Apthorp in the HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC edited by Hubbard states that “William Foster Apthorp is one of the best known of American critics. He was for five years critic of the Atlantic Monthly [beginning in 1872]. In 1876 he became musical critic of the Boston Sunday Courier; in 1878 musical and dramatic editor of the Boston Traveler. And in 1881 he assumed the same position on the Boston Transcript, remaining there until 1903, when he went to live abroad. Mr. Apthorp was for a time the program editor for the Boston Symphony Orchestra. He has also lectured at the leading American colleges. He is the author of several books, among which may be remembered the Life of Hector Berlioz, Musicians and Music Lovers, and numerous translations.”(Hubbard, p. 306). “His recent [c.1882] lectures on the history of music, in the Lowell Institute, were scholarly efforts, and were repeated in Baltimore, Brooklyn and other cities.” (Elson, Supplement, p. 3) “From 1892 to 1901 he wrote the program notes for the Boston Symphony Orchestra and was a lexicographer for Scribner”s Cyclopedia of Music and Musicians.” (Grant, p. 69) “Apthorp wrote the concert notes and the entr”acte column for the BSO Programme book from 14 October 1892 to 4 May 1901. (Brian, p. 161)
Early in November 1880 Dwight recorded: “Mr. Wm. F. Apthorp”s course of six lectures on the History of Music, from the days of St. Ambrose down to Wagner, will commence at the Lowell Institute next Monday evening. The topics of the several lectures are given in the advertisement in the daily papers. We fear we only tantalize too many of our readers, for we learn that about all the tickets were at once taken up. But the lectures might be repeated elsewhere.” (Dwight, November 20, 1880, p. 192)
In his history of the Boston Transcript, Apthorp is described as “an accomplished scholar and linguist, speaking all the leading languages of Europe, including Turkish, and being deeply versed in musical and dramatic literature. It was quite impressive, in the outer room, to hear his conversation in German, French, Italian, or Spanish, in meeting musical geniuses from abroad. Now and then, his criticisms may have appeared somewhat too redolent of erudition.” (Chamberlin, p. 206)
The NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA article describes Apthorp in the following manner: “Mr. Apthorp”s intelligent appreciation of music and years of study under various masters and in different schools made him a singularly scholarly and vivacious oracle on musical matters. His articles were always interesting. He not only had the power to be serious, but could be witty and whimsical, and even fantastic, and he also had the faculty of fitting the mood to the occasion. He was a delightful master of the art of music criticism, refined but not fastidious, catholic and tolerant but discriminating…He died at la Tour-de-Peil, Vevey, near Geneva, Switzerland, Feb. 19, 1913.”(NAT. CYC., pp. 130-131)
Apthorp was an active member of the Harvard Musical Association. For their “special meeting and supper” on May 20, 1886 which was held to celebrate the opening of their new rooms at 11 Park Square, he and Dr. Langmaid and Mr. P. H. Powers sang to the accompaniment of Arthur Foote. (HMA Bulletin No. 11)
“House of W. F. Apthorp” published in the July 5, 1890 issue of the “American Architect and Building News.”
The water to the right of the house is the Charles River, looking west.
Apthorp married Octavie Loir Iasigi “of Boston, a hospitable, gracious woman and a leader of society. The family resided at 14 Otis Place in Boston and spent their summers at their cottage in Nahant. They had one son, Algernon.” (Nelson, p. 280) However, before they bought the 14 Otis Place house, they lived with his parents at 2 Otis Place. The entry in the 1880 Census listed Robert E. Apthorp, aged 69, in Real estate; Elizabeth, aged 68, keeping house; William F., aged 32, pianist; and Octiva, aged 23, at home. The household was supported by three servants. (1880 Census Form) The song composer Clayton Johns describes the musical household kept by the Apthorps. “Among other interesting houses in the Boston of those days let me not forget that of Mr. and Mrs. Apthorp. For many years their Sunday evenings were unique. Many times during the winter they gave little dinners of six or eight people, usually having some ”high-light” guest like Paderewski, Melba, Sarah Bernhardt, Coquelin, or Salvini. After dinner, special friends were invited to meet the honored guest. Mrs. Gardner and Gericke were always there. Besides, there were members of the younger set-youth and beauty for decoration. Mr. and Mrs. Apthorp were rare entertainers, given to hospitality in its best sense. Later in the evening, beer and cigars lent a Bohemian air to the occasions. Mrs. Apthorp appeared, carrying a large pitcher of beer in one hand, beer mugs hanging from each finger of her other hand. As Blue Laws still obtained, dancing was not allowed until, after midnight, but then it was ”On with the dance.”” (Johns, pp. 71 and 72) The singer Clara Kathleen Rogers (Clara Doria) wrote: “The Apthorps” ”Sunday evenings,” though also informal, were different in kind. Music was only incidental, never prearranged nor indispensable. The evening reception was always preceded by a little dinner party, where the distinguished stranger of the occasiion was entertained…Wiliam F. Apthorp”s position as musical and dramatic critic on the ”Boston Evening Transcript” brought him, naturally, together with many interesting and notable people, who were glad to be entertained in so free and easy a way by a genial host and hostess, under whose roof they were also brought into contact with many of the best and most agreeable people that Boston society could offer.” (Rogers, TWO LIVES, p. 189) Arthur Foote”s daughter Katharine remembered the Sunday evenings at the Apthorps: “There my parents met many more of the great figures of the world of music, art, literature and the stage, among them Ellen Terry and Henry Irving, Sara Bernhardt, the Kendalls-a husband and wife team who were the Lunts of their day, Eleanora Duse, Melba, and many more that I have forbotten.” (Tara, Foote, p. 70) “A connoisseur of culinary delights, he was known to don apron and bonnet de chef and whip up some gourmet cuisine.” (Nelson, p. 282) The Apthorps”s place in the Boston social scene is reflected by the report in the Globe”s “Table Gossip” that “Mr. and Mrs. Wm. F. Apthorp, who will stay abroad some time are now in Dresden, where they will remain a month or two longer.” (Globe, February 3, 1907, p. 50) “A diligent a worker as he was, his social circle was wide. he was a member of the Harvard Musical Association, the St. Botolph Club, the Tavern Club, and the Papyrus Club, where he served a term as president.” (Nelson, p. 282)
A newspaper in Beverly, MA reported on Mrs. Apthorp”s social work in Bar Harbor, ME. “Mrs. William F. Apthorp who has become known as one of the most indefatigable social workers at Bar Harbor, and to whom so much of the success of the recent dress ball was due, was before her marriage a Miss Iasigi of Boston, and a sister of the Misses Iasigi, who have a very handsome cottage at Bar Harbor, says Town Topics. All the Iasigi girls are clever, and they have always been great social pets in Boston. Their father, the late Joseph Iasigi, was one of Boston”s oldest and most respected merchants. He was by birth a Smyrniot Greek. He left an immense fortune, which all the children shared alike, including a son. Mrs. Apthorp resides in the winter with her husband in a pretty artistic house in Otis Place, just off Beacon Street, overlooking the Charles river, where they entertain very delightfully. Mr. Apthorp is one of the cleverest musical critics in Boston, as well as a cultivated musician himself.” (Saturday Morning Citizen, Beverly, MA, September 3, 1887, p. 3)
In February 1876 Hans von Bulow wrote to his former wife, who was then Cosima Wagner, asking her to use her influence with “the New York Tribune” to hire as their American correspondent at Bayreuth, William Apthorp.” He described him as a “serious-minded and excellent young man (a former pupil of Mr. B. J. Lang), of Boston, who speaks (and writes) French, German, and American equally well and is far superior to the Englishman being considered” whom von Bulow described as “a semi-musician, three parts ignorant, who writes English badly.” (Eckart, p.276) Probably Apthorp first became acquainted with von Bulow through Lang.
The “Harvard Musical Review” of March 1913 printed the following: “William Foster Apthorp, ”69. Born at Boston, MA, Oct. 24, 1848 and died at La Tour de Peilz, near Vevey, Switzerland, Feb. 19, 1913. The death of William Foster Apthorp cannot fail to call forth the regret and sympathy of all Harvard men who care for high standards in Music. From his college days he was keenly interested in everything that concerned the progress of music in America. Of an old Boston family, growing up in an atmosphere of cultivation, he eagerly supplemented his naturally keen tastes by long and serious study in Europe. The distinguishing traits of his personality were his remarkable receptivity to the new and the good of all schools, his truly Latin warmth of appreciation, and the breadth of his perceptions in every line of artistic endeavor. His musical criticism was enriched by his through knowledge of painting, literature and the drama at an epoch when most critics were content to write in the critical idiom of their own craft alone. Belonging to a profession in which the ability to enjoy is too often gradually submerged by a growing passion for destructive analysis, he retained his primitive enthusiasms to a remarkable degree, and was able to infuse them spontaneously into his articles. For this reason his criticisms were inspiring, a source of encouragement to performers because of their wholesome recognition of the good, a force making for optimision in the listener because of their faith in the upward tendencies in musical art. His generous appreciation of Berlioz and Wagner (to name two notable instances) at a time when their position was debatable, was characteristic of his interpretation of the critic”s function. His services as an editor were marked by receptivity and efficient breadth. His translations of Berlioz”s writings, his essays ”Musicians and Music Lovers,” ”By the Way-About Music and Musicians,” collected from the program books of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, which he edited for nine years, and more especially his brilliant sketch of dramatic developments, ”Opera, Past and Present,” will remain as classics in the literature of American writings on music. In the annals of achievements by Harvard men in the field of music his name will stand out conspicuously for his breadth of cultivation, genial personality, and his indomitable enthusiasm for musical art.” (Harvard Musical Review, p. 1)
“He was undoubtedly one of the greatest critics America has produced. His work was strikingly individual and independent, and always constructive. His intimate acquaintance with the languages and his deep knowledge of literature and philosophy contributed largely to his success as a writer. He was an incessant worker and ceased his labors only because of failing eyesight. He bore this affliction. However, with the greatest fortitude and never lost his contagious humor. Notwithstanding a certain pride of family and position, he was very democratic, though his exceeding diffidence was often misunderstood by those who did not know his natural shyness. He was married in 1876 to Octavie Loir Iasigi. He died in Vevey, Switzerland , whither he had gone in 1903 after giving up active work.” (DIC AM. BIOG., 336) Grant stated that the reason for Apthorp”s retirement was that he was “going blind from all these toils,”-the toils being his BSO program notes, the books that he had written. (Grant, p. 69) “Their spacious arartment, situated high in a hotel of that resort town, overlooked Lake Geneva and the Swiss Alps. It was their intenion to return to Boston some day, as they maintained their Boston ties and even left some furniture. When his Boston friends visited they were distressed at his worsening health. He suffered from cataracts, which were successfully corrected with surgery. He was long afflicted with a bronchial cough, which weakened his heart. Apthorp died in Vevey, 19 February 1913, and was burried there.” (Nelson, pp. 281 and 282) In 1911 the Apthorps did return to America. The Journal ran the headline, “APTHORPS TO BE WARMLY WELCOMED-Coming to Nahant Later in Season for First Time in Years.” This was to be “their first appearance here in many seasons since taking up residence in Europe.” (Journal, July 14, 1911, p. 6, GenBank) In the same Society Section written by Dolly Adams, it was mentioned: “Mrs. Oscar Iasigi has arrived at her estate in Stockbridge, ”Clovercliffe,” with her daughter Miss Nora Iasigi, after a trip to Europe, wher Miss Iasigi was presented at court in London” (Ibid)
W. S. B. Mathews, A HUNDRED YEARS OF MUSIC IN AMERICA, p. 369.
Dwight recorded: “The readers of the Evening Transcript are to be congratulated on the fact them Mr. William F. Apthorp has undertaken the duties of musical critic in that bright and independent, no longer ”little” paper, succeeding Mr. Clement, who assumes the chair of editor-in-chief. Mr. F. H. Jenks looks after the theatres, etc.” (Dwight, June 18, 1881, p. 1000) “Mr. William F. Apthorp is one of the few young men of active mind and liberal culture who, after graduating at Harvard University, has devoted himself to music as a profession. As a teacher, especially of harmony and composition, and as a critic, he has for some years ranked among the best we have. (Dwight, February 12, 1881, p. 27) Dwight felt that Apthorp”s lectures on the history of music given for the Lowell Institute (and illustrated by a small choir) where worthy of being published. The series of six, first published in The Boston Traveler were offered by Dwight “after a careful revision by the author,” and Dwight felt that it would take at least a dozen numbers of his Journal to present them in full. (Dwight, February 12, 1881, p. 27)
In 1878 The Boston Evening Transcript was described as being “an independent Republican newspaper,” which had been begun in 1830, making it the oldest evening paper in New England. “The present quarters are in a large and handsome building, at the corner of Washington and Milk Streets, erected to replace the office burned by the Great Fire of 1872. It is one of the most commodious and elegant in the city. The Transcript occupies a field practically without a rival. It is the largest daily in New England, is of quarto form, handsomely printed on good paper…It is pre-eminently a family paper, and its circulation is chiefly among the wealthy and intelligent people of Boston and its suburbs. (King, pp. 147 and 148) The terms “quiet and dignified” were used to describes the paper”s comtent and presentation.
During 1886-87 Apthorp delivered a course of six lectures “at the Lowell Institute…repeating four at Hawthorn Rooms.” (MYB 1886-87, p. 50)
An example of Apthorp”s character is found in his letter to Otto Dressel”s widow:
Autograph letter: Collection of J. W. Johnston.
In addition to W. F. Apthorp, the listing for the last monthly social meeting of the Harvard Musical Association on June 7, 1878 also included R. E. Apthorp and H.[Harrison] O.[Otis] Apthorp.
In December 1900 The New York Times printed a story about Mrs. Apthorp:” “WEARS HER HAT IN THEATRES – Mrs. Apthorp of Boston Refuses to Comply with City Ordinance. BOSTON, Dec. 11. Mrs. William F. Apthorp, wife of the musical critic, and sister of Joseph A. Iasigi the former Turkish Consul at this port, who is now at the Massachusetts State prison, is evidently out on a crusade against the theatre hat ordinance, which has been in force in Boston for three years. Mrs. Apthorp is hardly second to Mrs. ”Jack” Gardner as the social queen of Boston, and is very elaborately dressed when she goes out in public. Last evening, with her husband, she occupied an orchestra stall at the Hollis Street Theatre and did not remove her bonnet when the curtain rose. An usher requested her to do so, but Mrs. Apthorp declined to comply. The management was appealed to and the lady was informed that she must either remove her hat or leave the theatre. She chose the latter alternative and went home and wrote a letter about it to The Evening Transcript. This evening Mrs. Apthorp went to the Boston Museum and again refused to remove her bonnet. This time she fared a little differently, Manager Field taking her to his box behind the curtain, while Mr. Apthorp remeined in his seat.” (Internet archive source: The New York Times, December 12, 1900) As late as 1919 the law was still on the books, and thus each BSO program book had the following notice printed on the Programme Page: “City of Boston, revised Regulation of August 5, 1898, – Chapter 3, relating to the covering of the head in places of public amusement. Every licensee shall not, in his place of amusement, allow any person to wear upon the head a covering which obstructs the view of the exhibition or performance in such place of any person seated in any seat therein provided for spectators, it being understood that a low head covering without projection, which does not obstruct such view, may be worn. Attest: J. M. Galvin, City Clerk.” (BSO Program for May 2/3, 1919, p. 1293) A further notice was added by the BSO management: “The ladies of the audience are earnestly requested not to put on hats before the end of the number.” (Ibid)
Arlington Club. Male voice choir first conducted by Mr. W. J. Winch and then by George Whitefield Chadwick had given “a series of concerts during each of the past five years.” (Boston Musical Year Book, Vol. 1 1883-84, p. 57) In the 1884-85 edition of the Boston Musical Year Book, it was reported that “the Arlington Club did not reorganize.” (BMYB 1884-85, p. 56)
Elson, “Musical Boston,” Supplement to “Music and Drama,” June 3, 1882. HMA Collection.
Baermann, Carl. From a long line of musicians; his grandfather, “was one of the most brilliant clarinettists of the world, and was a close friend of Weber and Mendelssohn, both of whom wrote compositions for him.” “Elson, Hist. Am. Mus., p. 287) He appeared as piano soloist with the BSO in 26 programs between 1882 and 1899-this would average about 2 and 1/3rd. appearances per season. (Howe, BSO, p. 245) Born in Bavaria in 1839, he was part of a family that had musical talent passed on for many generations. He began at the Munich Conservatory in 1850, “and in 1857 spent some time with Liszt. A quiet life of teaching followed, and in 1864 he married…In 1867 the Royal School of Music was formed in Munich, and he became one of the teachers of the higher grades of piano playing.” (Elson, Musical Boston, p. 5) Later Elson wrote that Baermann “was one of the pupils of Liszt, not merely in name, but in fact, for he possesses the most laudatory letters from that master, and was literally one of his favorites…In 1881, Professor Baermann received a furlough of two years [from the Royal Music School of Munich] in order that he might visit America. The visit resulted in a permanent residence in this country” (Elson, Hist. Am. Mus., p. 288) In 1882 he had just made an appearance with the Philharmonic Society in Beethoven”s Fourth Piano Concerto which produced the comment that he was “one of the best pianists it [Boston] had recently heard,” and that the concert had been “one of the most notable moments of the last season.” (Elson, Musical Boston, p. 5) From 1881 “and for almost twenty-five years this teacher and pianist has been a leader in classical piano music in the United States. His pupils represent almost every state in the republic, and many of them have become famous in their own right.” (Elson, Hist., p. 288)
Elson, HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC, p. 288.
Wood, THE HISTORY OF THE FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH OF BOSTON, 1899, facing p. 331.
Baptist Church of Boston, First. Rollin Heber Neale, D. D. was the minister from 1837 until 1877. His tenure began at the Third Meeting House (1829-1854). He was described as “an earnest and often eloquent preacher. He had a genius for friendships.” (Wood, p. 332) Five years after he was installed he arranged for a series of revival meetings early in 1842 led by the Rev. Jacob Knapp, “one of the most notable evangelists whom this century has produced.” (Ibid) “The whole city was greatly stirred,” (Ibid) and soon over three hundred new members joined the church. But very quickly the spirit died, and Rev. Neale, during the following ten years was not able to stop the decline. The neighborhood also changed from residential to more a business area, and so the church decided to build a new sanctuary on Somerset Street, its fourth meeting house.
Wood, THE HISTORY OF THE FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH OF BOSTON, 1899, facing p. 334.
This new building was dedicated on January 11, 1855, and was large enough to seat “one thousand persons.” (Wood, p. 334) The interior was in the Gothic Style, and it had a tall steeple, “which, standing on the summit of Beacon Hill, was one of the landmarks of the city. It was visible for many miles. (Ibid, p. 335) “Its steeple became a landmark, a skyline neighbor to the State House dome, both of them clearly visible from the harbor. The peculiar lines of that steeple led to the humorous nickname, the ”church of the holy asparagus.”…The 1850s were shot through with the fierce national debate over slavery. In 1845 the Southern Baptists, because of the slavery issue, had drawn off and organized separately” (Brush, p. 39) Unfortuneately this new location did not help the church grow. “Families were moving away, and new baptist churches were springing up in other sections of the city.” (Wood, p. 335) Through all of this Neale presided in what was to become a pastorate of forty years. It was at this point, early in the 1850s, that B. J. Lang became connected with this church. In 1877 the congregation merged with the Shawmet Avenue Church (corner of Shawmut Avenue and Rutland Street) [originally organized in 1856 as the Thirteenth Baptist Chuirch)], and “The old meeting-house was afterwards remodeled and used as the home of Boston University. The chapel of the University still  retains the former ceiling, windows, and pulpit furniture oif the room in which Dr. Neale preached from 1855 to 1877.” (Ibid, 338) The church still  possed a painted portrait of Dr. Neale which was done soon after he began at the church in 1837. “He received one thousand two hundred and forty-one members into the church.” (Ibid, p. 340)
Beethoven Hall. New in 1874, it was formally opened on Oct. 6, and it was to “supply the want which has been felt ever since the days of the Melodeon, of a music hall of moderate size, somewhere between a room for chamber music and the great Boston Music Hall.” It was located nearly opposite the Globe Theatre in Washington Street, and it was entered from Gibbons Place. The total seating was 1526 with 885 on the floor and 641 in the balconies. These balconies were descibed as “very wide and rather low” which made one observer wonder what the sound was like in those seats. “The stage, which is partly in an arched recess, has a front of forty feet, and is twenty feet deep…Th seats are of the same comfortable style as those in use in Tremont Temple.” (Dwight, October 17, 1874, p. 319) The Handel and Haydn Society rehearsed here, “but they had n”t got the hang of the school-house” as they referred to it. (Perkins/Dwight, p. 352) It was a concert hall for only four years as it was renovated and re-opened as the Park Theatre in 1879. “The building survived until 1990, when it was razed.” (Wikipedia, May 26, 2014)
Bendix, Max (b. Detroit, 1866 and d.) “Having appeared in public as violinist at eight, before twenty gained orchestral experience under conductors like Thomas, Van der Stucken and Seidl. His training as soloist was chiefly with Jacobsohn [Berlin]. In 1886 he was concertmaster at the Metropolitan Opera House and also concertmaster and assistant-conductor of the Thomas Orchestra, remaining with the latter ten years, during which he was assistant and successor to Thomas at the Columbian Exposition at Chicago in 1893. Concertizing alone or with the Bendix Quartet occupied the years 1897-1903. He conducted the orchestra at the World”s Fair at St. Louis in 1904. The next season he was concertmaster for the Wagnerian performances at the Metropolitan Opera House in New York… in 1915 he was conductor of the Exposition Orchestra at the Panama-Pacific Exposition at San Francisco. Since then he has devoted himself to teaching in New York.” (Pratt, p. 129)
Upton, MUSICAL MEMORIES, facing p. 54.
Bergmann, Carl. Conductor who was removed as conductor for the Tchaikovsky Piano Concerto No. 1 thus giving B. J. his chance to conduct this von Bulow world premier performance. “The story of Bergmann”s American career begins with the Germania Musical Society of Berlin. This was an orchestra of twenty-five young Germans who came together in 1848 with the conviction that democracy was ”the most complete principle of human society” and with the motto ”One for all, and all for one.” The private orchestras they had manned, and the nobility that owned and enjoyed them, were jeopardized by political turmoil. The Germanians” constitution stipulated self-government, ”equal rights, equal duties, equal rewards.” Naturally, they resolved to set sail for America. In England, where they stopped first, they proved their mettle. They were urged to stay in London, but were set on reaching the New World. In New York, they established new standards. They toured extensively.” (Horowitz, Wagner, p. 39) After their first conductor decided to stay in Baltimore, Bergmann took over. “Eventually, the Germanians gave over nine hundred concerts in the United States. “(Ibid) William Apthorp writing in 1896 remembered hearing the group in the early 1860s. “I can still remember the Germania concerts under Carl Bergmann”s regime, just before he went to New York and was succeeded by Mr. Zerrahn… At one of the afternoon public rehearsals, -for there were afternoon public rehearsals then, as now, -all the seats on the floor of the Music Hall had been taken up [i.e., removed], and the small audience occupied the galleries. There used to be no printed programs at these rehearsals, but Bergmann would announce the several numbers viva voce – and often in the most remarkable English. One of the numbers on the occasion I speak of was the Railroad Galop (composer unknown), during the playing of which a little steam-engine kept scooting about (by clock-work?) on the floor of the hall, with black cotton-wool smoke coming out of its funnel. I have a vague recollection, too, of another rehearsal, at which something nefarious had happened to the heating apparatus, so that the temperature was somewhere in the forties. Dresel played a concerto with his overcoat on, the sleeves partly rolled up and the bright red satin lining flashing in the faces of the audience. Brignoli sang something too, in a black cape that made him look like Don Ottavio?and persisted in singing with his back to the audience. (Apthorp, “Entr”acte,” March 7 and 8 1896 BSO Program Book, p. 593) When the orchestra disbanded in 1854, Bergmann decided to stay in New York. “There he scored the pivotal success of his career on April 21, 1855. Theodore Eisfeld had fallen ill, and Bergmann was enlisted to replace him for a Philharmonic concert at Niblo”s Garden. His rendition of the Tannhauser Overture took musical New York by storm… The Philharmonic”s directors responded by engaging Bergmann to lead all the orchestra”s concerts in 1855-56, commencing a twenty-year relationship…It was Wagner that Bergmann could not program often enough… On April 4, 1859, Bergmann conducted the whole of Tannhauser?the first American staging of a Wagner opera… By 1873, however, his laziness and lager consumption were topics of loud complaint. His mood dipped, his health decayed, his drinking increased. Only the orchestra”s affection for him prolonged his tenure. On March 17, 1876, he could not rehearse. His resignation was requested six days later. Then his wife died. According to the New York Tribune”s obituary of August 14, 1876: ”From that time he rapidly declined in health and spirits, living a solitary and retired life, and shunning the company of his former associates. About a week ago he was obliged to seek refuge at the German Hospital, where he died on Thursday night at 11 o”clock.””(Horowitz, Wagner, p. 43) In America Bergmann had done much to introduce Wagner. As early as 1853 he had presented in Boston excerpts from Lohengrin, which was just three years after Liszt, had conducted the world premier in Weimar. “His 1866 performance of the Tristan Prelude, with the Philharmonic followed by exactly nine months the Tristan premier in Munich,” but in this instance he was only second as Thomas had “already conducted the same work with his orchestra a month before.” (Horowitz, Wagner, pp. 45 and 46) “By the time that Bergmann dies, Theodore Thomas had eclipsed him as an influential proponent of the Music of the Future. Thomas”s Wagner advocacy would peak after 1880. Meanwhile, another advocates helped sustain Wagner”s lively and controversial presence in American musical affairs. The leading Wagner conductor to visit the United States in these years was Hans von Bulow, who had led the premiers of Tristan and Die Meistersinger.” (Ibid, p. 47)
Boston. In 1878 the population of the city of Boston was 375,000, but “Within twelve miles of the City Hall there is a population of about 625,000.” (King, p. 20)
Boston Daily Advertiser– see Newspapers.
The Boston Choral Union. Dwight wrote of a “new oratorio society, the Boston Choral Union, under the direction of Mr. J. C. D. Parker, has plans, we hear, of more enlarged activity.” (Dwight, August 28, 1869, p. 95) On the same page Dwight made mention of the New St. Cecilia Club that he hoped would grow “to rival the excellence of its prototype, the Caecilen-Verein of Frankfort on the Main!” (Ibid) The Boston Choral Union, Mr. Eugene Thayer, conductor, gave a concert at Wait”s Hall, Jan. 31st. . (Dexter Smith”s, March 1872, p. 53)
Boston Conservatory of Music. “The name of a new music school on a large scale, which went into operation last Monday, after short notice, in the new white marble building upon Tremont Street, partly occupied by Messrs. Mason and Hamlin. Its founder and director is Mr. Julius Eichberg, which is in itself a good guaranty of thorough, scientific teaching and artistic tone and influence… Scarcely was the above announced, when by a sudden coup d” etat a ”New England Conservatory” dropped down from the clouds, captured the Music Hall, flooded Boston with grandiloquent Circulars, created ”Professors” by the score, and, gathering up pupils fast, is ready to open next Monday. It is under the direction of Mr. Eben Tourjee from Providence, and Mr. Robert Goldbeck from New York. Perhaps the more the merrier. But we must pause, observe and think.” (Dwight, February 16, 1867, p. 399) An ad in 1872 noted the address as 154 Tremont Street (Opposite the Common), and that “The rates of instruction are extremely low and as there are but Four Pupils in a Class the most surprising results are attained.” (Dexter Smith”s magazine, February 1872, p. 46) In May 1872 it was reported, “The Boston Conservatory has instructed, since its inauguration in 1862, more than four thousand pupils.” (Folio, May 1872)
Boston Evening Transcript– see Newspapers.
Boston Globe– see Newspapers.
Boston Journal– see Newspapers.
Boston Museum. Opened in 1841, in July 1842 it advertised in the Boston Transcript that “its picture gallery as the coolest room in the city” was the place to be as the temperature that day was 92 degrees.” (Chamberlin, p. 72) “Mr. Julius Eichberg manages the orchestra at the Boston Museum with artistic skill. He loses no time in ”tuning up,” but plays steadily and faithfully from the going down of the curtain until the rising thereof. This selection of operatic and patriotic pieces, as also of polkas and waltzes are in the best taste, and his medleys are often received with marked applause. His own solos are worth the price of admission, when he chooses to introduce them, but the modesty of the man is not less noteworthy than his extraordinary power and finish of execution upon his favorite violin.” (BMT, December 6, 1862, p. 147) “At the Boston Museum, attractive comedies are nightly offered-Early in January, John Wilkes Booth commences an engagement.” (BMT, January 3, 1863, p. 164) However by 1865 the size of the orchestra had been reduced: “The Museum band has always been too small, but it has this season suffered a reduction. So far as we can learn, the cause of this reduction is, that the musicians, who were last year paid fourteen dollars a week, now ask seventeen and a half, – the regular ”Union” price; – and the manager decides to save the addition to the salaries he must pay by discharging several players. With eight instruments, one first violin only, and that the leader”s, and no violincello or horns, – it is impossible to present such music as the patrons of a theatre which claims to stand in the first rank have a right to demand, and it is absurd to try. Mr. Eichberg deserves the warmest sympathy in the exceedingly laborious and unpleasant predicament in which he has been placed by this unaccountably penurious freak of a manager.” (BMT, October 7, 1865, p. 143) This situation probably led to Eichberg”s move to New York the next year.
Clark”s Boston Blue Book, 1888, p. 314. Seating Capacity, 2,397.
Clark”s Boston Blue Book, 1888, p. 315.
Boston Music Hall. 2,397 seats. Now (2007) called the Orpheum Theatre. “This huge building, 130 feet by 78 feet by 65 feet high, sat in the center of a block that sloped downward from Tremont to Washington Street and was between Winter Street on the south and Bromfield on the North. From alleys off Bromfield, the sharp slope of the hill made the hall”s massive block granite foundation appear to be holding up some great medieval fortress, with only the moat missing. Within the hall, two tiers of galleries on each side held three rows each, and two more on the north end were more commodious. An orchestra and organ platform was at the southern extremity facing a flat main floor… Blue and white moreen upholstered chairs, with white ivory numbered tabs at their tops, held an audience of about 2,500 patrons. The Boston Music Hall had three spacious entrances: Bumstead Place and Hamilton Place were off Tremont Street, while Central or Winter Place (later Music Hall Place) was off Winter Street. Wide connecting corridors ran around the auditorium. All lighting came from above; gaslights were installed at ceiling height on windowed cornices, affording indirect illumination” (King, p. 43) “Opened in [November] 1852, the theatre has hosted everything from vaudeville to symphony to movies and is now a rock concert venue. The original entrance was on Washington Street (just down the street from the old Paramount and RKO Keiths/Opera House), in the heart of Boston”s downtown shopping district, but that entrance was turned into a retail store and patrons now must walk down a back alley to get in… Originally it had 3 entrances, the one mentioned on Washington Street, the current one from the alley called (I think) Hamilton Place, and one off Winter Street via the alley called ”Music Hall Place.” The theatre was first a music hall, then had a mezzanine and balconies added by architect Clarence Blakhall… the area at the Music hall Place entrance is now part of the food court for a conglomeration of retail stores called ”The Corner” which replaced Gilchrist”s department store in the 80s.” (Entry for Orpheum Theatre”). “The Boston Music Hall was built in 1852, after a donation of $100,000 was made by the Harvard Musical Association towards its construction. Ten years later, the members of the Association raised an additional $60,000 to install in the hall an organ built in Germany by Walker. It was regarded as the largest organ in the United States, containing 5,474 pipes and 84 registers… The organ is now in the Methuen Memorial Music Hall, in Methuen, Massachusetts.” (Boston Music Hall” entry in Wikipedia.org). This entry has a picture of the room that shows two balconies in the same configuration as Symphony Hall, Boston. Nutter adds that the $100,000 “was raised in the astonishing period of sixty days. The committee [from the Harvard Musical Association] chose the architect, supervised his plans (the plot was of irregular and curious shape, presenting him with problems), attended to every detail. The building rose quickly, watched by an interested and excited populace. When finally erected it could hold over 2,000 persons.” (Nutter, p. 11) A prosperous coach-maker, John Bumstead, owned the plot. “His house was surrounded by a spacious flower garden and his court would permit a vehicular lane to Bromfield Street and one to Winter Street which could be used as exits for the carriages bringing the gentry to the hall.” (Nutter, pp. 10 and 11) The address was called Bumstead Place, and then later Hamilton Place. John Dwight is credited with most of the work on this project. (Nutter, p. 100)
Boston Music School. This school began the fall 1865 term “under the most favorable auspices.” Located in the Fraternity Hall at 524 Washington Street, “the course of instruction pursued at this institution is very through, and as a consequence its graduates are accomplished, theoretical musicians… The price of tuition per term is $36, and this secures an extent and quality of instruction which is not to be obtained elsewhere. The instructors for the new term will be Messrs. B. F. Baker, J. W. Adams, William Shultze, John W. Tufts, George H. Howard, and Wulf Fries, every one of whom is a musical professor.” (BMT, October 7, 1865, p. 145) Both the New England and Boston Conservatories were to open in February 1867.
Boston Musical Times. Feb. 23, 1860-August 1871. “The first and second volumes were issued fortnightly, then it became a monthly review of music, art, and literature… It contained articles, bulletins of publications, correspondence, some original compositions and advertising.” (Ayars, p. 80)
Boston Oratorio Society. Gave Gounod”s Redemption in 1883 with pianoforte and organ accompaniment. (Boston Musical Year Book, Vol. 1 1883-84, p. 57)
Boston Orchestras. GERMANIA.
PHILHARMONIC. “I am under the impression that they were mainly, if not wholly, a private enterprise of Mr. Zerrahn”s. They were subscription concerts, given in the evening, with (I think) a preliminary public rehearsal in the afternoon. They were given in the Music Hall, for the most part, though at times in the Boston Theatre, and were for years the principal orchestral concerts in the city. The orchestra was somewhat larger than of the Orchestral Union. The concerts foundered during the hardest years of the war, a little later the Wednesday afternoon concerts of the Orchestral Union had struck colours; when they stopped, I think the Orchestral Union plucked up courage again, and continued giving concerts until the H. M. A. began.” (Swan-Apthorp, p. 77) ORCHESTRAL UNION (1860s) “The orchestra of the Orchestral Union… had been miserably small. I doubt if any of my generation, certainly of those whose experience did not extend to New York or the other side of the Atlantic, had ever heard a well-balanced orchestra. Our notions of orchestral effect were derived from what we heard. I remember distinctly how impossible it was for me, at the time I speak of [1860-70], to understand what older musicians meant by calling the strings the ”main power” in an orchestra. In all orchestras I had heard, the wood-wind-let alone the brass and percussion-was more powerful dynamically than the often ridiculously small mass of strings; especially as the then wind-players seldom cultivated the art of playing piano.”(Swan-Apthorp, p. 76). “What a time of it that old Orchestral Union had! Their concerts came on Wednesday afternoons, and were well attended at first… But, with the war, the audiences began to drop off, as times grew harder. The orchestra was an exceedingly variable quantity: there were only two horns, and a second bassoon was not to be thought of. The second bassoon-part had to be played on a ”cello; and uninitiated visitors used sometimes to wonder what that solitary ”cello was doing in the midst of the wood-wind. Hamann, the first horn, had little technique, but a good tone, and was moreover an excellent musician; he had a fad of playing the easier Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven horn-parts on a real plain horn, which he had had made to order, and regarded with unconcealed affection. I think there were hardly ever more than six first violins: I certainly remember one performance of Beethoven”s A major symphony with only three first violins and two second. The solitary bassoonist was conspicuous by his singularity, not by his virtuosity.” (Swan-Apthorp, p. 73) Apthorp goes on to say that the special orchestra of almost 100 players that was arranged for the Handel and Haydn demi-centennial festival of 1865 changed this.
Seating Plan: Boston Theatre. From BOSTON MANUAL of 1888. Johnston Collection.
Boston Post– see Newspapers.
Boston Singers” Society– see Osgood.
Boston Theater. Used by Gottschalk in 1863. “The Dress-circle – that is, all of the first balcony behind the first two rows of seats – was cut up into open boxes, the partitions coming up no higher than the arms of the seats. But I could never discover that people ”took a box;” the seats were sold separately, just as if the partitions did not exist. The entrance to the top gallery was fifty cents, though it was afterwards raised to a dollar. The opera orchestras were pretty small, and not of the best quality; but, as the huge modern opera scores had not come in, the parts were generally well enough filled… there were generally four horns.” (Swan-Apthorp, p. 74) Located in Federal Street, it had been opened on June 30, 1846 “with great ceremony, and with public proceedings including a prize poem by Mrs. Frances S. Osgood.” (Chamberlin, p. 209) The new and second Boston Theatre opened on September 11, 1854… The auditorium was 90 feet in diameter, circular yet slightly flattening toward the stage. The distance from the main curtain to the rear of the parquette was 80 feet; ceiling height was 54 feet. A space of 10 to 12 feet on the edge of the parquette, nearly parallel with the front curve of the first tier, was separated from the main seating and slightly raised. The entire parquette floor was constructed in a dishing form varying several feet. First and second balconies rose in horseshoe shape and were topped by the gallery. Hanging in front and a little below the first or dress circle was a light balcony containing two rows of seats. Each tier had 11 boxes in its center, separate from the remainder of its circle. The gallery extended back over the corridors below, affording a greater number of seats… A large ”digital-like” clock was part of the upper proscenium arch… The stage area was below Mason Street level and was 67 feet in depth from main curtain… The theatre covered 26,149 square feet of land and enjoyed a seating capacity of 3,140 as late as 1901.” (King, p. 45)
Boylston Club. Organized in 1873 (Ritter, p. 393) “This society, composed exclusively of gentlemen, was organized in February, 1872. During the ensuing season several pleasant evening entertainments were given, but not until Feb. 21, 1873, that the first real concert occurred. The second season, which was opened with a public rehearsal at Parker Memorial Hall, Nov. 28, 1873, proved a prosperous one, and soon the Club took its place among the recognized and influential musical organizations of Boston. In 1875 Carlyle Petersilea became its pianist, a post which he still [c. 1883] retains. In 1876 it was voted to invite ladies to assist at the concerts, but the membership is still exclusively male. Eben Phinney was its first director, but was soon succeeded by J. B. Sharland. Mr. Sharland resigned his position in 1875, when George L. Osgood became director, a capacity in which he still (Jan., 1883) acts. Under his able leadership the Club not only continued to prosper but improved its high musical standard, so largely due to the efforts of Mr. Sharland. The performances of the Club are of the highest order.” (Jones, p. 17) “Boston has still another male chorus called the Boylston Club, which comprises excellent material. It is destined to occupy a high position.” (Dexter Smith, April 1873, p. 93) “Formed May 1873… rehearsed for a long time privately under Mr. J. B. Sharland… It took a fresh start when Mr. George L. Osgood took the helm… The choir then numbered about a hundred male voices… In 1877 the club mated itself with an equally large and select choir of female voices.” (Dwight, History of Boston, p. 453) Allen A Brown”s “Index” Vol. I lists repertoire from December 22, 1873 to May 18, 1881, but the first program preserved in this volume is for a “Public Rehearsal” held on Thursday May 29, 1873 with the Beethoven Quintette Club as assisting artists?they performed two movements from the Mendelssohn Quintette, Opus 87 and two movements from Rubinstein”s Quartette Opus 17, No. 3; the players were Messrs. Allen, Heindl, Mullaly, and Wulf Fries; no choral conductor is listed, and at the end of the repertoire list the only conductors mentioned were J.B. Sharland and Geo. L Osgood-B. J. Lang is not mentioned! Dwight referred to this group as the “younger rival” of the Apollo Club in his review of June 28, 1873. He attended their May 29th. concert “on one of the hottest evenings of the season… up endless flights of stairs in the spacious and elegant new Odd Fellows Hall, this company of some forty young, fresh voices, under the very efficient conductorship of Mr. Sharland, sang a selection of part-songs by composers most in vogue, with agreeable ensemble of tone, such unity and precision and such well studied light and shade as to give great pleasure to an appreciative audience.” However, he went on to advocate for mixed voices whose repertoire was vastly greater than that of men”s choirs. Like many other singing groups, variety in the program was provided by instrumental movements?in this case the Beethoven Quintette presented selections from a Quintet by Mendelssohn and an Quartet by Rubinstein.”(Dwight, June 28, 1873, p. 47) Dwight again referred to this group in his review of their December 22, 1873 concert given at the Music Hall as the “younger club” in relation to the Apollo Club. He felt that “In fresh, pure vocal ensemble the young club rivals the Apollo; but it is by no means so rich in solo singers, nor is the musical experience of its members as yet such that it may attempt the same high flights.” (Dwight, January 10, 1874, p. 159) The conductor for this concert was Mr. J. B. Sharland and the Beethoven Quintette Club again assisted this time with the Andante from the Quintette in A by Mendelssohn and the Allegretto, Minuet and Trio from Beethoven”s Eighth Symphony.
On January 15, 1875 the choir sang at the Music Hall again under Mr. Sharland, and Dwight felt that “The quality and balance of the voices, and the precision, style and finish of their execution was highly creditable to the singers and their instructor.” (Dwight, January 23, 1875, p. 375) This concert was the first where a conductors name was listed in the program. Jones lists his time as conductor as from the autumn of 1872 until April 1875. (Jones, p. 153) However, soon there was a change. Less than six months later “The Boylston Club sung this time under their new conductor, M. George L. Osgood, who had been with them only a few weeks, so that the results of his training could hardly yet be very marked. In the repetition of the Concert the improvement was decided. There is a fine body of fresh young voices, and they sing with spirit.” In addition to the choral numbers, five male soloists were used, and the accompanist, Mr. Petersilea contributed a solo. (Dwight, June 26, 1875, p. 47) The program for their May 31, 1875 concert is the first to list the members of the choir: there were 16 First Tenors, 17 Second Tenors, 16 First Basses, and 16 Second Basses. In October 1876 Dwight noted that Mr. George W. Sumner was taking over the post of accompanist from Mr. Petersilea, and that the Club “proposes to give five concerts this season, the first about the middle of November, and the repertoire has been enriched with several new and interesting works.” But, as this group was just beginning its rehearsals, the Apollo had already given its “first public rehearsal to its associate members last Tuesday night at Horticultural Hall.” (Dwight, October 14, 1876, p. 319) The Boylston Club concert of December 1876 caused Dwight to comment: “Never have the voices seemed so well balanced, the ensemble so finely blended, and the harmony so pure” of this group which now numbered “very near 100 voices.” But Dwight did note “there is a limit to the charm of mere men”s voices… and we are glad to learn that the Club is taking the initiative in affiliating with itself a chorus of mixed voices.” (Dwight December 23, 1876, p. 359) This change in direction was indicated when Mr. Osgood wrote to the Globe on February 28, 1877 saying that the choir would continue to be of male voices, but that “a disciplined auxiliary chorus of female voices, all fresh and pure” would be formed. “By uniting these two separately-trained choruses, there results a third and complete chorus of mixed voices, known as the Boylston Vocal Society, also having its own separate drill… Many of the programmers in future will consist of two, three, four to eight, and even twelve voiced part songs for both male, female and mixed chorus, glees, catches, madrigals, and occasionally a larger work… The Boylston Club, nevertheless, will continue its own rehearsals as before, and will also, at proper intervals, give concerts with the male voices alone.” (Dwight, March 17, 1877, p. 407) The Club”s concert the following February began with Mendelssohn”s music from Athalie with piano accompaniment by Mr. Petersilia, and “the effect of the choral mass was frequently enhanced by the judicious Organ accompaniment by Mr. G. W. Sumner.” The concert “was as brilliant a success as any vocal Club has ever had in Boston.” Dwight mentioned the “excellent performance of the same work [Athalie] by the Cecilia,” but noted that this performance included spoken portions, and the “reading was of a superior order.” (Dwight, March 2, 1878, p. 191) A year and one-half later the Boylston Club had nearly two hundred voices-this would seem to be the total of male and female voices, with much of the repertoire for the 1878-79 season being for mixed voices. However, the published intension was to still continue programming the “best” of male voice material: “The club has proved beyond a doubt that male part songs are heard at their best when they have the setting of female part-songs and mixed choral work.” (Dwight, December 7, 1878, p. 351) Elson wrote that “In 1875 he [Osgood] assumed the directorship of the Boylston Club, a promising choral organization then in its third year, and soon refined its singing, aroused its enthusiasm, and gave to Boston one of the most noteworthy clubs in its musical history. Under Mr. Osgood”s direction the perfection of its performances became known throughout America.” (Elson, Hist. Am. Mus., p. 252) Vol. 7 of the Musical Year Book reported: “The Boylston Club dissolved. The Boston Singers Society succeeded it.” (MYB 1889-90, p. 26)
The HMA has programs from sixteen seasons of this choir.
Boylston Hall?corner of Boylston and Washington Streets (Elson, National, p. 279)
Brattle Square Church. Used by Lang for two full orchestra concerts in 1881 where he wanted to reproduce “as far as possible, the effect of a very large orchestra in a small place, as in the Gewandhaus at Leipzig and at the Conservatoire in Paris.” It sat about 600.
Ryan, RECOLLECTIONS plate opposite p. 38.
Brown, Allen Augustus. Donated to the Boston Public Library “the largest musical library in the country, – a historical collection consisting not only of numerous scores and a tremendous amount of general musical literature, but also of arranged and classified data regarding musical performances, criticisms, notices, covering the last twenty years [c. 1880-1900]; in short, a unique collection such as must aid not only the general musician, but the musical historian, at every step.” (Elson, Hist. Am. Music, p. 91) Pratt”s entry included the facts that Brown was a businessman, and that the collection began with 7,000 volumes, but then grew by 1910 to 11,00 items, and later  to 15,000 items. “It is rich in many different directions-in scores of every sort, instrumental and vocal, in standard critical editions of the complete works of great composers, in historical, theoretical and critical works about music, in unique collections of programs, etc.” (Pratt, p. 145) The current (2007) entry on the Boston Public Library Website adds that the first gift was made in 1895, and that the original gift of 6,990 volumes “had nearly tripled in size by his death in 1916. The collection continues to grow through purchases from trust funds, including the Allen A. Brown Fund, and now contains more than 40,000 books, scores, and manuscripts… By the terms of the gift, the original collection is housed in a specially designated area, and the books and other materials included in it are restricted to use in the Music Reading Room.” (BPL Website, March 2007) Barbara Duncan, BPL Music Librarian writing in 1941 began her short notice with: “The life of Allen A. Brown was happy and enviable.” She noted that he had been born in Boston, attended Roxbury Latin, and entered Harvard in the class of 1856. In college he began collecting the scores and books that were to become the nucleus of the collection that he presented to the BPL. He was a musical amateur “of more than ordinary attainments” – he played violin and had a fine tenor voice. He sang in church “and in the Foster, Parker, Chickering, Apollo, and Cecilia Societies for many years,” and he was the secretary and librarian of “these singing societies and did an enormous amount of arranging, copying, and translating for them… The unique feature of the collection is the wealth of material with which he grangerized the volumes.” Reviews, ticket stubs, anything related to the event were all included, and all was carefully indexed. “The Brown music library is an interesting example of what can be done with some money, knowledge of the subject, a love of collecting, and prodigious industry.” (Duncan, pp. 12 and 13) Brown “has been one of the most earnest organizers of the Apollo, and his great musical library has always been at the disposal of the club, and has been of material service in many instances.” (Elson, Musical Boston, p. 3) He joined the St. Botolph Club in June 1889. (E-mail from Roger Howlett)
Paderewski, MEMOIRS facing page 104.
Von Bulow, Hans Guido. “Pupil and son-in-law of Liszt, intimate of Wagner (who rewarded his friendship by stealing his wife), Hans von Bulow was equally celebrated in Europe as conductor and pianist. He was perhaps the first of the modern virtuoso conductors, and both on the podium and at the piano he was one of the earliest to perform without a musical score.” “Most of us are aware that he was among Liszt”s most gifted pupils… Many of us know, too, that he prepared and conducted the world premiers of both Wagner”s Tristan und Isolde and Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg… During childhood he was discovered to have a photographic memory, this later extending to total recall of even the most elaborate orchestral scores… Bulow”s other gift was his ready wit, his capacity for instant response… He never learned to control his tongue,” but he did say “The New World is to be preferred to the Old in every respect.” (Harrison-review of Walker, pp. 30 and 31)
Von Bulow elected to make his American debut in Boston, where John S. Dwight so welcomed his authoritative interpretations of Bach, Beethoven, and Chopin that he forgave von Bulow his identification with Liszt, Wagner, and ”the Music of the Future.” Dwight even managed to tolerate the ”ultra-modern” music of a ”young professor at the Conservatory at Moscow”: Peter Tchaikovsky”s Piano Concerto No. 1 in B-flat Minor, of which von Bulow”s Boston performances were the first anywhere.” (Sablosky, p. 93) Paderewski describes von Bulow as “very sarcastic, and sometimes even unjust on account of his being so witty?that is a quality which is always rather dangerous. He simply could not abstain from making witty remarks about people. He thoroughly enjoyed it.” He was asked about a certain English conductor, and his response was: “He is a bus conductor! ”Why?” Why… because he is always behind!” (Paderewski, p. 123) Another example of von Bulow”s wit was recorded by the soprano Clara Rogers (Clara Doria). When von Bulow “came to visit me at Ashburton Place we could talk freely together and exchange views on matters musical in America, he let himself go in his old sarcastic vein, slashing some of our leading musical lights without mercy, not hesitating to make use of the term ”pig” when irately dispose.” (Rogers, Memories, p. 448) Rogers had studied piano with von Bulow in the late 1850s after she had graduated from the Leipzig Conservatory after a period of three years of study. “In my lessons with him… he allowed me to play only Chopin and Liszt, the latter an entirely new departure for a Leipzig graduate! He encouraged me to play with a freedom that almost amounted to license, and I soon became expert in the use of ”rubato,” an acquisition, by the way, which has since been invaluable to me as a singer. To be able to toy with rhythm, yet never lose the sense of it, is something which every artist must achieve.” Von Bulow told Rogers: “Let me tell you what a very famous old violin player named Rhodes once said: ”It took me one half of my life to learn to play in time, and the other half to learn how to play out of time.”” (Rogers, Memories, pp. 195 and 196)
“Hans Guido von Bulow was considered to be the foremost pianist of the advanced school of pianoforte playing founded by Chopin, and developed by Liszt. While his repertoire included the master works of all styles and schools, and his technique was prodigious, he was distinguished more particularly for his wonderful memory, and it would be difficult to mention any work of importance which he did not at one time or another play in public, and by heart. He was also a remarkable orchestral conductor, a keen critic, and an excellent editor of musical works.” (Lahee, p. 165) At the age of nine he began piano studies with Clara Schumann”s father, but at 18 he began to study law with music taking a secondary position. Two years later “the turning point in his career came about when he witnessed a performance of Lohengrin… He threw over his career as a lawyer, and sought the guidance of Wagner at Zurich. In 1851 he went to Liszt at Weimar, and studied pianoforte playing with him, and in 1853 he made his first concert tour through Germany.” (Lahee, p. 166) After nine years (beginning in 1855) as the main piano teacher at the Stern Conservatory in Berlin he was appointed the Director of the Munich Conservatory and Conductor of the Royal Opera in 1865. After his time in America in 1875-76 he became the opera conductor in Hanover followed by an appointment as Intendant at the Meiningen Court. After 1885 “he devoted himself to large orchestras in many cities, in which he accomplished wonders. Von Bulow married, in 1857, Liszt”s daughter Cosima, but was divorced from her in 1869. She then married his friend Richard Wagner. Bulow died in 1894.” (Lahee, p. 168) “Following his separation and divorce from Cosima, Bulow spent several years in Florence, recuperating, teaching, and escaping from the Germany of Wagner. By 1872 he returned to an active career as a pianist. He had seriously considered an American tour as early as 1866, when his marriage was at a breaking point and his position in Munich seemed temporarily doomed. By the 1870s, his primary goal in such a tour was to earn enough money ”not to die insolvent” and to provide dowries for his three daughters by Cosima, one of whom he did not yet realize (or at least admit) was fathered by Wagner.” (Lott, p. 235)
“A good anecdote of Bulow is told by Mr. Apthorp apropos of the depressing influence of small audiences upon musicians. At one of von Bulow”s recitals in Music Hall, Boston, an auditorium capable of seating nearly three thousand people, the audience amounted to about forty. There was a driving snowstorm during the day and evening, and the streets were almost impassable. When von Bulow appeared, he stepped to the front of the platform, and declared that it was the most flattering experience of his artistic career, to find so many people willing to come to hear music on such a night. ”If you will all please come and sit close together,” he added, ”we shall be able to keep one another and the music warm.” He never played better, and the small audience had a little touch of selfish satisfaction at feeling that they had a particularly delightful evening all to themselves.” (Lathe, p. 170)
In his book on Liszt, Sacheverell Sitwell describes von Bulow as “one of those agile personalities, small in physique, with an enormous aptitude for work, great fires of conviction, deep loyalties, and a nervous system that gets strained beyond endurance. His musical talent was at once recognized by Liszt, who accepted him as a piano-pupil. Within two years he had developed into a pianist of formidable powers, who was likely to overwork himself by the scope and exactitude of an immense repertory.” (Sitwell, p. 203) Soon after he finished studying with von Bulow he was appointed to the Stern Conservatory in his native Berlin. Liszt”s mistress, the Princess Wittgenstein decided von Bulow would be a good host for Liszt”s daughters, Blandine and Cosima. He lived in Berlin, which would put them close to their father in Weimar, and von Bulow”s household was run by his mother! “Cosima wrought havoc in the household from her first arrival.” (Ibid, p. 203) Von Bulow was reduced to a “state of stupefaction, admiration, and even exaltation” by the genius of the two girls, especially the younger, Cosima. This soon led to von Bulow announcing his engagement to Cosima, and they were married on August 14, 1857. (Ibid, p. 204)
In 1872 Amy Fay recorded her impression of von Bulow: “He has the most forcible style I ever heard, and phrases wonderfully. It is like looking through a stereoscope to hear him. All the points of a piece seem to start out vividly before you. He makes me think of Gottschalk a little, for he is full of his airs. His expression is proud and supercilious to the last degree, and he looks all round at his audience when he is playing. He always has two grands on the stage, one facing one way, and one the other, and he plays alternately on both. His face seems to say to the audience, ”You”re all cats and dogs, and I don”t care what you think of my playing.” Sometimes a look of infinite humour comes over it, when he is playing a rondo or anything gay. It is very funny. He has remarkable magnetic power, and you feel that you are under the sway of a tremendous will. Many persons find fault with his playing, because they say it is pure intellect but I think he has too much passion to be called purely intellectual. Still, it is always passion controlled. Beethoven has been the grand study of his life, and he plays his sonatas as no one else does.” (Fay, pp. 176 and 177) In February 1873 she wrote: “I heard two tremendous concerts of Bulow”s lately. Oh, I do hope you”ll hear him some day. He is a colossal artist. I never heard a pianist I like so well. He has such perfect mastery, and yet comprehension and such sympathy.” (Fay, p. 195) In June 1873 she wrote that Liszt had introduced her to von Bulow: “Bulow had just returned from his grand concert tour, and had been in London for the first time. In a few months he had given one hundred and twenty concerts! He is a fascinating creature, too, like all these master artists, but entirely different from Liszt, being small, quick, and airy in his movements, and having one of the boldest and proudest foreheads I ever saw. He looks like strength of will personified. .” (Fay, p. 225) In November 1873 she wrote: “Bulow”s playing is more many-sides, and is chiefly distinguished by its great vigor; there is no end to his nervous energy, and the more he plays, the more the interest increases… He plays Chopin as well as he does Beethoven, and Schumann, too. Although he is a superlative pianist, though by no means unerring in his performance. I”ve heard him get dreadfully mixed up. I think he trusts too much to his memory, and that he does not prepare sufficiently. He plays everything by heart, and such programmes!” (Fay, pp. 274 and 275) “That American could attract such artists as Rubinstein and Bulow in their prime was surely a sign of its musical progress, or at least an indication that the nation was perceived more positively by Europeans.” (Lott, p. 234)
Verlag Hans Dursthoff, Berlin: Johnston Collection.
Also in 1872 John Orth writing from Berlin for Dexter Smith”s magazine described von Bulow as “below the medium height, rather slight, [he] has a peculiar expression of the eye, and his motions are nervous and active. He is very affable and agreeable.” (Dexter Smith”s January 1872, p. 4) The soprano Clara Rogers (Clara Doria) described von Bulow from whom she had taken piano lessons; “There was nothing in his appearance which could be designated as ”commanding,” for he was below middle height and somewhat slight of frame; neither was there anything notable in his features; but the keen, intelligent and masterful expression of his face labelled him at once as a person of distinction. It was the artist within the frame that at once held your attention and exacted your respectful consideration.” (Rogers, Memories, pp. 196 and 197) The German critic Dr. Ferdinand Hiller also described von Bulow”s personality and technique: “Bulow is one of the Generals who divided among themselves the inheritance of Liszt Alexander the Great. For several hours he has kept our audience in a state of such breathless subjugation of all technical difficulties; his really military strength and power of endurance; his nearly infallible certainty; and his memory, in which all the pieces that he played, and who knows how many more that he did not play, appear to be stored as safely as a collection of classics in an oak book case, caused the audience to forget entirely that they had come to a Beethoven entertainment.” (von Bulow, American, p. 7) Hiller also mentioned his physical atributes: “You are to picture to yourself a small man with a thoroughly Prussian look, and, as all fine orchestra leaders, has a military martinet air. His head is that of a soldier more than that of an artist – small, compact, hard-looking as a hickory nut. His eyes are large – a fleur de tete, as the French say. He wears a heavy brown mustache, a little Vandyke beard, which hides the shape of his mouth; his forehead recedes; the crown of his head is a little bald; the ears incline back, adding to the rather sharp, belligerent expression of his keen little head and face. When he takes his place before the orchestra you expect to see him draw his sword, and every musician is ready to charge to the death. It is impossible not to feel the influence of his magnetic presence. He infuses new vitality into the most familiar compositions. His directions are animated with a knowledge that acts like inspiration. We are in the presence of a master spirit.” (Ibid, p. 8)
In addition to the seven American debut concerts given between October 18 and October 30, 1875, von Bulow returned to Boston for a series on six consecutive nights, January 10 through January 15, 1876, and a final set of six consecutive concerts on April 3 through April 8, 1876. (Lott, p. 301) In the middle of the second set he found time to write to Baroness Romaine von Overbeck, “I imagine that as a child you amused yourself by tormenting flies and butterflies, considering that you excel with virtuosity in making me suffer, me who loves you, me who adores you so-superlatively” – letter dated January 12, 1876 from Boston. (Lott, p. 261) Von Bulow continued to visit Boston. He gave a series of three recitals in the Music Hall on March 24, 27 and 31, 1890. (MYB, 1889-90, p. 25)
“The most notable advocate of Chopin”s music in Germany next to Clara Schumann was Hans Guido von Bulow. His reputation was that of a great intellectual, and by playing much of Chopin he saved the composer from denigration as a salon player; Bulow demonstrated that Chopin”s music was worthy of inclusion in a programme alongside that of Mozart, Bach and Beethoven. Severely academic, remote, peppery and sardonic, he was perhaps the first of the modern ”giants” of the pianoforte. Born in 1830 (eleven years after Clara Wieck), he was not perhaps the type of pianist one would immediately associate with Chopin”s music, but he had the intellectual breadth of a Busoni or a Schnabel. He began playing Chopin when still in his teens, and by 1855, shortly before the composer”s death, was already playing a representative proportion of his works in public. Bulow was totally uninterested in Chopin”s music as a vehicle for pianistic display. There was an element of pedantry in his readings that led Moritz Moszkowski to remark, “Rubinstein plays the piano as if it was his wife, Grunfeld as if it was his finacee, but Bulow as if it was his old grandmother!” Very modest about his attainments, he despised personal adulation and, after a highly successful recital, he threatened to play the complete Bach Preludes and Fugues if they did not cease their applause… But despite his importance, Bulow is not remembered as a great Chopin player, probably because he had to consciously interpret the music” (Campbell-Methuen, pp. 159 and 160)
In February 1881 Liszt wrote a letter to the “Gazette de Hongrie” concerning von Bulow.
“Honored Sir and Friend, -You wish to know what impression yesterday”s Bulow Concert made upon me. He belongs to you, he belongs to us all, to the entire intelligent public of Europe. Stated in two words: it was admiration, enthusiasm. Twenty-five years ago Bulow was my pupil in music, just as twenty-five years previously I was the pupil of my highly-honored and dearly-loved master, Czerny. But it has given to Bulow to strive better and more perseveringly than to me. His edition of Beethoven, which is worthy of all admiration, is dedicated to me as the ”Fruit of my teaching.” But here the teacher had to learn from his pupil, and Bulow continues to instruct-as much by his astonishing virtuosity as a pianist as by his incomparable direction of the Meiningen Orchestra. There! You have an example of the musical progress of our times. Heartily yours, FRANZ LISZT.” (Dwight, May 7, 1881, p. 70)
A. Johnson Carter Burrage. Alvah A. Burrage, younger brother of Johnson C., wrote a history of the family which was published in 1877. In it he gave Johnson”s birth date as January 20, 1816. He was named after two friends of his mother-Jonathan Carter and his wife Mary Johnson. At fifteen, his father found a place for him working in a variety store in the center of leominster. He combined this and schooling during the winter months until he was between eighteen and nineteen. After one ternm at Groton Academy he taught school the following winter. In the spring of 1835 his brothers found him a place in a wholesale/retail woollen goods store in Boston. He did so well, that after eighteen months with the company he was give charge of the retail branch. He decided to take a partner, and so just three months shy of his 21st. birthday, the company of Richardson & Burrage was born in October 1836. Johnson C. Burrage and Emeline Brigham were married Nov. 29, 1838 in Groton. [She was born April 18, 1815 and died August 7, 1903] Between 1836 and 1845 the business prospered, but in 1845 they sold a business that they knew well in order to buy the Burlington Woolen Mills in Burlington Vermont. Within four or five years they had lost all the money that they had made in the previous eight or nine years. The company was closed but “they eventually paid all their debts in full” (Burrage, p. 127) There still appeared in April 1846 newspaper ads listing “Richardson, Burrage & Co., Commission Merchants for the sale of American Wollens-Over Nos. 1, 2 and 3 Sewell Block, Milk St” with the three priciples being A. J. Richardsom, J. C. Burrage and O. B. Dorrance. (April 10, 1846, Boston Post, p. 3, GenBank)
Johnson Carter then returned to buying and selling woolen goods and formed a partnership with James M. Beebe. The 1860 Census listed the value of his Real estate-$11,500, and the value of his Personnal Estate-$75,000. After a successful fifteen or sixteen years, this partnership was dissolved in August 1863, and he, with some junior partners, Mr. Amory Leland and Mr. R. W. Kendall founded J. C. Burrage & Co. which continued his success for another seven or eight years. (August 13, 1863, Traveler, p. 2, GenBank) An ad in 1864 said: “J. C. Burrage & Co. are now opening a full assortment of Staple & Men”s Wear.” (March 25, 1864, p. 3, GenBank) In September 1865 his company was called J. C. Burrage & Co., with offices at No. 3 Winthrop Square (New Granite Building). The office of his former partner, James M. Beebe was next door at Nos. 1 and 2 Winthrop Square! The address for Burrage”s New York City store was 5 College Place. (October 10, 1865, Evening Post, NYC, p. 64, GenBank) In 1870 his other partners were R. W. Kendall, G. E. Johnson, J. W. Gannett and E. C. Burrage and the company office was at 184 Devonshire Street with his home at 112 Boylston Street. (1870 Boston Directory, p. 128) The July 19, 1870 Census entry added: The occupations of Johnson and his sons Edward and Herbert as Woolen Jobber. Even though Edward had married four years before this Census, he is still listed as living with his father and no mention is made of his wife. The household now has four servants, and B. J. Lang, his wife and daughter Mary (Margaret) are listed at this address but with the phrase “In Europe.” In April 1870 J. C. was part of the Standing Committee of the Second Church (Unitarian) of Bedford Street. One had to be a “proprietor” to be on this committee, and one of the items talked about at this April meeting was the possibility of the church moving to Back Bay. (April 28, 1870, Traveler, p. 1, GenBank)
In July 1865 the incomes “of citizens of Boston assessed on an income of $10,000 or upwards for the year 1864″ were published. (Traveler, July 18, 1865, p. 2 GB) Burrage was the 56th. in the list was of Wards 3 and 5 with an income of $54, 990 which is $824,000 in todays money. Among the first 56 there was only one income higher. Less than a month later another article listed Burrage”s incomes for 1861-$54,000, and 1863-$120,221. (Cincinnati Daily Enquirer, August 5, 1865, p. 29, GB)
In 1866 an article listed the donors to Harvard”s Alumni Hall (Sanders Theater being part of this building). At that time $177,770 had been collected with $122, 420 coming from Alumni and $52,850 coming from community members who had not attended Harvard. Johnson C. Burrage donated $1,000 as did his brother, Alvah A. Burrage. (Traveler, July 30, 1866, p. 1. GB)
The Boston fire of November 9 and 10, 1872 “destroyed about one half of the business portion of the city.” (Burrage G., p. 131) “All of the Burrages doing business in Boston lost heavily… J. C. Burrage & Co. had a stock of about $190,00, which was entirely destroyed. They received from insurance about $140,00, leaving a loss of about $50,000.” (Ibid., p. 132) An ad appeared two days after the fire stating that even though their entire stock had been burned in their 184 Devonshire location, “they continue business without interruption at 322 Washington Street, and are prepared to fill all orders for the popular styles of WOOLENS AND COTTONADES.” (November 13, 1872, Journal, p. 5, GenBank) The scope of their business is shown in that this same ad appeared a week later in the New York Evening Post. (November 26, 1872, NY Evening Post, p. 5, GenBank) He also responded regularly to various donation appeals. In 1862: “Patriotic Donation. Mr. J. C. Burrage, of the firm of J. M. Beebe & Co., has presented one of Short”s patent knapsacks to each member of Co. C, (Capt. J. H. Lombard) 44th. Regiment, at Readville.” (Salem Register, October 27, 1862, p. 2, reprinted from the Boston Journal, GenBank) In 1863 he donated $100 to the “Committee appointed to aid in the Enlistment of Colored Troops,” in 1864 he gave $100 to support the “Soldiers” Thanksgiving Dinner,” in 1865 $100 was given in support of erecting a “Statue of Edward Everett,” and also in $500 was given to the “Children”s Mission to the Children of the Destitute in the City of Boston and in 1866 he gave $100 to the New England Branch of the “Freedmen”s Union Commission.” Evening Transcript, November 27, 1866, p. 2 GenBank)
Burrage took an active part in both the business and social fabric of Boston. In 1857 he is listed as a member of the Boston Board of Trade, in 1858 he is a Patron of the English and Classical School in West Newton, in 1865 is is one of five Directors of The American Barrel Machine Company, and in 1866 he is listed as a member of the Company of the New York Life Insurance Co. Also listed are the ex-Governor of Vermont, the Cashier of the U. S. Treasury, lawyers, various businessmen, and B. J. Lang, Organist! Possibly B. J.”s father-in-law was helping his daughter”s new family finacially through this connection. (June 6, 1866, Evening Transcript, p. 4, GenBank)
In 1873 illness forced him to retire, but he did so “possessing an ample competeney.” (Ibid., p. 127) Johnson Carter died on April 6, 1881 aged 65 years, 2 months from consumption-his address then was 112 Boylston Street and he had been born in Leominster, MA. His father was listed as Josiah Burrage, born in Leominster and his mother, Ruth, was born in Lunenburg. (Death Certificate) The June 17, 1900 Census listed Mrs. Johnson C. Burrage, a widower living at 50 Highland St., Newton (same street as son Edward C.) with one unmarried daughter, Emma, aged 49, and Marion B. Morse, a widow (see Minnie, above) with two Irish born servants, Annie O”Toole (b. Feb. 1873, age 27, single) and Mary Tyman, maid (b. May 1869, age 31, single). This entry said Johnson had six children, four still alive. Mrs. J. C. Burrage-Emeline died on August 7, 1903 as a widow at Newton, MA aged 88 years, 3 months, 19 days, and was buried at Mt. Auburn; her birthplace was Groton, MA. He father was George Brigham born in Marlboro, MA and her mother was Betsey Morsealso born in Marlboro, MA. (Death Certificate).
In his will he left $1,000 each to the American Unitarian Associatiion, Second Church, of which Rev. Horton is pastor, the YMCA and the Benevolent Fraternity of Churches. $500 each was left to six other charities who helped children and women. (Journal, May 3, 1881, p. 1, GB)
1. Fanny (Frances) Burrage, age 20. “b. Dec. 18, 1839; m. Oct. 10, 1861, Benjamin J. Lang, of Boston, professor of music.” (Burrage Geneol., p. 181)
- a. Harry Allston Lang, b. Oct. 5, 1864; d. Aug. 7, 1866. (Burrage G., p. 189)
- b. Margaret Ruthven Lang, b. Nov. 27, 1867. (Ibid) (Burrage was published in 1877)
- c. Rosamond Lang Galacar. b. February 6, 1878; d. Aug. 11, 1971 (aged 93)
- d. Malcolm Burrage Lang, b. June 14, 1881; d. Mar. 7, 1972 (aged 90)
2. Edward C. Burrage, age 18. “b. June 13, 1841; m. Jan. 16, 1866, m. Julia L. Severance, [b. c. March 1844] of West Newton.” (Burrage, Geneol., p, 181) He was 24, she 21. His occupation-Merchant. Julia born in Cleveland; her father, Theodore C. Severage; her mother, Caroline M. (Info from Marriage Certificate). Edward had attended public schools in Boston, “graduated from the Quincy Grammar School, a Franklin Medal scholar, in 1855.” He then had several terms of private instruction, and when he was nineteen “he visited Europe, in company with Mr. James Allen; was absent about two years. Upon his reurn, in the autumn of 1861, he entered his father”s store, J. M. Beebe & Co.”s, and was employed there when the pressing urgency for more troops, in the summer of 1862, induced the government to issue a call for the enlistment of men to serve nine months.” (Burrage, G., pp. 151 and 152) He entered as a corporal and rose to sergeant when he “was mustered out of service in June, 1863. After returning from the war he re-entered the store, and subsequently became a partner in the house of J. C. Burrage & Co. When that firm dissolved he went into the wholesale crockery and glassware store of Abram French & Co., and still  remains in that business.” (Op. Cit., pp. 152 and 153) “He was the Treasurer of and sang tenor in the Cecilia in 1903. (BPL Lang Prog., Vol. 8) In 1870 he was a partner in his father”s firm J. C. Burrage & Co., and he (and his wife) lived with his father at 112 Boylston Street. (1870 Boston Directory, p. 128) In 1877 he worked for “Abram French & Co., dealers in crockery and glassware,” and “they live in Newton.” (Burrage, op. cit.) The June 15, 1880 census entry adds: Edward was a dealer in Glassware and V., and that they lived on Highland St. in Newton. Also that Julia”s father had been born in MA and her mother born in N. Y. He is not listed in the 1885 Boston Directory. The June 17, 1900 Census entry adds: address of 72 Highland St., that they own their house; have been married 34 years; he was then 58 and she 56; they had two servants-Mary E. Smith (age 44, born MA), a seamstress and Annie J.Grant (age 29, born Canada), servant; this entry says “mother of two children[?]/two alive”
- a. Severance [His mother”s maiden name] Burrage, son, born MA. Born July 18, 1868 in West Newton. (Birth Certificate)
- b. Bessie Burrage, daughter, born MA. “b. Aug. 5, 1870.” (Burrage, Geneol., p. 190)
- c. [Caroline Severance, b. Nov. 5, 1876. Burrage G., p. 190]
- d. Emeline, daughter, born MA (see above – born Nov. 5, 1879. Info from Birth Certificate)
Three servants, all Irish born – Bridget Kenney, aged 40; Annie Burns, aged 18;and Ellen Joy, aged 24 (probably sister of John Joy who worked for Herbert Burrage, Edward”s brother – see below)
3. Herbert Emory Burrage, age 16. “b. Dec. 18, 1845; m. June 3, 1868, Ruby Moore Childs of Charlestown.” (Burrage Geneol., p. 181) He was 22, she 20. His occupation-Clerk. Her father, Francis Childs; her mother, Juliet W. (Info from Marriage Certificate) In 1870 he was part (but not a partner) of his father”s firm J. C. Johnson & Co. and his home was at 43 West Cedar Street. (1870 Boston Directory, p. 128) In 1877 “They live at Newton. He is in the store of Abram French & Co.” (Burrage, G., Op. Cit) The 1880 Census entry for this family, then living on Highland St., in Newton, included: Herbert Burrage, age 34 Born Mass.; Ruby M. Burrage, age 31 Born Mass.; Francis J. Burrage, age 9 Born Mass. (b. 1871); Harry L. Burrage, age 8 Born Mass. (b. 1872); Alice Burrage, age 5 Born Mass. (b. Nov. 1874) and servants: Bridget Perkins, age 39 Born Ireland and Teresa Farrell, age 18 Born Mass., parents born in Ireland. The 1885 Boston Directory lists his business adddress as 91 Franklin Street and his home at West Newton-p.176. (Death Certificate) The June 6, 1900 Census entry for Herbert E. Burrage added; he was 54, she 51, they had been married 32 years, they had four children/four still alive; his profession was Crockery salesman; their address was 38 Temple St., Newton and they owned their home; two daughters were still at home – Alice, age 25, a Librarian and Eleanor, age 19, b. April 1881 in MA; one servant-MaryTracey, b. Jan. 1879, age 21, born Ireland. Ruby Moore Burrage died on October 2, 1904 in Newton, MA aged 56 years, 3 months, 10 days having been born in Charlestown, MA of Francis Childs and Juliet Deering, both born in Charlestown, MA. She died before her husband.
- a. Francis Johnson Burrage. Born 43 West Cedar St., Oct. 30, 1870. Father”s occupation was “Salesman.” (Birth Certificate) Married December 2, 1896, age 26, occupation “Banking Business” to Elenora Mullen, age 25 in St. Louis, MO, which was her hometown. (Marriage Certificate)
- b. Harry Lang Burrage. Born May 25, 1872 at 43 W. Cedar Street, Boston. Father listed as “Merchant”. (Birth Certificate) Married Marguerite Kimberly March 18, 1896 at the West Newton Unitarian Church by Rev. Julian C. Jaynes. His occupation was [Bank Cashier, the number two position] “Cashier” while she was “At home.” His age was 23 and her age was 21. (Marriage Certificate) She was the niece of Rear Admiral Kimberly whose home provided the site for “a small reception…After May 1 they will receive their friends in their new home on Sterling Street, West Newton.” (Herald, March 22, 1896, p. 27, GenBank) In 1908 he is listed in an ad as the President and one 12 Directors of The Eliot National Bank of Boston, located in the John Hancock Building. “Established 1853. Capital $1,000,000. Surplus Earned and Undivided Profits, $1,275,000.” (Globe, April 11, 1908, p. 7)
- c. Alice Burrage. Born “Nov. 29, 1874.” (Burrage G., p. 190) Married March 1897 in Ipswich./li>
- d. Eleanor, b. April 1881 (see Census of 1900 above)
- e. Dorothy. Born 1896 [who is this?]
4. Helen Burrage, age 14. “b. July 10, 1848; m. Jan. 21, 1874, John W. Carter, of Boston, manufacturer and dealer in ink.” (Burrage G., p. 182). He was 30, she 25. His father, Richard B. Carter; his mother, Lucy L. (Info from Marriage Certificate)
5. Emma Burrage, age 12. “b. Dec. 18, 1850.” (Burrage G., p. 182) Still unmarried and living at home, aged 49, for the 1900 census. Born December 8, 1850 at 36 Edinboro Street, Boston. Father listed as a Merchant. (Birth Certificate)
6. Minnie [Marion] Burrage, age 7. “b. Jan. 18, 1853.” (Burrage G., p. 182) Marion B. Morse was listed as a widow and living with her mother in the 1900 Census. She had married Charles T. Morse, age 33, born in New Haven, Conn. The wedding was on January 12, 1887, Rev. Edward A.Horton officiated and her age at this time was 33 – this was the first marriage for both.(Marriage Certificate)
Servants: Alice Joy, age 24, Domestic Born Ireland; John Joy, age 22, Manservant Born Ireland; Ellen Douglas, age 26, Domestic Born Ireland
Another family. Probably living next door: [1870 Boston Directory and 1878 Clark”s Boston Blue Book has his address as 7 Union Park which would be near South Congregational Church.
B. Alvah Augustus Burrage, b. May 30, 1823, a Woolen Goods Merchant, Value Real estate – $8,000 Value of Personnal estate – $50,000. He married May 17, 1849, Elizabeth Amelia Smith, of Groton,” (Burrage G., p. 171) who had been born at Boston, August 11, 1828. (Groton Vital Records) Alvah died on November 6, 1893 at 282 Newbury Street, Boston aged 70 years, 5 months, 6 days having been born in No. Leominister, MA. His father was Josiah Burrage, born in Leominster and his mother was Ruth Kilburn, also born in Leominster. (Death Certificate) His wife”s maiden name had been Elizabeth Smith and she had been born in Boston. (Jeanie”s Death Certificate)
An 1866 as listed his company as BURRAGE BROTHERS & COMPANY, Importers and Dealers in FOREIGN AND AMERICAN WOOLENS, with offices at 35 Franklin Street, corner of Hawley Street. The partners were Alvar A, Burrage, Chas. Burrage, William Peirce and Henry Warren. (February 20, 1866, Traveler, p. 3, GenBank) The 1885 Boston Directory lists his office at as 47 Arch Street and his home at 282 Newbury Street-p. 176. It also lists a firm of woolen merchants at 47 Arch named “Burrage, Cole, and Weeks” with C. H. Burrage, M. B. Cole, H. K Weeks and A.F. Poole as the main partners. Alvah was a brother of C. H. and had a secondary role in the company. (Boston Directory, p. 176) It also list a Walter L. Burrage as a student living at 282 Newbury Street – possibly another cousin.
1. Ruth. She died at home on April 11, 1872-address: 7 Union Park, Boston, aged 22 years from Peritonitis. Her father, Alvah A. Burrage”s birthplace was Leominster, andher mother, Elizabeth A. was born in Boston. (Death Certificate). She had been born on March 16, 1850 at 24 Oak Street, Boston. (Birth Certificate)
2. Jennie. [Jeanie] died, unmarried, in Newton on August 20, 1891, aged 37 years, 8 months, 25 days. (Death Certificate). She [Jennie] had been born on November 25, 1853 at 24 Oak Street, Boston. (Birth Certificate)
3. Mary, age 2.
Mary Shea, age 30, Domestic Born Ireland, and Ann Flynn, age 20 Domestic Born Massachusetts.
In the 1888 Clark”s Boston Blue Book their address is 282 Newbury St., and a Mrs. J. C. Burrage is listed at “The Kensington.”
C. Charles H. Burrage, age 34 Woolen Goods Merchant-brother of Alvah and partner in Burrage Brothers & Co.,, in 1870 located at 35 Franklin Street and his house at 22 Newbury Street-other partners were Wm. Peirce, Henry Warren and E. B. Hall. (1870 Boston Directory, p. 128) Wife – Mary G. Burrage, age 33. Value of Personal estate – $25,000
Joshua P. Blanchard (?), age 77 (possibly the wife”s father). Value of Real estate-$7,500 Value of Personnal estate-$1,700.
Mary C. Blanchard, age 72
Mrs. George Hamg (?) age 69
Anne W. Cotton, age 67. Value of Personnal estate-$16,000.
Catherine McCarthy, age 22 Domestic Born in Ireland and Hannah Tinney, age 17 Domestic Born in Ireland
The 1900 Census entry for Harry L. Burrage had an address in Newton, 14 Sewall St., married for five years (1895):/p>
Harry L. Burrage, age 28 b. May 1872, rented home
Marguerite K. Burrage, age 25 b. December 1874 in Illinois
Dorothy K. Burrage, age 3 b. December 1896
Mary Clark, age 21, Servant-Cook, Born Ireland, November 1878
Frances Walker, age 45, Parlor Maid, Born North Carolina, November 1854
Bumstead Hall-formerly the Lecture Room of the Music Hall. Described by Dwight in 1853 as seating about 900 and in 1870 as below the Music Hall, and as having a “platform down in the centre of the amphitheatre.” (Dwight, December 31, 1870, p. 375) A spring issue of the Boston Musical Times recorded: “The platform in Bumstead Hall has been extended, so as to bring the musicians nearer the audience. This is an undoubted improvement, but the hall is still anything but good in its acoustic qualities. We may not understand the architectural reasons for this; but it appears to us that the heavy pilasters, the pitted wall and ceiling, the low gallery with its massive supports, and the concavity behind the performers, combine to produce the result. The music sounds on the lower floor as if the performers were in an adjoining apartment with open doors. There is no resonance to the tones produced by instrument or voice; but they come dry and hard, with no softness of outline. Artists find it laborious to sing, as if their voices were muffled, and even forcing the voice does not apparently produce more volume. It is right to state, however, that these difficulties are less apparent in the galleries, where the sound has freer play and less obstructions.” (BMT, April 7, 1860, p. 57) In a January 16, 1895 review in the Transcript, the comment was made: “It was good to hear chamber music in Bumstead Hall once more: the delight of the ear goes far towards compensating one for the distress of the eye.” (Scrapbook)
Campbell, Miss Teresa Carreno. Just as Lang had recognized and helped the career of the pianist Teresa Carreno in 1863 (see next article), in 1880 he played the Chopin Scherzo No. 2 in B flat minor, Op. 31 at a Complimentary Concert for the sixteen year old violinist, Miss Teresa Carreno Campbell. Other assisting artists were from the Mendelssohn Quintette Club, the singer Mr. Edward Bowditch, and the pianist, “Miss Mary Campbell [her sister? a Lang pupil?] proved herself an accomplished Pianist.” (Dwight, March 13, 1880, p. 47) Dwight gave a very complimentary review noting that “Lang”s rendering of the Chopin Scherzo was masterly,” and that “The young lady has every reason to feel encouraged by her first concert.” (Ibid)
Lahee, FAMOUS PIANISTS, p. 303
Carreno, Teresa. Paderewski described her as a “strong pianist, even too strong for a woman. Carreno was one of the women pianists who had a very big tone, but it was not a beautiful tone because beautiful tone must include tenderness, and she had none of that, just brilliance.” (Paderewski, p. 121) Born on December 22, 1853 at Caracas, Venezuela where her father was the Minister of Finance, “from him she received her first musical instruction.” “Simon Bolivar (1783-1830) was among her forebearers.” (Mann. p. 236) The family moved to New York City when she was eight years old: “She has spent most of her life in America, and always considers herself an American… At the age of nine she appeared in a benefit concert in New York at the Academy of Music… In New York she attracted the attention of Gottschalk, then at the height of his fame. He was not a regular teacher, but, for the love of his art, gave lessons to several talented children… In 1863 she made her first appearance in Boston, where she created a furore by playing pieces of great difficulty at some orchestral concerts… At the age of twelve she went to Rubinstein, and quickly gained the fullest recognition of her talent in all musical circles. Wherever she went she was received as a fellow artist by the greatest musicians.” her father, Manuel Carreno had come “to the United States with a plan of action that he continued to follow as Carreno”s career blossomed.” (Mann, p. 236) In January 1863 the Boston Musical Times reported: “Miss Teresa Carreno, the wonderful child pianist, who was to make her first appearance in Boston Music Hall, last evening, was nine years old on Monday, December 22nd. last . All the critics accord to her a prominent niche in the temple of fame.” (BMT, January 3, 1863, p. 163)
Gottschalk took an interest in the Venezuela born Teresa Carreno, who, when he heard her play at age nine said he would teach her whenever she was available. In fact Gottschalk only gave “her six or eight lessons, and nevertheless they were enough to conquer the obstacles that for others would have been insuperable barriers. She belongs to the class of those privileged by Providence, and I have not the slightest doubt that she will be one of the greatest artists of our age.” (Milinowski, p. 52 quoting from Gottschalk) Late in 1862 and early in 1863 she gave five concerts, “and then made her Boston debut on January 2, 1863. It was followed by some twenty concerts in the Boston area, whereupon Carl Zerrahn invited her to play Mendelssohn”s Capriccio Brillante with the Boston Philharmonic Society Orchestra. She accepted, although she had never seen the work, and learned it in three days.” After a summer tour to Cuba and playing for President Lincoln at the White House, she returned to Boston. B. J. obviously recognized her talent and supported her by acting as her accompanist for her tenth birthday recital given on December 22, 1863-she included two of her own compositions in the concert! (Ammer, UNSUNG, CENTURY EDITION, p. 64) Lang was at the organ and Carreno at a Chickering grand piano. In spite of various factors working against her success (an influenza epidemic, the small sound of the piano when compared to the organ), “the young maiden made a fine impression, and won plentiful applause.” Even though her choice of pieces was criticized, “they exhibited her remarkable clearness, firmness, brilliancy and grace of execution.” Lang also was lauded: “Mr. Lang”s organ pieces were played in his usual masterly manner, the Pastoral Symphony and Freyschutz overture being loudly and persistently encored, to which he responded in kind, that is by playing again a part of the same, and not something else.” (Dwight, December 26, 1863, p. 159)
From “Gottschalk”s Illustrated Concert Book.”
Carreno also admired Gottschalk. “Many years later [she[ remembered that his playing was like zephyrs sighing on a poet”s harp, that none approached him in his trill. And that was the opiniion of one whose own trilling left whole audiences gasping with unbelief.” (Milinowshi, p. 28)
Dwight reviewed her first Boston concert given on January 2, 1863. He began: “Little Miss Teresa Carreno is indeed a wonder. We do not care much for ”prodigies,” but this one did interest us. A child of nine years, with fine head and face of intelligence… runs upon the stage of the great Music Hall, has a funny deal of diificulty in getting herself upon the seat before the Grand Piano, runs her fingers over the keyboard like a virtuoso, and then plays a difficult Notturno by Doehler, with octave passages and all, not only clearly and correctly, but with true expression. It would charm you even where she not a child. Off she runs again, fast as the eye can follow, till arrested for an encore… there can be no doubt of real talent here.” Miss Matilda Phillipps. sister of Adelaide, was the assisting artist. (Dwight, January 10, 1863) A week later Dwight reviewed Carreno”s second concert of January 8 which was billed as a Soiree d”Adieu. “Rarely have we seen so intelligent an audience so pleased and so moved. She was the sole performer… Here was indeed a task for a little girl of nine years. The mere physical exertion required in playing through so many pieces of great length, and full of all the modern difficulties of execution, made it a wonder that she should succeed at all. But she has great strength of hand and arm, and her execution, although laboring occasionally, was clear, vbrillinat, facile and precise… What catches you at once, and makes it pleasant to listen to her, is that you feel she has a true musical accent; the chords are struck, the passages are phrased, expresively. There is something in it more than could be taught…The child”s face beams with intelligence and genius; these speak too in her touch, in a certain untaught life that there is in her playing. It is a precious gift.” (Dwight, January 17, 1863, p. 335) Dwight also suggested that too much concertizing would be unhealthy and that she be given time in the next few years to further her general education. “Already the arm appears almost unnaturally large.” (Ibid) Then, Carreno had the idea herself to give a concert for children. 1,200 tickets were given out free “among pupils selected from the Latin, English High, Girls High, Normal, and German Schools. The concert was given two days later, on January 10, and Carreno was the sole performer. The mayor of Boston, J. W. Lincoln led the applause. (Milinowski, p. 41) On the following Tuesday Carreno gave another solo concert in Chickering Hall with ticket prices raised to one dollar-“The place was crowded. For two hours Teresita played with but slight intermission…The father had not feared fatigue for his daughter as much as the effect of an entire piano program on the audience. Teresita herself had no qualms.” and ended her program with a waltz of her own composition. The audience “gave way to the most boisterous and fantastic demonstration. Immaculate ladies left with bonnets awry and gloves split open, forgetting umbrellas and purses.” (Milinowski, pp. 42 and 43) Another great opportunity came with the invitation from Carl Zerrahn to play at the second Philharmonic Concert of the season-but the piece requested, Mendelssohn”s Capriccio Brillante was not in her repertoire, and there were only ten days before the concert. Four days before the concert a copy of the music finally arrived from New York?the first rehearsal was set for Friday and the concert for Saturday. “The only one who did not have a desperate case of nerves in the process was Teresita…She found that the martial theme memorized itself, that the passages lay comfortably for her fingers. The melodies she kept singing to herself, when she was not practicing them… The rehearsals went surprisingly well.” Carl Zerrahn hailed her as “the greatest prodigy which the world has known since the days of Mozart,” and he invited her to appear with the Philharmonic again on January 24, 1863. (Ibid, p. 45) Dwight”s review of this concert included these comments: “But how did charming little Miss Teresa play the difficult and classical Cappriccio, and play for the first time with orchestra? Marvellously well for a child, but less well than with the more familiar tasks before her… The full conception of such music must be beyond her…But she kept good time, and brought out the most of it clearly, firmly, and even gracefully.” (Dwight, January 31, 1863, p. ???) On December 22, 1863 she celebrated her 10th. birthday with a concert at the Music Hall which she shared with B. J. at the organ. She had spent the previous twelve months in Cuba practicing and giving concerts, “the result being that she has gained in physical strength, in musical skill and understanding, and has added largely to her repertoire both classical and of the virtuoso kind.” However, in performing a solo piano recital in such a large hall, and alternating with pieces played on the new, large organ, she was putting herself at a great disadvantage. “If therefore under all those drawbacks the young maiden made a fine impression and won plentiful applause, as indeed she did, it was so much the more to her own credit… Mr. Lang”s organ pieces were played in his usual masterly manner, the Pastoral Symphony [Handel] and Freyschutz Overture being loudly and persistently encored, to which he responded in kind, that is by playing again a part of the same, and not something else.” (BMT, January 2, 1864, pp. 6 and 7)
Fisher, p. 45.
“In regard to her playing, it is of the most impassioned nature. Her enthusiastic temperament sweeps everything before it. In the power of her performance she has been compared to Sophie Menter, and it has been said that these two pianists are the only ones who, in spite of the restrictions laid by nature upon their sex, have been able to overcome the most tremendous difficulties of the pianoforte technique.” (Lahee, p. 308 and 309) Hans von Bulow was forced to confess that she was the only pianist of the fair sex he had ever heard play Beethoven in a satisfactory manner. (Lahee, p. 312) When she was about 15 she learned the soprano role in The Huguenots between Thursday and the following Monday for a performance in Edinburgh for the Queen”s Birthday. “Her success was brilliant.” (Lahee, p. 302-306) “During the 1880s, Carreno resumed operatic singing and also began to champion the piano compositions of Edward MacDowell (1860-1908), whom she had come to know during brief periods of residence in new York. As the dedicatee of his Second Piano Concerto (1889), she became the most vigorous proponent of this work during the composer”s lifetime and beyond. (Amy Beach also dedicated her Piano Concerto in C-sharp minor (1900) to Carreno.” (Mann, p. 239) “Described as ”the Valkyrie of the piano,” her playing was described as having an almost superhuman force even when she was a child. She never regarded herself as being limited by the need to adhere to the composer”s marks, and when she was young, her personality usuallly overwhelmed whatever music she played, whether it was Bach, Beethoven or Chopin. Her growing maturity as an artist was linked with her marriage with d”Albert in 1892, and in her later years she was compared as an equal with such pianists as Sauer, Rosenthal, Hofmann and Rachmaninov.” (Methuen-Campbell, p. 215)
“Carreno”s repertoire was large, and she was devoted to Chopin”s music. Unfortunately she made no discs, but she recorded some piano works for the Welte-Mignon piano roll company, including the G minor and A flat major Ballades, and the C minor Nocturne, Op. 48, No. 1. These demonstrate her technical ability, but she used mannerisms such as spread chords which can be irritating to the modern listener. Her touch is very varied, and there is in her playing evidence of a concentrated musical thought that is always compelling. She could execute many of the most taxing passages of the A flat Ballade with an extraordinary deftness that is at times almost eerie… Carreno enjoyed adulation, and played in public until 1917, the year of her death. No other woman pianist has equalled her as a vituoso, and her playing was far more exciting than that of Clara Schumann.” (Methuen-Campbell, p. 216) A CD of some of these rolls had been issued by Pierian: the Caswell Collection, Vol. 6 – Teresa Carreno. In July 2011, Amazon was selling new copies for $110.51, used for $113.49, but the MP3 Download for the entire recording was only $8.99 with eight of the individual tracks available at $.99 each.
One of Carreno”s pupils was Egon Petri, born in 1881, who came to America in the 1930s and died here in 1962. Among his pupils were John Ogdon, Earl Wild and Gunnar Johansen. (Methuen-Campbell, p. 163) “It was Carreno who encouraged him [Petri] to deveop his technique to a level that set him aside from most other artists of his generation…She used to tell him that a pianist should be able to support a glass of water on the back of his hand while playing. Petri”s high intelligence, discernment, and industry led to his acquiring one of the most powerful virtuoso techniques.” (Ibid)
Carreno c. 1900 (according to source – probably later). Johnston Collection.
Carreno was a soloist with the BSO in 30 different programs during eight seasons between 1887 and 1914 – this would be almost four appearances per season which would equal another pianist, Adele Aus Der Ohe who appeared in 51 different programs during 14 seasons! (Howe, BSO, p. 245 and 247) Carreno had contacted Clara Rogers after reading Rogers” book Philosophy of Singing. Rogers wrote: “She [Carreno] declared [that it] was invaluable to her, a pianist, as much so as to any singer… I think that Carreno was one of the most vital personalities I have ever known. Nothing, – no amount of fatigue – ever checked her flow or spirits. She possessed to an unusual degree that element which we call temperament – the habit of coming up to the mark, of filling all expectations regardless of unfavorable conditions.” (Rogers, Two Lives, pp. 221 and 222)
Mentor Association Print dated 1918. In Zellin this pose is listed as c. 1910. In 1910, Chadwick would have been 56 years old. Johnston Collection.
Chadwick, George W. (b. November 13, 1854 in Lowell, d. April 4, 1931 in Boston) After high school, spent three years in the insurance business with his father (taking organ lessons at the same time from Eugene Thayer), then one year (1876-77) as music instructor at Olivet College in Olivet, Michigan, followed by two years of study in Leipzig with Jadassohn and Reineke and another year, 1879-80, with Rheinberger in Munich. Returned to Boston in 1880. Only two years after his return, he was “so well thought of that he was selected for lithographic representation as a member of the pantheon called ”Musical Boston.” His relative youth was emphasized by his clean-shaven face among a score of hirsute dignitaries including B. J. Lang, Carl Zerrahn, John Knowles Paine, Oliver Ditson, and even his erstwhile teacher, Carlyle Patersilea.” (Yellin, p. 43) “He began a career as an organist, teacher, and conductor, and quickly made his mark as a composer in virtually every genre… The presence of such major orchestras as the Boston SO and the Philharmonic Society during the 1880s spurred Chadwick”s contributions to the orchestral medium, in which he was especially at home… By the time the symphony [No. 1] received its first complete performance in 1886, Chadwick was regarded as a masterly composer of lighter movements. But the piece most often performed, the ”overture to an imaginary tragedy” Melpomene (1887), was considered finer simply because the composer was at last writing music deemed entirely ”serious.”… In the Symphony No. 2 he uses in the Scherzo a pentatonic melody resembling Negro songs nine years before Dvorak included the better-known example in his Symphony – From the New World.” (American Grove, 1986, pp. 384 and 387) “As director of the New England Conservatory from 1897 to 1930, Chadwick was crusty, blunt, occasionally mischievous, never the aristocrat. he kept his hair short, was clean shaven save for a modest mustache, and wore wool flannel suits. A colleague once remembered that his most vivid impression of Chadwick was of the eminent composer and pedagogue eating a plate of beans on a tray at the local Hayes-Bickford cafeteria.” (Horowitz, p. 105) “He must have looked like one of those anonymous figures in an Edward Hopper painting, so well did he blend in with the typical American cityscape.” (Yellin, p. 3) Chadwick recorded his being fired from South Congregational Church as Lang had been earlier. “On the 22nd. of March [1892?] I ”resigned” from the So. Congl” Church. The entire choir did the same. For some time I had been suffereing under an incompetent tenor who had been wished on me by John Winch, and under a bass (Gardner Lamson) who sang badly out of tune. This of course I could not help but it did not make our music any better. The bolt which fired me was out of a clear sky as the committee had always professed to admire our music. I had been approached by another church some little while before but had no reason to suspect that a change would be beneficial. Consequently I was rather disgusted to get this jolt, especially as I had the new West Chop house to pay for and the rent of 903 besides. Luckily the other place was still available (it was Dr. Minens Church on Columbus Ave.) and on Apr. 30 I shook off the dust of Hale”s Church for good. I had, at the 2nd. Universalist a better organ, a better quartet, the same salary ($1,000) and no extra services. They were nice old fashioned people, all ready to be pleased. They liked to have me play quite a lot before and after [the] service which I quite enjoyed. Eventually we got together quite a ”star” quartet, in which Mme Louise Homer. the now distinguished artist of the Metropolitan Opera Co. was the (????).”(6466-6467)
On the left hand edge is where West Street enters. That would place the first Chickering Building as the second one on the left. Postcard was printed by the Valentine & Sons of New York and Boston. The postmark was August 19, 1910. Johnston Collection.
Clark”s Boston Blue Book 1888, p. 322.
Section from an 1896 map by Geo. W. Stadlty & Co. Tremont Street is in the lower section (where the word “Subway” is). Th above seating chart was for Chickering Hall as it existed c. 1883-1894 when it was on the second floor of 152 Tremont Street. Previously, 1860-70 Chickering Hall was at 246 Washington Street.
Jonas Chickering from “The Jonas Chickering Centennial Celebration,” 1924.
Chickering Hall. In May 1870, Dwight reported on the closing of Chickering”s Hall at 246 Washington Street after ten years at this location. The building was then leased to Jordan, Marsh & Co. It had been “completed in the fall of 1860 with a formal dedication concert on November 3, 1860.” Lang”s quickly established position within the Boston musical establishment is reflected by his inclusion among the dedicatory musicians. “There was a brilliant audience of musical people present, and Mrs. Harwood, Messrs. Dresel, Lang, Leonhard and Parker, Miss Mary Fay, the Mendelssohn Quintette Club and the Orpheus Club took part in the exercises.” (Dwight, May 21, 1870, p. 247) Three years later Dwight reported on the new hall-“a building beautifully situated, constructed according to their own ideal both of use and taste, and admirable in every way.” Dwight then reprinted specifics from an article in the Advertiser. “It was built on the John Parker estate, next to the Mason and Hamlin building on Tremont Street.” Designed by Peabody & Stearns, it was five stories in height and fronted both on Tremont and Mason Streets.. “In the first story there are two entrances, with a large show window occupying the entire space between them. This window has a single sheet of plate glass, making one of the largest in the city… In the fourth story are three rooms for music teachers, one of which is taken by Mr. B. J. Lang…Chickering & Sons are now turning out nearly three thousand pianos a year.” (Dwight, 1873-75) A later hall was dedicated November 7, 1883, located at 151 and 153 Tremont Street. Had a total of 667 seats on the floor and balcony [above diagram shows 462]. There was an earlier version on Washington Street, near Sumner Street. “The Messrs. Chickering & Sons have moved into their new warerooms, in the elegant building just completed on the corner of Avon Place, Washington St… One of their rooms has been constructed purely for a music room, suitable for choice chamber concerts, music parties, and large enough for three or four hundred persons. It is a very beautiful and attractive hall.” (Dwight, March 31, 1860, p. 7) Later that year Dwight described the room in more detail: “The room itself deserves our first attention by the elegance of its arrangements and decoration, and its general fitness for the purposes for which it is intended. The coloring of the walls and ceiling is of chaste and delicate shades, tastefully and artistically set off and relieved by gilding and some admirably painted panels. The lighting was profuse amd brilliant, giving the finest effect to the details of the architectural decorations. Flowers, too, of the most beautiful, upon the platform, added much to the general effect. The chestnut seats are very comfortable, and graceful in their design. The acoustic properties of this room are excellent, both for the instrumental and vocal music, either losing, so far as we could perceive, any of their due effect.” (Dwight, November 10, 1860, p. 262) The “Boston Musical Times” described the room as having an “admirable acoustic” and decorated with “chaste elegance… Three hundred people can be seated comfortably, and for Chamber Concerts and Soirees, ”Chickering”s Saloon” will again take its position as the most fashionable and beautiful in the city.” (BMT, October 20, 1860, p. 281) In 1872 it was reported: “Chickering”s New Piano Rooms were open to the public April 16th. We venture to say that no rooms, devoted to a similar purpose in the world present a more magnificent appearance. From basement to attic, we find proof of the enterprise and energy of the successful firm.” (Folio, June 1872) The last Chickering Hall was located at 239 Huntington Avenue where the Commemoration of the 80th Birthday of the company was held in 1903.
Chickering Hall, 239 Huntington Avenue, COMMEMORATION, facing p. 88.
Clefs, The. A social club formed on October 31, 1881 which began with sixty members, “(three fourths of that number being professionally connected with music”) who agreed “to spend the third Wednesday evenings of October, November, December, January, February, March and April together… [for] social intercourse, with some refreahmenta and a musical or other entertainment… Each member shall pay a yearly assessment of eight dollars, the same being due October 1, or at the time of election.” (BPL Lang Prog., 6594) At the yearly Annual Meeting eight Masters were elected-their job was to organize the program for each meeting “which should not exceed an hour in length. Said Master shall furnish for our club-room, if we have one, a pianoforte, and such other musical instruments as he may desire for his month; he shall provide such at his own expense, and in every musical detail shall have absolute authority.” Each member was allowed to bring just one guest per meeting at a payment of $1.25. (6595) The Masters chosen for 1882-83 were L. C. Elson, Arthur Foote, John Orth, C. Petersilea, S. B. Whitney and B. J. Lang with two Auxiliaries, William F. Apthorp and Otto Bendix. (6592) The Secretary, Arthur P. Schmidt sent out a printed announcement of the “fifth Social Meeting” of the 1882-83 season to be held at Berkeley Hall, corner of Berkeley and Tremont Streets on Wednesday Evening, March 21, 1883 at 7:30PM. A short article mentioned “an embarrasment of riches at the last meeting” which included performances of which the “most notable morceaux were a Mozart sonata, with accompaniment for a second piano by Grieg” played by Lang and Foote. (Foote Scrapbooks)
Clement, E. H. From 1874-1881 he “had been devoting especial attention, as assistant editor [of the Boston Transcript]… to dramatic and musical subjects.” (Chamberlin, p. 206) In 1881, the paper began a musical and drama department with Apthorp as the head of the department “writing the leading critical articles on both music and the theatre while Mr. Jenks [Francis H. Jenks] did the regular and constructive work of the department, and indeed everything that Mr. Apthorp did not choose to take in hand.” (Ibid)
Cochran, Jessie. She played at the fifth HMA Concert on February 12, 1880 where she was described as “a gifted pupil of Von Bulow and of Mr. Lang.” She played the Piano Concerto by Louis Brassin, never yet heard in this country.” (Dwight, January ??, 1880, p. 4)
Columbian Exposition, Chicago 1893. “Two halls were built, Music Hall, a section of the beautiful architectural composite whose dominating feature was the Peristyle bounding the east side of the Court of Honor, and Festival Hall, situated between the Transportation and Horticultural buildings, fronting an arm of the lagoon west of the Wooded Island; the one cost $132,000, the other $90,000.” Musical Year Book, 1892-93, p. XXIV) For the Festival Hall Farrand and Votey of Detroit a large concert organ in the center of the stage. A total of 197 concerts were given during the Exposition:
- 32 Orchestral, by Exposition Orchestra
- 2 Orchestral Boston Symphony Orchestra
- 2 Orchestral New York Symphony Orchestra
- 27 Choral, Exposition Orchestra used
- 2 Choral given with Orchestra, but after the Exposition Orchestra had disbanded
- 7 Choral without Orchestra
- 3 Chamber Concerts, by Kneisel Quartet
- 62 Organ concerts
137 Concerts with paid admission
- 53 orchestral, by Exposition orchestra in Festival and Music Halls
- 3 orchestral, by Exposition Orchestra in Woman”s Building
- 2 orchestral, by Exposition Orchestra in Music Pavilion, Exposition Grounds, east
- 2 Pianoforte Recitals
60 Free Concerts
“One dollar was the usual charge for all seats (reserved) at concerts given with orchestra; 25 cents was the standard admission price to all organ concerts.” (Musical Year Book, 1892-93, p. XXVI)
Critics. “H-T-P” = Henry Taylor Parker who was the music critic of the “Boston Evening Transcript” for thirty years. Formerly a resident of 132 Bowdoin Street, he was in 1935 living at the Hotel Vendome &ndash” “respectable, Puritan, and the excellent haven of neo-elderly ladies.” (McCord, p. 4) “William Aptorp”s writings appeared in the Atlantic Monthly, the Sunday Courier, the Boston Traveler, and the Boston Evening Trasnscript. Howard Ticknor wrote for the Boston Advertiser, Boston Globe, and Boston Herald, and was assistant editor of the Atlantic Monthly. Louis C. Elson edited the Musical Herald, and appeared in the Boston Courier and Boston Advertiser. Philip Hale contibuted to the Boston Home Journal, Boston Post, the Boston Herald, and Musical Courier, and edited the Musical Record and Musical World. One writer on music, Benjamin Woolf, had been born in England and exercised an extremely retrogressive taste in his writings for the Saturday Evening Gazette and, later, the Herald. He raged at contemporary local American musicians, sometimes including Foote, with ridicule and invective.” (Tara, Foote, p. 112) George H. Wilson, a boyhood friend and schoolmate of George Chadwick, “had been the critic of the Boston Post and for ten years edited the Boston Musical Yearbook.” In 1892 he was the assistant to Theordore Thomas in arranging the music for the 1893 Columbian Exposition. (6462)
Photo from the Orpheus Club of Springfield, MA website. Cutter conducted this male voice choir from 1890-1894.
Cutter, Mr. E. Jr. Listed as the pianist for the Apollo Club concert on Wednesday May 4, 1898 (BPL Prog., Vol. 7) Cutter gave two organ recitals during 1897 and 1898 sponsored by the Twentieth Century Club of Boston who were motivated “by the lack of public appreciation of organ recitals characteristic of that city.” (Elson, p. 274)
King”s HANDBOOK OF BOSTON, 1878, p. 144.
Daily Advertiser. Daily paper formed in 1813. Described in 1889 as a paper which “has always been the organ of a select constituency among the wealthier and more conservative classes. Its politics are Republican… The afternoon annex of the Advertiser, however, a one-cent paper, The Record, is as frisky and sensational as its parent is sedate, and is a newsy and popular little sheet.” (Grieve, p. 103) . Eleven years earlier, in 1878, The Daily Advertiser on Court Street was described as “the oldest daily in Boston,” and it enjoyed “a substantial prosperity, its circulation being principally among the wealthy and cultivated people of Boston and New England.” It was Republican, and aimed “to represent the advanced and enlightened wing of the party.” The writers gave “to the paper a conservative and cultured tone, which, together with its literary features,” made “it acceptable to a class of readers whose influence was far out of proportion to their numbers.” The Advertiser was “a large folio, well printed on good paper.” (King, p. 144) Louis Elson was the Music Critic from 1886 until his death in 1920.
Daniels, Mabel. b. November 27, 1879 and d. March 10, 1971 [Just over a year before Margaret”s death on May 30, 1972]. Long time friend of Margaret”s who wrote her a letter of introduction to Victor Gluth when she went to Munich in 1903. After returning to America, she “joined the mixed chorus of the Cecilia Society in order to learn more about orchestration and scores, since she herself played no orchestral instrument.” (Ammer, Unsung-Century Edition, p. 108) “Daniels came from a culturally-elite family established by her father in his position as the president of the Handel and Haydn Society.” (Blunsom, p. 33) “Her grandfather, William Daniels, was an organist and member of the Handel and Haydn Society from 1844-1886, and her maternal grandfather was a choir director. Both Daniels” parents sang with the Handel and Haydn Society, and her father was president of that organization from 1899 to 1908 [Just after B. J.”s two years as conductor of that choir]… George Daniels [Mabel”s father] was also a personal friend of B. J. Lang… Aside from [Mabel] Daniels, her parents and grandfather, there were at least eight other members of the Daniels family that belonged to the Handel and Haydn Society.” (Blunsom, p. 65) Margaret, Mrs. Beach and three other women were the judges in a contest for a new Girl Scout Song-a contest that Mabel Daniels won.(Musical America XXVIII/21, 21 Sept. 1918, p. 19 illustrations) Margaret wrote to Mabel on June 27, 1953 that every ten years she reviewed her book collection with the aim of removing items that were no longer of interest. “As always – I fall upon ”American Girl in Munich” saying to myself – ”This must surely go, at last.” Then I sit down to reinforce my decision, after a space of timelessness, I find I have been sitting absorbed in its pages, – & for the subsequent three evenings have read every word from beginning to end, – back it goes on to my shelves with hoarded treasures.” She then mentioned: “This week it has been extremely delightful – because of my mother”s daily journal of our Munich days – dug up by my sister from the past.” (Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University, Mabel Daniels Papers, MC 266) It is probable that the Munich music student experiences of both women were somewhat the same.
Dixey, Mr. Richard C. (b. Nov. 11, 1844, MA) Ellen S[turgis] (b. Newburg, NY on February 11, 1849, MA)(1897 Passport Application). They were married on April 16, 1875 at Marblehead, which was listed as his current residence and place of birth, by the Rev. Chandler Robbins. Her full maiden name was Ellen Sturgis Tappan and her place of birth was Boston. His occupation was listed as Musician.(Marriage Certif.) The 1900 census lists his occupation as “Capitalist” who owned his home at 44 Beacon Street which had five servants, and as of that date, he had been married 25 years and had two children: Arthur Sturgis Dixey, born November 21, 1880 and Rosamond Dixey, born June 10, 1887. (1897 Passport Application)
Mr. Dixey had accompanied the Langs on their European trip of late May until late August of 1866. (Excerpts from Frances” Note Book, p. 1) An ad in the Evening Transcript stated: “Mr. R. C. Dixey, Teacher of Piano-Forte and Organ, Rooms 554 Washington Street. Mr. Dixey will be in Boston and ready to resume his lessons on and after Monday, October 1st.” (Evening Transcript, October 3, 1866, p. 4, GenBank) His Passport Application of May 10, 1866 described him as: age-21; stature-5″ 9 and 1/4″; forehead-high; eyes-hazel; nose-straight; mouth-medium; chin-square; hair-dark; complexion-dark; face-regular, and his birthplace-Marblehead, MA., November 9th., 1844. He also went with Langs to Europe in the fall of 1869, and his Passport Application for that year was witnessed by Hiram G. Tucker. He was then 24. As he was the accompanist for the vocalists at a concert Tuesday evening January 12, 1864 where B. J. Lang was the featured artist, it can be assumed that he studied piano with Lang. The vocalists were Miss J. A. Houston soprano and Mr. H. C. Barnabee bass. This was held at the New Bedford Lyceum (BPL Prog., Vol. 1) Dixie also opened the program at a Lang organized concert at Salem”s Mechanic Hall on Monday evening March 10, 1865. (Ibid) He was an assisting artist in a “Soiree Musicale” in Aid of the Fair for “For Dumb Animals,” organized under the patronage of Mrs. W. M. Appleton, Mrs. R. E. Apthorp, and Mrs. G. J. F. Bryant held at Mechanic Hall on Wednesday evening, November 29, 1871. Dr. Langmaid also assisted along with Miss Alice Lang, a vocalist. The program did not list the specific repertoire that Mr. Dixey played although the selections for the other artists were listed (HMA Program Collection). Mr. Richard C. Dixey presented selections from Wagner”s Lohengrin at Mechanic”s Hall on April 27th., 1872. “We noticed eminent musicians, artists, and literateurs.” Dixey was “assisted by able talent, and [the performance] was one of the most enjoyable [events] of the season.” (Folio, June 1872) Another item in the same issue said: “The musical season in Boston may be said to have closed on April 30th.” (Ibid)
Arthur Sturgis Dixey (son of above, b. November 1880) left a colored drawing in the Lang Family Guest Book dated August 3, 1896. (6767) Ellen Sturgis Dixey, Arthur”s mother, did the same dated June 27, 1897, and under the drawing are also the signatures of Richard C. Dixey and Rosamond Dixey (daughter, b. June 10, 1887 at Boston) (1900 Census). (6770) A Passport Application dated July 12, 1897 was for Mr. Dixey, his wife, and son and daughter, and then projected return date was Autumn 1898. At this point he listed homes in Boston and Lenox, MA, and the describtions now included: chin-square, pointed beard; hair-dark, turning gray. In 1909 Mrs. Dixey was a Patroness of a French Play as was Mrs. B. J. Lang. At one of the performances Mr. Dixey organized a party that included his daughter-Miss Rosamond Dixey. Was that name chosen to honor the connection with the Lang family? (Herald, December 26, 1909, p. 24, Gen Bank)
Arthur S. Dixey died in Seoul, Korea on July 26, 1905. The cause was “heart failure, following an illness of a week, during which he received every attention.” (Herald, July 28, 1905, p. 7, GenBank) He had graduated from Harvard in 1902, then entered Harvard Law School and had passed the bar examination. He spoke and wrote in both French and German, and his posting to Korea was as the secretary to Ambassador Edwin D. Morgan which seemed to indicate a career in the foreign service. He had been in Korea less than a year before his illness. Arthur was responsible for the costumes and scenery for the Hasty Pudding Club musical of 1902 for which Malcolm Lang composed the music.
The 1910 census lists Richard C. Dixey as aged 65 with “Own Income” and his wife, Ellen S. Dixey as 61. Rosamond S. was still living at home, aged 22, and Mary A. Tappan, “Sister-in-law,” single, aged 59, also with “Own Income.” This household of four was supported by a staff of six. (1910 Census)
In January 1915 Richard “threw himself from a third-story window of his home at 44 Beacon Street yesterday and was dead when discovered. Dixey had been suffering from a nervous disorder for some time…Richard C. Dixey was retired. He had lived in the Beacon Street house for nearly 40 years. He was born in Marblehead, and was recognized at one time as a most accomplished pianist…Mr. Dixey had a summer place in Lenox he called ”Tanglewood.”” (Herald, January 20, 1915, p. 2, Genbank) This house had been inherited by his wife and her sister, Miss Mary Tappen. It eventually became the summer home of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. While at Tanglewood the previous summer Dixey had been “under the treatment of Dr. Bruce Paddock, and he returned to Boston in November in better health and spirits than on his arrival at his country house. Over 40 years Mr. Dixey had been going to Lenox for resort and recreation.” (Springfield Republican, January 20, 1915, p. 11, GenBank) He was described as “an accomplished musician, dilettante of fine arts, linguist, highly accomplished and well read,” and he “drew abouthim and to Lenox musicians and scholars who made up his group of friends. Several of these guests, including Timothee Adamoski, gave concerts at Tanglewood.” (Ibid) His wife had been one of his piano pupils. (Ibid)
The 1920 Census lists Ellen as a widow, her sister Mary is still living with her, but Rosamond is not listed. Rosamond had married Mr. Gorham C. Brooks who was the Assistant Treasurer of Harvard University. (Herald, January 20, 1915, p. 2, GenBank) There are still six servants. (1920 Census). The building at 44 Beacon Street, four floors, 9,752 square-feet, was built in 1806 for the third mayor of Boston, Harrison Gray Otis for his daughter. In 2010 it was bought by the American Meteorological Society whose headquarters was next door at 45 Beacon Street. (BeaconHillPatch, Internet,v iewed February 11, 2011)
Dolmetsch, Arnold. “During the winter of 1905 Dolmetsch signed a contract with Chickering”s of Boston, America”s leading firm of piano makers, to open a department for the manufacture of early keyboard instruments, viols and lutes. Here he would be his own master, completely in charge of staff and the selection of materials. It is not known exactly how much he earned, but there are still visable signs of the prosperity that the family enjoyed at this, the only time in their lives when they were truly free from financial worry… There is no question that some of his best work was produced in the Chickering factory during the six years of his association with the firm.” (Campbell, pp. 168 and 169) Some he formed a viol concort and gave “intimes in his own home… These evenings usually attracted a few notables such as the Longfellows or the notorious Mrs. Jack Gardner, but they also tempted an occasional member of the Boston Symphony Orchestra.” (Ibid, p. 170)
Rogers, Story of Two Lives, facing p. 74.
Dresel, Otto. (b. December 20, 1826 in Germany-d. July 26, 1890, Beverly, MA 1890). “He grew up in a progressive, intellectual home, his father being a sympathizer with the German liberal movement of 1848.” (Dic. Am. Biog., p. 449) He studied piano and composition with Hiller in Cologne and then with Mendelssohn in Leipzig. In 1842 “he was sent to Weimar… for instruction with Franz Liszt.” (Urrows, p. 346) He arrived in America, New York City, in 1848 “and was an intimate friend of Robert Franz.” (Howard, p. 223) Moved to Boston as a piano teacher in 1852, and gave piano recitals every year, perhaps because in New York, as in New Orleans, the opera with its social corollaries was more esteemed than concert music, and he felt his talent would more quickly win recognition in a more conservative city. Nor was he mistaken in his choice; his merit was soon recognized, and for more than fifteen years he held his place as Boston”s foremost resident pianist, whose interpretations of the masterpieces of the classic piano repertoire gave evidence of his taste and technique.” (Dic. Am. Biog., p. 459) “A musician of exceptional cultivation, and influential in introducing German music, he became the leading local [Boston] pianists.” (HMA Bulletin No. 16) He spent forty-two of his sixty-four years in America. “His repertoire was composed of the most interesting works of pianoforte literature, while sometimes he varied programmes by the introduction of piano trios, quartets, and quintets.” (Ritter, p. 333) Composer of “string quartets and in many forms for various purposes; distinguished for his transcriptions for the pianoforte or organ of Handel”s and Bach”s scores.” (Jenks, p.483) “He had collaborated with Robert Franz in supplying accompaniments for the vocal scores of Bach and Handel, and he took special pains to make the Franz songs known. His original compositions include piano pieces, songs, chamber music, an ”Army hymn” for solo, chorus, and orchestra (Boston, Jan. 1, 1863), and a setting of Longfellow”s ”In memoriam,” soprano and orchestra, to commemorate the fiftieth birthday of Louis Agassiz.” (Dic. Am. Biog., p. 450) “Arthur Foote, who knew both men well, specifically called Dresel Dwight”s ”counselor.”” (Urrows, p. 345) Julia Ward Howe “noted that he [Dresel] was ”almost idolized by Mr. Dwight.” (Urrows, p. 351) Dwight described Dresel in 1853 as being “nervous, fastidious, self-exacting, critical, anxiously loyal to an artistic ideal…despising all parade of mere performance, somewhat moody… and with a touch of genius in him…All this charms the like-minded and wins upon the thoughtful, but is apt to prepossess unfavoably those who look to externals.” (Urrows, p. 345) “Whereas New Yorkers did not appreciate a “cerebral player, with contempt for popular tastes… [who] could be caustic and abusive at the slightest provocation… Bostonians readily accepted Dresel, and he immediately became the leading pianist and accompanist in the city during the 1850s and 1860s. Musicians and audiences considered him a highly intellectual performer, even from the very beginning. His concerts were held on Tremont Street in a small hall, which was called ”the upper room” by many in his audience..His word, William Foster Apthorp would later write, was law.” (Urrows, p. 351) Dresel could be caustic about his fellow musicians: Carl Zerrahn, or “the big Z” as Dresel called him. was described as a “perfectly unable leader.” (Urrows, p. 355 and 371) In a letter to Dwight, Dresel complained about William Foster Apthorp who was Dwight”s correspondent in Europe c. 1870, saying that “I was rather more amused than exasperated at that youngster”s trashy letters in your paper; for conceit and silliness they were truly remarkable.” (Urrows, p. 371) Possibly Dresel was upset by Apthorp”s byline: “Young man of the future.” (Urrows, p. 385) In another letter (February 19, 1873) he wrote: “The latest Boston musical production is a rather queer one, it is: Mr. Willie Apthorp, who has entered the ranks of our musical profession, for reasons only intelligible to himself, and who-entre nous-plays the piano-very badly indeed…He teaches it therefore.” (Urrows, p. 386) Of the BSO conductor Arthur Nikisch he wrote: “For after all, little Nikisch is not a man of either much character, nor of fine sense of beauty.” (Urrows, p. 374) Much of the period 1863-1870 Dresel, now married and with two children, was spent in Europe. This probably allowed B. J. Lang to expand his career for Dresel wrote in early 1870: “I dread to go back to Boston; there seems to be little chance for a sphere of action left for me there… others have stepped into my place, and it will be difficult to regain the lost ground.” (Urrows, p. 371) But Arthur Foote spoke well of Dresel, calling him “A man of strong character and felling” who “had deservedly a great influence in musical affairs. He was wise, seemed to me all-knowing, an authority on Bach and Handel… He was certainly one of the best influences in my life.” (HMA Bulletin No. 4, p. 2) In his Autobiography, Foote wrote in somewhat the same vein: “Dresel was a man of thorough knowledge, real talent in composition, a pianist of exquiste taste and feeling, profound convictions as to what was best and what was negligible, and consequently with pretty strong prejudices, as later against Brahms and Wagner (He used to say that he would not sleep in the same room with a Wagner score). Dresel in after years was to be for me an inspiration.” (Foote, Auto., p. 24)
Dunham, Henry M. Born 1853. Studied at NEC and Boston University. Taught organ at NEC. In his LIFE OF A MUSICIAN he mentions B. J. Lang. “Mr. Lang was neither a great pianist nor organist, and yet he was in considerable demand as soloist on both these instruments. For many years he was organist for the Handel and Haydn Society and when finally Carl Zerrahn had to retire because of his rapidly increasing deafness, Mr. Lang succeeded him as its director. On his invitation, I played the organ part to Haydn”s Oratorio The Creation, at one of the concerts of the Society in Music Hall. For many years we dubbed him “The Musical Dictator of Boston,” which in a large degree was true.” (Dunham, p. 77) Dunham recorded another Lang story: he had just played his own Third Organ Sonata at an A. G. O. gathering at Jordan Hall. “Mr. B. J. Lang sat quite near the console and when I passed him after playing he shook me by the hand and said, ”Dunham, I am proud to know you.” Afterwards, while talking things over in the Sinfonia rooms he said. ”What I like about your Sonata is that you do not get there too soon. The climax comes just where it should.” This, from the musical autocrat of Boston whose authority and judgment in things musical were unquestioned, pleased me immensely.”” (Dunham, p. 188)
Dutton, Alice. In early October 1864 the Boston Musical Times reported: “Little Alice Dutton, the child pianist, who is to make her appearance this evening at the Music Hall, is a musical prodigy. We have heard some of her private performances with wonderment, so remarkable a power does she possess for reading music and execution on the piano. We have seen difficult pieces of music, which she had never seen nor heard of, placed before her for the first time, and heard her play them with a facility and skill such as few practiced amateurs could accomplish after careful study of those same pieces. Since she came here she has lived in retirement, and taken finishing lessons in style from Mr. B. J. Lang. We look forward to her performance to-night with confident anticipation of success.” (BMT, October 1, 1864, p. 48) However, Dwight reported that Miss Dutton made her “maiden concert” in October 1865 at Chickering”s rooms. She was then thirteen, and had come “from the West two years ago with a musical talent that had been growing up wild, with no sure direction, and who has been studying with Mr. Lang, and eagerly listening to the best music, is now really an accomplished pianist, in technical facility quite remarkable… Mr. Lang turned over the leaves with anxious and we dare say proud interest in his pupil. The audience was not so large as we could have wished; but it contained some of the most musical persons, and the impression made on critical artists, as well as on friends and willing public, was highly favorable to the young player.” (Dwight, October 28, 1865, p. 127) But Dwight was wrong in saying that this was her debut-he had written in April 1864 that Lang “and his pupil Alice Dutton, a child of 12 years” would would play the Grand Duo Concertante for two pianos on the Gypsey March in Preciosa arranged by Mendelssohn and Moscheles, and that this would be “her first public appearance.” (Dwight, April 16, 1864, p. 223) On December 17th. she returned to her home state of Iowa and gave a recital in Burlington, aprogram that she shared with “Mr. Strasser, an able violinist, who is well known in the West. But few had ever heard of this girl, and many doubted when they saw the programme, that she would be able to sustain her share in it. But they were soon undeceived.” The article went on to tell of her early training which began when she was nine years old with a teacher in Davenport who “instructed her in a course of Clementi”s, Moscheles”, and Czerny”s Studies. She then came to Prof. Lange [sic] in Boston, whose tuition she enjoyed for two years. Now she is giving concerts in order to raise the funds which will enable her to go to one of the conservatories of Europe.” Unfortunately her programs were to heavy for Iowans at that time, and “up to the present, not successful.” (BMT, January 6, 1866, pp. 2 and 3) Returning to Boston, in March of 1866 she soloed with the Orchestral Union playing Mendelssohn”s Serenade and Allegro Giojoso [sic], “and played it wonderfully well for one almost a child. Her hand spans hardly an octave… The girl has talent and the air of being sincerely absorbed in her art.” (Dwight, March 31, 1866, p. 215) On Sunday evening February 3, 1867 Dutton, listed as a pupil of B. J. Lang, appeared as one of eight assisting artists at one of “Gilmore”s Grand Sacred Concerts” at the Music Hall. She played Mendelssohn”s Piano Concerto in G Minor, Opus 25, and a hand-written notation on the program records that B. J. Lang conducted this piece. (BPL Lang Prog., 6250) (Also BPL Prog., Vol. 1) On Monday evening March 4, 1867 Lang arranged a concert at Salem”s Lyceum Hall at which he played the solo part of the Mendelssohn Concerto No. 2 Op. 40 with Alice playing the orchestral reduction. Then she was the soloist in Mendelssohn”s Concerto No. 1 Op. 25 with Lang playing the orchestral part, and the concert ended with Grand Duo on Themes from Norma by Thalberg played by Alice and Lang. (BPL Prog., Vol. 1) Just under a year later another appearance with the Orchestral Union at the eighth and final concert of their Spring 1867 season produced the following in the Boston Musical Times: “Miss Alice Dutton played Weber”s Concertstuck for Piano and Orchestra, and very finely too, with a firm, vigorous execution, joined with remarkable neatness and purity of touch, and good expression. She posseses the right qualities, which, properly developed, will make her a pianist of high rank.” (BMT, May 4, 1867, p. 42) Dwight”s comment was that the Weber had been “Capitally played.” (Dwight, April 27, 1867, p. 23) On Wednesday afternoon February 19, 1868 Alice played the Mendelssohn Piano Concerto in G Minor with the Orchestral Union. Zerrahn was the concert”s conductor, but a handwritten note on the program states that Lang conducted this concerto. (BPL Prog,. Vol. 1) A month later Dwight mentioned that “So successful a reading of the pianoforte part [Beethoven Trio, Op. 97 with the Mendelssohn Quintette Club] by so young a maiden as Miss Alice Dutton was clear proof both of rare native faculty and rare development in so few years in a sound direction. It is clear that she loves the best music, feels it, and conceives it vividly… she has acquired such technical facility and certainty that she now has all the treasures of this fine world open to her.” (Dwight, March 14, 1868, p. 206) In December 1868 she was part of a concert given by the contralto Adelaide Phillipps in which she played the Mendelssohn Serenade and Allegro Gioioso ” with orchestra, “neatly, conscientiously and tastefully, only needing more force, which she will gain with time.” (Dwight, december 19, 1868, p. 367) Lang was the conductor for this concert. In January 1869 she repeated the Weber Concert-Stuck, this time with the Harvard Musical Association Orchestra, and Dwight noted: “Miss Alice Dutton, though yet very young and hardly past the stage of pupilage, has so distinguished herself not only by her talent, but by what with talent is too rare, a true musical spirit.” In the Weber “the swift passages of the Rondo giojoso were beautifully bright and liquid.” (Dwight, Janauary 30, 1869, p. 390) Lang used Miss Dutton as one of the soloists in his series of three Mercantile Hall concerts in April 1869. At the first concert she played the Mendelssohn Serenade and Allegro in B Minor with orchestra, and Dwight commented:”Miss Dutton, as a classical pianist, gains in favor by each effort.” (Dwight, April 24, 1869, p. 23) In the same month she appeared with the Mendelssohn Quintette Club playing Mendelssohn”s Quartet in B Minor, Op. 3. “The early Piano Quartet of Mendelssohn was a fortunate revival showing Miss Alice Dutton”s powers to good advantage.” (Dwight, April 27, 1869, p. 15) She soloed with the HMA Orchestra in February, 1870 in Beethoven”s Piano Concerto No. 3 in C Minor, Op. 37. “The entire C-Minor Concerto of Beethoven had
never been played here before. Mr. Lang, in the second season of the Concerts, played the first movement only, which is certainly the most significant, with the Cadenza by Moscheles. This time his fair pupil, Miss Dutton, allowed us to hear the whole… Miss Dutton won much praise by the performance, showing marked improvement, though the strength flagged a little near the end.” (Dwight, February 12, 1870, p. 191) Now in her early twenties, she advertised to give a “Complimentary Concert” assisted by Miss Adelaide Phillipps, Mr. W. H. Fessenden, Mr. Wulf Fries, Mr. B. J. Lang, and Mr. G. W. Sumner at Mechanics” Hall on Saturday evening, February 14, 1874. Lang”s only part was to provide the “Orchestral accompaniment on a second grand piano” for the opening Concerto [G Minor] by Mendelssohn (HMA Program Collection) Dwight attended this concert which had “a goodly audience, who listened with much interest to the young lady”s clean, forcible, and brilliant execution.” Dwight felt that in the forte passages her “sound was hard and cutting,-too much hammer, so to speak,” but he did suggest that this might have been the fault of the piano used (no brand named). (Dwight, February 21, 1874, p. 183) Dutton and Mr. C. R. Hayden shared the New England Conservatory 376th. Concert. This might imply that she was now a faculty member. “The lady plays very much as formerly, with neat and brilliant execution,” and of Hayden, Dwight wrote: “His tenor voice has certainly improved in power and quality, and in his management of it he has grown less stiff and spasmodic.” (Dwight, October 31, 1874, p. 327)
From a painting by Caroline Cranch, in possession of the Harvard Musical Association.
Cooke, Dwight, page opposite frontispiece.
Ryan, RECOLLECTIONS, plate opposite p. 120.
Dwight, John Sullivan. 1813-93. “The Boston-born son of a Harvard graduate who had himself, too, studied for the ministry only to resign the cloth to become a medical doctor. Young Dwight attended Harvard College, where he played the piano and the clarinet in the campus chamber music groups, the Arionic and Pierian Sodalities, and upon graduation he organized the alumni of the Pierian Society into what became the Harvard Musical Association.” )Grant, p. 39) Louis Elson wrote: “His inveterate optimism, his sunny nature and unspoilable power of enjoyment were contagious. Few men probably ever enjoyed life as he did; to him life was all roses, with never a thorn – save, perhaps, in the (to him) minor matter of Wagner, Liszt & Co. Whether it was a fine day, a fair landscape. A poem, a Beethoven symphony, or a lobster with a bottle of champagne, his enjoyment of it was something wonderful to contemplate.” (Johnson, Hallelujah, p. 159) “Dwight was born in Boston in 1813, and after graduating from Harvard in 1832, he became a Unitarian minister. But his heart was in music and teaching, and after a few years in the ministry, he became a teacher of music and Latin at the Brook Farm community. In 1837, with Henry K. Oliver and two others he founded the Harvard Musical Association, for the purpose of raising the standard of musical taste at the University, preparing the way for a professorship of music, and collecting a library that would contain music and musical literature in all its branches. The aims were all realized, and the association”s soirees, and later its orchestral concerts, were a regular part of musical life in Boston… It was the moral backing of the Harvard Musical Association that led Dwight to establish his Journal of Music in 1852. He was editor, publisher and proprietor for six years. In 1858 the Oliver Ditson Company took it over, and retained Dwight as editor. In 1878 it was sold to other publishers and was discontinued in 1881. Dwight probably never had more than five or six hundred subscribers until he went with Ditson, but he was an influence nevertheless. Musicians read his paper and courted his praises.” (Howard, p. 225) Grant”s number was higher: “The Journal”s collective readership could never have been more than a few thousand, and only as a critic for a daily metropolitan newspaper could Dwight have hoped to have reached great masses of people.” (Grant, p. 52) Apthorp wrote an extended obituary notice for the September 5, 1893 Boston Evening Transcript calling Dwight “one of the most unique figures Boston has ever claimed as her own… Dwight”s artistic gift was of a very general sort. His choice of Music from among the fine arts as his daily companion through life was undoubtedly less owing to any special aptitude than to the extraordinary vividness and intensity with which musical impressions affect almost all artistic natures. Music was the art which could be enjoyed most intensely, immediately, and with the least effort; so he took to Music… Of specifically musical organization he had extremely little; his only native aptitude for the art consisted in what is commonly called ”a fair ear” and general aesthetic sensibility. It may be doubted whether he ever really studied music; his technical knowledge of the art was always slight. He could read notes and work his way through pianoforte scores on that instrument, although he never even began (or tried to begin) to master its technique… His naturally musical ear never developed to more than an average pitch of delicacy; technical slips seldom disturbed him, and ”rough performances” fully satisfied him, if only the right spirit was there… he was irresistibly drawn toward what is pure, noble, and beautiful, and felt these things with infinite keenness; he had an inborn and unconquerable horror of the merely grandiose, of what is big without being great, of the factitiously intense, of the trivial and vulgar. He was an optimist, through and through, and wished all art to be optimistic as himself… Upon the whole, Dwight was a man considerably astray in this nineteenth century of ours, with its hurry, bustle, and fierce struggle for existence… He was never in a hurray, and never could understand why any one should be… Dwight”s specific literary faculty was as fine as that of any born American who ever wrote; his style was at once brilliant, solid, and impeccable… Personally Dwight was the most genial of companions. His inveterate optimism, his sunny nature, and unspoilable power of enjoyment were contagious. Few men probably ever enjoyed life as he did; to him life was all roses, with never a thorn, save perhaps in the (to him) minor matter of Wagner, Liszt & Co… How that benign, intellectual, sunlit face of his will be missed from the seat in the first balcony of the Music Hall, of which he was the almost never-failing occupant for twenty-five years or more! It is fitting that the Music Hall he loved should go with him. May both rest in peace.” (Apthorp, Essays, pp. 277-286) However, with all his natural optimism, at the end of his magazine”s run he had to admit that “Despite his exertions, the American public ”had not been converted en masse to classical music; its tastes for popular music appeared to be undiminished, and the rising music trades were only too happy to pander to it.”” In his final issue of September 3, 1881, Dwight wrote: “The musical papers that live and flourish financially are those… which abound in endless columns of insignificant three-line items of intelligence or news; the slang term ”newsy” is a description they covet. A journal which devotes itself to art for art”s sake, and strives to serve the ends of culture, however earnestly and ably, gets praise and compliments, but not support.” (Grant, p. 52)
A “Complimentary Concert” for Dwight was given at the Music Hall on Thursday December 9, 1880 at 2:30PM with 35 assisting artists plus the HMA Orchestra led by Zerrahn. B. J. Lang opened the second half with Schumann”s Concert-stuck in G Op. 92: Introduction and Allegro Appassionata. (BPL Prog., Vol. 3 – see photo)
In a 1995 lecture to the Harvard Musical Association, Professor Michael Broyles provided details concerning Dwight”s role in founding the Association. “Dwight, by the way, was a much more cagey politician than most give him credit for, as the actual birth of the HARVARD MUSICAL ASSOCIATION demonstrates. In July, 1837 three alumni and former members of the PIERIAN SODALITY, John S. Dwight, Henry Gassett, and Henry Pickering, suggested to the Pierians that a ”General Meeting of Past and Present Members of the Pierian Sodality” be held on graduation day, August 30. A committee was formed to prepare for the meeting. The committee was charged with determining the purpose of the new group. It worked independently of the Pierians as a whole, and on August 28, met with the immediate members and explained the objectives to be presented at the forthcoming general meeting. Dwight was the spokesman. He was the motivating force behind the idea and wrote the document that was ultimately presented. It was a very idealist document, presenting a serious vision of music that contrasted sharply with the fun loving approach of the Pierians. The undergraduates, however, had serious reservations about the general meeting, as the secretary”s minutes confirms. Their chief concern: how on earth could they afford to properly outfit the refreshment room, with tuna and ”…the very, very best wine.” Dwight was astute. He presented a petition with the signatures of fifteen honorary members pledging financial support for the expenses of the general meeting, e.g. refreshments?at the same time he explained the purposes. Needless to say his document met with a very favorable reception. Such is history. For a time the fate of the HMA itself hinged on who brought wine and tuna.” (Broyles, p. 6)
Mathews, A HUNDRED YEARS, p. 467.
Elson, HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC, p. 345.
By G. A. Klucken-Wikipedia, June 29, 2024.
Eichberg, Julius (b. Dusseldorff, June 13, 1824 and d. January 18, 1893). Born to a musical family, he “was taught at first by his father, and could play the violin acceptably when he was seven years old. Among his other teachers were… Rietz, who introduced his pupil to Mendelssohn.” (DIC AM BIO, p. 57 and 58) Dwight, writing about Eichberg noted: “As a reminiscence, it may be mentioned that some years ago Mr. B. J. Lang, the eminent pianist of this city, called upon Rietz, and in the course of the conversation the maestro told him that he had one pupil in America of whom he was proud” – Eichberg. (Dwight, July 2, 1881, p. 106) Came to America in 1859 – career as a conductor and educator. Established Boston Conservatory in 1867 – active in Boston from c. 1860, “the first seven of which were passed as leader at the Boston Museum.” In 1862 he presented there his best known operetta, The Doctor of Alcantara, “which has made its way all over the country.” Was also head of music in the Boston Public Schools for many years. (Jenks, p.478-also had photo, taken from the right side) As late as 1930 Howard wrote that his “The Doctor of Alcantara is still a favorite, and the patriotic chorus, To Thee, O Country [written for the annual combined high school choirs concert, and done yearly with an accompaniment of orchestra and organ] is widely sung.” (Howard, p. 224) Dwight describes him as “a person of marked originality of character, strong in reason and understanding, endowed also with rapid and keen perception, a lively sense of the beautiful, a tenacious memory, and resolute, firm will… such is the fertility of his mind, and such his power of illustration, that he is one of the most delightful of companions, a man with whom one can talk until two in the morning.” (Dwight, July 2, 1881, p. 106) “At the age of fourteen, young Eichberg became musical director of the opera at Elberfield, which post he retained for the period of two years, at the expiration of which he went to Brussels… At Brussels he became a pupil of Fetis, for perfection in composition, and of DeBeriot and Meertz on the violin.” (BMT, April 7, 1860, p. 57) After graduation from the Brussels Royal Conservatory with first prizes in violin and composition, he began his career in Geneva-director of an opera troupe, professor in the Conservatory, and director of music in a major church. He stayed eleven years, and then moved to New York in 1857 “with a view of benefiting his health… In 1859 he came to Boston and found a home. He was first engaged as director of music at the Museum… Mr. Eichberg remained at the Museum seven years. After a year of rest he established the Boston Conservatory of Music… Not far from the same time he was appointed general supervisor and director of music in all the high schools of the city.” (Dwight, ibid) Lang may have had something to do with Eichberg coming to Boston. “Some years ago, Mr. B. J. Lang the eminent pianist of this city, called upon Rietz, and in the course of the conversation the maestro told him that he had one pupil in America of whom he was proud.” (Dwight, ibid) “Those who know him will bear willing testimony to his accomplishments as linguist and scholar, and to those Christian graces of the true gentleman-self respect, sweetness of disposition, and unflinching integrity-which justify the declaration that he has not an enemy among men.” (BMT, April 7, 1860, p. 58) In April 1864 Dwight noted: “Tomorrow evening, a ”Sacred Concert,” that is to say a Sunday Concert in the Music Hall by that excellent musician, JULIUS EICHBERG, who has composed for the occasion several pieces for Violin, Violincello, Piano and Organ. Two organ pieces will be played by Mr. Lang; two soprano songs will be sung by Miss Houston, and two baritone songs by Mr. SCHRAUBSTAEDTER.” (Dwight, April, 30, 1864, p. 23) No review appeared in subsequent editions. In September 1866 it was announced that “Boston has lost Julius Eichberg. His powers are appreciated, and remunerated handsomely in New York, and Messrs. Baker and Smith retain him at the New York Theatre where they will give a season of English opera.” (BMT, September 8, 1866, p. 3) “Mr. Eichberg is quite a lion in N. Y. musical circles. He is busily engaged in forming his new opera troupe which will perform at Baker and Smith”s New York Theatre. He will open with the Doctor of Alcantara and follow that with the The Two Cadis, which he considers his best work.” (BMT, October 6, 1866, p. 4) Soon after Eichberg quit as leader of the Boston Museum Orchestra, the Boston Musical Times reported: “The orchestra at the Boston Museum needs reinforcement sadly. It is numerically small and musically flat. From being the best of our city orchestras it has degenerated into the worst. It is to be hoped that the excellent manager of the establishment will institute an immediate reform.” (BMT, October 6, 1866, p. 3) However, things did not go smoothly at the New York Theatre: “Mr. Eichberg has withdrawn from the New York Theatre, and is teaching in New York City.” (BMT, December 1 , 1866, p. 3) He “became Supervisor of Music in the public schools… He is noted especially for establishing the Boston Conservatory of Music, which school was later absorbed by the New England Conservatory of Music. The present Boston Conservatory is a different and later organization.” (HMA Bulletin No. 15)
“He composed much for his instrument, including graceful solos and valuable studies as well as various ensemble numbers. Among the later were an Ave Maria and Reverie for violin, ”cello, piano, and organ, given in the old Music Hall.” (DIC AM BIO, p. 58) B. J. and he often played Eichberg”s Religious Meditation for violin and organ.
Chadwick, in his Diary, described Eichberg as “another rare soul whose genial though pungent wit and most lavable personality eneared him, Jew though he was, to every one who knew him.” (6353)
Mathews, A HUNDRED YEARS OF MUSIC IN AMERICA, p. 397.
C. 1910. Johnston Collection.
Inscription: “Your teacher and friend, Louis C. Elson.” A photo card glued into the front of Elson”s The History of American Music, 1904, owned by his pupil Ralph Howard Pendleton of Philadelphia, PA. Johnston collection.
Elson, Louis Charles. 1848-1920. “Was active from 1882, a Boston-born, Leipzig-educated pedant, head of theoretical instruction at the New England Conservatory. While ardent and analytical enough to please the most exacting listener, Elson was no great assist to the cause of ”the newness” as the era of the ”eighties was called.” (Johnson, HALLELUJAH, p. 158) The NEW GROVE DICTIONARY OF AMERICAN MUSIC entry adds: born in Boston-April 17, 1848 and died there, February 14, 1920. He studied music in Boston and at the Leipzig Conservatory. “It was as a critic, lecturer, and writer on music that he was most important.” (AM GROVE 1986, p. 43) He returned from Leipzig in 1877, and “became associated with several leading music journals, including Vox Humana and the Musical Herald, both of which he eventually edited. He was music editor of the Boston Courier and then of the Boston Daily Advertiser from 1886 until his death.” Henry Dunham, organ instructor of the New England Conservatory felt that Elson was “too affable, too anxious to say nothing unkind to become great as a critic; always interesting however, and very much read; his fund of general information was prodigious.” (Dunham, p. 220) Also see article on Daily Advertiser.
He taught theory at the New England Conservatory beginning in 1880, and became head of the department in 1882 upon the death of Stephen Emery. (Green, p. 212) “In 1945 his widow established a memorial fund at the Library of Congress for the presentation of lectures on music. His son was the writer Arthur Elson [1848-1920].” (AM GROVE 1986, p. 44) The 1986 AM GROVE article lists 15 books that he wrote or edited. His last book was published in 1918 – WOMEN IN MUSIC. “He has acted as choral director on various occasions in Boston, notably a festival in 1886, the programs including music selected all the way from the medieval beginnings of the art up to the present time. As a composer, his work is mostly in the smaller forms, including several piano-pieces, three operettas, and other songs. He has also made translations and arrangements of a great number of French, English and Italian songs, and of operas… As a vocalist, he has been connected with several of the leading choirs of Boston… Mr. Elson”s diction is concise, often humorous, and reveals in every line broad and genuine culture fused with the specialized knowledge of the trained and experienced musician. His distinguished contemporary, W. S. B. Mathews speaks of it as a ”ripe and finished literary style, rarely found outside the ranks of professional authors.”” (Green, p. 212) “In this field [musical criticism] he led the way to a more detailed and thorough estimate of musical works and performances than had been customary in the United States, and incidentally treated all artists under his review with courtesy, even when adverse comment proved necessary… In 1873 he married Bertha Lissnere, who survived him with their son, Arthur Elson. A memorial tablet was placed in the New England Conservatory of Music, where he served so long and faithfully, teaching up to the very day of his death” (Dic. Am. Bio., C. A. W., pp.199 and 120). Elson also “holds the dubious distinction of being the American critic with the most citations in Slonimsky”s Lexicon of Musical Invective… A singer and composer of modest attainments, Elson was not university trained but studied privately in Leipzig before returning to his native Boston in 1877 to begin a career of musical journalism on various magazines and newspapers.” (Grant, p. 94) His reviews “reflect a man who, while obsessed with correcting what he saw as bad musical grammar, had the discernment to report clearly what he heard… Unlike some of his contemporaries, Elson found even Debussy cacophonous. Pedantic references to theory and harmony abound in his critiques. Ravel and the Sibelius Fourth Symphony were too much for him, let alone Schoenberg.” (Ibid, pp. 95 and 96)
Elson, Arthur. “Is a well-known musical critic and writer. His books, Women”s Work in Music, Orchestral Instruments and Their Use, A Critical History of Opera, Modern Composers of Europe, and frequent contributions to musical periodicals, have added to the luster of the family name. The two, father [Louis] and son, deserve especial mention as representative of the best modern thought concerning the future of the woman musician. They are truly American in their fair-minded recognition of her ability to do more than she has been permitted to do by the foreigner.” (Green, p. 212)
Elson, HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC, p. 342.
Mathews, A HUNDRED YEARS, p. 655.
Dunham, THE LIFE OF A MUSICIAN, p. 51.
Emery, Stephen Albert. Born Paris, Maine 1841, son of a distinguished lawyer and judge. After one year of Colby College, he left because of ill health and impaired sight, and “then as a pastime, took up the study of piano and harmony.” (Howe-One Hundred, p. 656) He spent 1862 to 1864 studying music in Leipzig and Dresden, returned to Portland for two years and then moved to Boston after the Great Fire in 1866. He quickly obtained positions at the New England Conservatory and the Boston University College of Music. “Many of the younger American composers have been indebted to Mr. S. A. Emery for their instruction in the art of composition, and he stands in the front rank of American theorists.” (Howe-One Hundred, p. 656) In 1889 he was credited with composing about one hundred and fifty published pieces.
Dunham, THE LIFE OF A MUSICIAN, p. 51.
Essipoff, Madame. Born: February 12, 1851 (St. Petersburg, Russia). Died: August 18, 1914 , aged 63 (St. Petersburg, Russia) (Wikipedia article, 7/1/11). One-time wife of Leschetizky, Paderewski mentioned that “there were several Mesdames Leschetizky-all musical-all charming!” (Paderewski, p. 120) He further stated that “her playing in many ways was perfect, except when it came to strong, effective pieces-then she was lacking in real force, as women pianists usually are… She was very feminine in her playing, and small poetic pieces she could play admirably. She was an intelligent woman with evident culture, attractive to look at, and with a very pleasing personality altogether, which was a great asset to her on the concert platform.” Ibid, p. 121) In fact she played the world premier of Paderewski”s Piano Concerto as the composer “had not studied the concerto sufficiently for a great public performance.” (Ibid, p. 121) Later in his career Paderewski met Madame Essipoff again. “She was already divorced from Leschetizky and was professor of music at the Conservatory at St. Petersburg. Madame Essipof was no longer young, but she was still fine-looking and always brilliant, and enjoyed a great success there as a professor. She had already stopped her career as a pianist.” (Paderewski, p. 298)
She was born at St. Petersburg in 1851. First taught by her father who was “an enthusiastic amateur musician,” at 14 she entered the St. Petersburg Conservatory where she “became a pupil of Theodore Leschetitsky, who had adopted her and who found her as headstrong as she was talented.” Rubinstein thought that she should study the voice, but “Leschetitsky was equally urgent that she should make the pianoforte her life study. She decided on the pianoforte, and in 1876-77 she carried off the prize not only for execution but also for sight-playing. Her public career began somewhat before this time. For she appeared in Vienna in 1874 and scored a triumph, as she did also in England in the same year. A letter written at that time describes her as ”far more able than Von Bulow and not nearly so incorrect.” She played Chopin better than anybody. Many critics placed her higher as a pianist than Rubinstein or Madame Schumann, in fact second only to Liszt. She was considered a wonder. After having traveled far and wide for eight years and established a great reputation, she married her former teacher, Leschetitsky, in 1880. Madame Essipoff made a tour in America in 1877, but notwithstanding her remarkable talent, her success was small… In 1893 she separated from her husband, though her admiration for him as a musician and a teacher was as great as ever. Leschetitsky, on his part, showed his regard for her by using his influence to secure her his own former position as pianoforte instructor at the St. Petersburg Conservatory, a position which she resigned early in 1900.” (Lahee, p. 299-301) In 1874 Dwight published an account of her English appearances: “At the morning concert of Saturday May 16, a new pianiste, Madame Essipoff, made her debut in England, choosing for the occasion Chopin”s Concerto in E Minor. This accomplished lady, a native of Russia, fully realized in all that Rubenstein, Auer, Henselt, and more recently Dr. Von Bulow, had affirmed respecting her truly marvelous talents. Madame Essipoff four years ago, at the Conservatoire of St. Petersburgh, carried off the prize not only for execution, but for sight-reading, the great test of musical competency. In Vienna last winter her performance at the Philharmonic concert was a great triumph; and at three concerts given by Mdme. Essipoff on her own account, she created a legitimate ”sensation”, particularly in the music of Chopin, manifestly her forte.” (Dwight, June 13, 1874, p. 245) “Essipov was acclaimed as one of the finest pianists of her time, though opinions differed about her appearance: some said she looked masculine, others described her as ”attractive.” She had very small hands, and Paderewski wrote that her playing was very feminine, contrasting her with Teresa Carreno, whom he thought ”a strong pianist, even too strong for a woman.” Essipov, whose only fault was that she was always hungry, could play with great delicacy of feeling, and her conceptions were emotionally moving. Her extraordinary clarity of technique added to the effect of simplicity and directness in her playing, and she was widely cultured and a good teacher… Schnabel also had lessons with her.” (Methuen-Campbell, p, 60) Essipov was “one of the first pianists to devote recitals entirely to Chopin”s music. She was not afraid of presenting a programme which would defeat most pianists today: all twenty-seven Etudes and all twenty-four Preludes. She played vitually the whole of Chopin”s oeuvre, and made her first important appearance at the Salzburg Mozarteum in 1869 with his E Minor Piano Concerto. Her interest in Chopin”s works increased when she went to study with Leschetizky in St. Pertersburg.” (Ibid) “It is interesting that Rachmaninov and Essipov, two of the greatest technicians of all time, used a great deal of slow practice.” (Op. Cit., p. 116)
Euterpe, The. “This society, though young, has a strong board of officers and occupies a prominent position. It was organized Dec. 13, 1878, and gave its first concert on the 15th. of January following. Its object is the encouragement of chamber music and the production of the best compositions in this line. The number of members is 150, and all money received is expended on the concerts, after allowing for the necessary running expenses. Connected with the society are some of Boston”s most prominent musicians, among whom are C. C. Perkins (president), B. J. Lang (vice-president), W. F. Apthorp (treasurer), Julius Eichberg, John Orth, S. B. Whitney, J. C. D. Parker, etc. F. H. Jenks is (Dec. 1882) secretary.” (Jones, p. 18) During their 8th. Season, 1885-86 the group presented only string quartet concerts which were held at the Apollo Hall, 151 Tremont Street. B. J. was listed as the Vice President with his address at 152 Tremont Street. In Vol. 7 of the Musical Year Book it was reported: “The Euterpe concerts were suspended.” (MYB 1889-90, p. 26)
Evening Transcript, Boston. Founded in 1830, “The Transcript is Republican, but it is elevated and independent in its views on all matters of public interest. It is a genuine type of the high-toned literary journal, and has a large circulation among the very best class of cultivated, disinterested, and clean citizens. It is the standard journal of art and literary criticism, while its news columns cover the wants of its rather select and cultured constituency.” (Grieve, p. 105) William Foster Apthorp was the Music Critic from 1881-1903.
Evening Traveller, Boston. Begun in 1845, it was “the first two cent evening paper in Boston.” It also had weekly and semi-weekly editions. “It was formerly a leading exponent of Republicanism, and is still patronized quite largely by Republicans and Prohibitionists. It is intended to be an elevated family paper, advocating the cause of temperance, education, and moral reform. It is published at the head of State Street, where for more than a century papers have been issued… Its politics [are] straight Republican.” (Grieve, p. 105) “Its news-departments are well sustained. The review of the week, long a feature of the Saturday edition, ably conducted by C. C. Hazewell, is valuable for filing as a record of passing events.” (King, p. 148)
Fay, Abby B., Miss. Vocalist active in Boston in the late 1850s. B. J. and the Mendelssohn Quintette Club “assisted” her in a concert given to benefit “An Invalid” at the Melodean Theatre on Saturday March 27, 1858 (Dwight, March 26, 1858, p. 413). Early in 1861 the Boston Musical Times reprinted an item from the Florence correspondent of the New Orleans Picayune which reported “At the last Philharmonic Concert, Nov. 17th, Miss Abby Fay, of Boston, made her second appearance before a Florentine audience, and met with a most flattering success… Her voice of pure soprano register, is true and sweet, and she is capable of executing the most difficult music. She has made very great progress within six months… She is now prepared to accept an engagement for Sonnambula, and other operas of that genre, and I am confident that she will be successful in light and brilliant music.” (BMT, January 26, 1861, p. 392)
Mathews, A HUNDRED YEARS OF MUSIC IN AMERICA, 1889, p. 139.
Fay, Amy. Born on a plantation in Bayou Goula, Louisiana on May 21, 1844 to Rev. Dr. Charles Fay and Charlotte Emily, daughter of an Episcopal Bishop, she died “in 1928, at the age of 83, in a nursing home in Salem [MA].” (Fay, xiv) “The families were musical on both sides, but Mrs. Fay was a veritable musical genius, and although she had no musical instruction after her tenth year, she kept up her practice herself, and after her marriage she learned the great concert pieces of Thalberg and de Meyer, the pianists of the day, and always extemporized on any given air in a remarkable manner… Amy was the third of a family of seven children (six girls and one boy), all of whom were gifted musically… Amy was made to learn Latin and Greek, German, and French, as a child.” (Mathew, pp. 137 and 138) At nineteen she moved to Cambridge where she studied with Prof. Paine at Harvard and attended classes with Otto Dresel at NEC. Lang used her in his May 3, 1862 performance of First Walpurgis Night where she and Lang played Thalberg”s Grand Duo on Themes from Norma. “Upon the advice of John Knowles Paine (1839-1906), later known as the dean of American composers, with whom she studied Bach, Amy Fay went to Europe to refine her musical taste and improve her technique.” (Fay, p. ix) At the age of 25 she went to Europe studying with Tausig in Berlin for one year, and then Dr. Kullak for three years. In all she spend the five years, early November 1869 until 1875 in Germany. In the summer of 1873 she studied with Liszt. “Franz Liszt seems to have been the only teacher in Europe who championed no specific technical approach, yet he conveyed the most to his piano classes.” (Fay, xi) Tausig was said to be “a young man who plays the piano like forty thousand devils.” (Fay, x) He had been a pupil of Liszt, and he was described as “an eccentric, impatient man possessing an easily triggered, high-powered temper. An unhappy misanthrope, he loathed piano teaching. Nevertheless, his conservatory had one of the highest enrollments.” (Ibid) “Tausig has such a little hand that I wonder he has been able to acquire his immense virtuosity. He is only thirty years old, and is much younger than Rubinstein or Bulow.” (Fay p. 39) Beginning in the fall of 1870 she began lessons with Kullak – “He looks about fifty and is charming. I am enchanted with him. he plays magnificently, and is a splendid teacher, but he gives me immensely much to do, and I feel as if a mountain of music were all the time pressing on my head. He is so occupied that I have to take my lesson from seven to eight in the evening.” (Fay, p. 100) Fay then changed to Deppe who had made a study of the technique of piano playing. Whereas Kullak said: “Practice always Fraulein. Time will do it for you some day. Hold your hand any way that is easiest for you. You can do it in this way-or in that way-showing me different positions of the hand in playing the troublesome passage-or you can play it with the back of the hand if that will help you,” Deppe showed her exactly how to conquer each difficulty. “In short, he makes the technique and the conception identical, as of course they ought to be, but i never had any other master who trained his pupils to attempt it.” (Fay, p. 319) “The positive bebefits of Deppe”s approach convinced Amt to base her future playing and teaching on Deppe”s principles, as did the eminent pianists and teachers William Sherwood, Donald Francis Tovey (1875-1940) and Emil von Sauer (1862-1942).” (Dumm and Shaffer, p. 7) “She returned to Boston and “was at once pronounced an artist by the press, and played with Theodore Thomas” orchestra at the Sanders Theatre in Cambridge, and at the Worcester, Mass. Musical Festival [Beethoven”s B-flat Major Concerto with the Germaina Orchestra conducted by Carl Zerrahn][Dumm and Shaffer, p. 7]. She was the first pianist to introduce the playing of piano concertos at these festivals, which has been done ever since.” “On her return to the United States, Amy gave her first concert in New York”s Chickering Hall in December 1875… Amy”s recitals in Cambridge, Massachusetts, where she made her home in 1876-78, were attended by the poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, a close personal friend, and the American critic John Sullivan Dwight.” (Dumm and Shaffer, p. 7) After three years in Boston she moved to Chicago in 1878 where she remained. “Liszt has included Miss Fay”s name in the roll of his best pupils, in a list made out by himself.” (Mathews, pp. 138, 140 and 141) Her book “Music Study in Germany” is well known even today: it is a collection of letters written to her elder sister “Melusina (”Zina”) (1836-1923), Amy”s surrogate mother, who recognized their historic value and arranged their publication.” (Dumm and Shaffer, p. 4)
Fay, Miss Mary A. (or Miss Mary Neilson Fay, Jones, p. 155) “Born at Williamsburg, N. Y., about 1855. She studied under Wm. Mason, Richard Hoffman, Gustav Satter, and for a short time with Rubinstein during his stay in this country. Upon advice of the latter she went to Berlin and placed herself under the instruction of Kullak. After her marriage with Mr. Sherwood in the autumn of 1874, she accompanied him on his travels, and assisted him at his last concert in Berlin. Since returning to the United States, she was frequently taken a part in her husband”s recitals, and is well-known everywhere. Besides being one of the finest lady pianists of our time, she is very successful as a teacher.” (Jones, p. 155) She had been an assisting artist in the January 14, 1859 concert given by the Mendelssohn Quintette Club at the Mercantile Hall (entrance on Summer Street) playing Beethoven”s Piano Trio in B Flat, op. 97 (“Archduke”) (Dowell, p. 370) This was her first Boston concert appearance. (Dwight, January 8, 1859, p. 327) However Dwight felt that as “a very youthful debutante, whose extraordinary ease and fluency of execution of the most difficult piano-forte music, especially modern music, has for a year or two past been a theme of admiration in the houses of her friends” had been unwisely counseled in attempting the Beethoven… Miss F. has a nice touch,” but “such a work requires far more than execution; it requires imagination, soul, passion, deep experience, grasp of mind.” (Dwight, January 22, 1859, p. 342) Based on the dozen or so times that Dwight had heard this piece in Boston, this performance just did not measure up to his standard. On Saturday evening March 3, 1860 Miss Fay appeared at the Philharmonic Concert at the Music Hall conducted by Carl Zerrahn performing Mendelssohn”a Concerto in G Minor and the Romanze and Rondo from the Concerto in E Minor by Chopin. The program noted that she “will make her first appearance on this occasion.” (HMA Program Collection) Dwight”s review mentioned “The exquisitely delicate, dreamy and poetic Romanza, and the bright Rondo from Chopin”s E Minor Concerto – one of the most difficult of piano pieces as to mere execution, and demanding fine musical feeling and perception besides. It certainly was a bold attempt for a young girl of twenty… Two years ago, at a Mendelssohn Quintet Concert, she astonished by her brilliant execution in a Trio by Beethoven. Since then she has studied earnestly, severely, under the best direction, and this time her triumph was complete. Such clear, distinct, even, sustained, brilliant, graceful pianism, is seldom heard. Not a note was lost, even in that large hall… In Mendelssohn”s G Minor Concerto Miss Fay sustained herself at the height already won, well at home apparently with the orchestra, and proving herself quite equal to the performance of so formidable a work in public.” (Dwight, March 10, 1860, p. ???) In November 1860 she was part of the Opening Soiree of Chickering”s new Music Room where she played Mendelssohn”s Variations Serieueses which prompted Dwight to say that “Miss Fay, excited a positive entusiasm by her brilliant execution, showing the rarest natural capacity and most delicate and facile touch, combined with a vigor and power rarely found in a lady executant. In the duet played by her with Mr. Dresel [Duet for Two Pianos on the March from Weber”s Preciosa], she showed herself a worthy pupil of an accomplished instructor.” (Dwight, November 19, 1860, p. 262) In a January 1861 notice of one of “Miss Fay”s Soirees” the reviewer mentioned: “In the more sedate music of Beethoven and Schumann, while there is no lack of technical ability, there seems to be a want of soulful expression in Miss Fay”s playing; but the compositions mentioned above [Hiller Bolero and Chopin Polonaise in A flat, Op. 53), and others of the same class. she plays with a vigor and clearness quite remarkable.” Within days of this solo performance, Miss Fay was also part of the Philharmonic Concert conducted by Mr. Zerrahn. (BMT, January 25, 1861, p. 261) The Boston Musical Times reprinted a notice from the New York Weekly Programme which reported that “Miss Mary Fay gives a concert in Boston soon, in which she, with Mr. Lang, will play Thalberg”s Grand Fantasia on Themes from Norma.” (BMT, March 9, 1861, p. 22) On April 20, 1861 she presented a “Matinee” at Chickering”s Hall when she was assisted by Lang, Eichberg and Fries. Included in the program was Mendelssohn”s Second Piano Trio in C Minor, Op. 49, the Grand Fantasie on Norma for Two Pianos arranged by Thalberg, and the final piece was the Fantasie on Moses in Egypt also arranged by Thalberg. Dwight had not attended and only printed the program. (Dwight, April 27, 1861, p. 30) In January 1862 Dwight printed that Miss Fay would present four concerts at Chickering”s Rooms.” (Dwight, January 18, 1862, p. 335) Dwight praised the one of her solo pieces in the first concert saying: “Hiller”s difficult and brilliant Bolero was well suited to the powers of Miss Fay, and she distinguished herself in it,” but he was not impressed by the Mendelssohn Violin Concerto played with just piano accompaniment. (Dwight, January 25, 1862, pp. ???) B. J. joined her in the final number of her second Soiree given on Saturday, January 25, 1862 playing the Fantasie on Norma for two pianos by Thalberg; on the same program she also was assisted by Mr. F. Suck and Mr. Henry Suck. Based on the repertoire listed, Mr. F. Suck and Mr. Henry Suck both played violin. Dwight did not attend, but noted that the “second Soiree did take place, we understand, on Saturday evening, in spite of the worst weather ever known. Some forty persons listened.” (Dwight, February 1, 1862, p. 351) This concert was part of a series of four-“Sets of For Tickets, $3; Single Tickets, $1 each; to be had at the music stores.” (HMA Program Collection) For the third Soiree she “had a good audience and a pleased one” which again included the two Sucks and W. Fries. (Dwight, Febraury 15, 1862, p. 367) All in all this was a major understaking for such a young artist. Fay was also an assisting artist with the Mendelssohn Quintette Club during 1861-62 season. (Dowell, p. 21) She appeared again with the Philharmonic on Saturday February 1, 1862 playing the Capriccio in B Major for Piano and Orchestra by Mendelsson, and the Introduction and Variations on the Barcarole from L”Elisire d”amore by Thalberg. On the same program Jules Eichberg was the soloist in his own Violin Concerto. (Ibid) During January and February 1862 she presented four “Soirees.” (Ibid) According to the DIC. AM. BIOG, she had been born in Williamsburg, N. Y., and she married William Hall Sherwood in 1874 while they were both students of Liszt, “and Liszt stood godfather to their first child. In the course of years, incompatibility of temperament was discovered and a divorce followed.” (Lahee, p. 202) In a June 2, 1876 Mu
sic Hall program, she is listed as Mrs. Sherwood, formerly Miss Mary A. Fay. (BPL Music Hall Prog., Vol. 1) Mrs. Sherwood was the soloist with the HMA on Novemebr 9, 1876 playing Mendelssohn”s Concerto in G Minor. Dwight wrote: “Mrs. Wm. H. Sherwood, whom many remember as Miss Mary Fay, of Boston, a pupil eighteen or twenty yeras ago of Otto Dressel, and who even in her girlhood excited admiration by the ease and brilliancy of her performances in public. Returning now from studies in Germany, the wife of of a gifted pianist, she brings musical experience, a rich repertoire, and more maturity of musical character and culture… Hearty applause followed all her efforts.” (Dwight, November 25, 1876, p. 342)
Fenollosa, William F. He assisted Lang in a series of five concerts of the complete piano works of Schumann. (BPL Lang prog., Vol. 4)
Grove, “American Supplement-1920,” p. 206.
Foote, Arthur (b. March 5, 1853 at Salem, MA and d. April 8, 1937 at Boston, MA). Lang piano pupil from age 14. In 1870 he began at Harvard having “the good fortune to find John K. Paine there. His coming in 1869 marked the beginning of real musical instruction and of the development of a Depatment of Music… There were naturally few students for Paine at that time; in fugue I was the only one, taking my lessons at his house. He was college organist as well, and I had sense enough to appreciate the beautiful improvisations which I heard at chapel. I owe a great deal to him, not only for the excellent teaching but also for the important influence which he had on me at a time when it was sadly needed.” (HMA Bulletin No.4, p. 1) Graduated Harvard 1874-had organ lesson from Lang that summer-Lang convinced him to continue his music study. Graduated Harvard with the first MA in music 1875. Opened piano studio next door to the Harvard Musical Association, and became a member then. Appointed organist Church of the Disciples 1876, then 1878 at First Unitarian Church, Boston where he stayed until 1910. Attended first Bayreuth Festival in 1876 and the premier of the complete Ring of the Nibelungen (Ciplolla, Am Nat Bio, Vol.13, p. 190) – made eight trips abroad over a twenty year span. Married 1880 – only child, Katharine born 1881. On Wednesday April 22, 1891 Foote led “The Ladies” Vocal Club of Salem” at the Cadet Armory Hall in one of three “Popular Concerts” sponsored by the “Salem Oratorio Society” whose conductor was Carl Zerrahn. In addition to the vocal numbers, piano pieces included Lang playing the Etude, Opus 25, No. 7 by Chopin and “Scherzo” from Sonata, Opus 31, No. 3 by Beethoven; Lang and Foote playing the Variations on a theme from Beethoven by Saint-Saens: and the piano quartet of Lang, Foote, Phippen and Fenollosa playing the “First Movement” from Mendelssohn”s Italian Symphony and Les Contrastes by Moscheles. Foote taught at NEC from 1921 until his death in 1937. (Cipolla, p. 150) “Though he lived to 1937, Foote absorbed no twentieth-century styles. He was not a bigot, like Dwight. Rather, he acknowledged his timidity with typical equanimity: ”My influence from the beginning, as well as my predilection, were ultra-conservative”. Foote”s failure to grow was typical of Boston: like the writers he knew and admired, he was both supported and stifled by a benign cultural environment.” (Horowitz, p. 99) Following the lead of his teacher B. J. Lang, Foote presented a series of eight chamber music concerts “on every Saturday evening in February and March.”  at the Chicking Hall, 156 Tremont Street. (BPL Music Hall Prog., Vol. 3) Another series was presented in 1882.
Franklin, Miss Gertrude. A review by Dwight in 1880 made mention that she “has good voice and training… Her forte, as we have since learned, is the florid kind, like ”Rejoice Greatly,” or the ”Jewel Aria” in Faust.” (Dwight, April 10, 1880, p. 62) In a March 1881 review of Schumann”s Faust with the Cecilia, the writer noted: “her voice lost nothing of its sweetness and beauty even when pushed to a force that threw the voices of the amateaur vocalists upon the stage in the background.” (Cecilia Programs, Vol. 1) In May 1881 it was announced that she would be the soprano in the quartet for the Roxbury Universalist Church. (Musical Herald, May 1881, p. 104) She is listed in 1886 as the soprano in King”s Chapel Choir ?B. J. became organist there in 1888. Lang was the accompanist at her Saturday February 16, 1889 concert at Chickering Hall. (BPL Lang Prog. Vol. 5) In an 1890 review of Cecilia”s Haydn Seasons concert, Hale praised Franklin: “Her musical nature was seen in little details often despised and ignored by singers… Her phrasing and her technique were alike worthy of high praise.” (BPL Hale Crit., Vol. 1) She also appeared with the Handel and Haydn Society: March 31, 1893 in Bach”s St. Matthew Passion. (History-1911, p. 30) On January 6, 1893 she was part of the concert given during a ladies night at the Harvard Musical Association where she performed two songs by Brahms and Near Thee by Roff. Franklin was a soloist with the BSO in its Third Season (1883-84:Henschel), Fourth Season (1884-85: Gericke), Fifth Season (1885-86: Gericke), Sixth Season (1886-87: Gericke), Seventh Season (1887-88: Gericke), Eighth Season (1888-89: Gericke), Ninth Season (1889-90: Nikisch), Fourteen Season (1894-95: Paur) and Fifteenth Season (1895-96: Paur). (BSO Programs 1881-96)
Site of Miss Gertrude Franklin”s apartment/teaching studio. Johnston Collection.
Ryan, facing p. 26.
Fries, Auguste. “I begin with Auguste Fries. He was a good, genuine violinist, especially in quartette, he played with deep sentiment, was painstaking, and no rehearsals were too long for him. He was the broadest man, had the oldest head, of the organization, and was altogether a good leader. In social character he was full of geniality, could be the life and spirit of every party, and he thus endeared himself to a very large number of personal friends…. He was very firm in purpose and set in his ways; he could not accommodate himself to some things; but sterling integrity was the main point in his make-up. He was an excellent man for younger people to start with.” (Ryan, pp. 106 and 107) After ten years with the group he returned to Bergen, Norway where he spent the rest of his life except for one season when he returned to Boston to be concertmaster with the HMA Orchestra. However, Dwight reported the return of Fries in October 1873 saying that after working for fifteen years in Norway, his return would “be warmly greeted by the older generation of our music-lovers,” (Dwight, October 18, 1873, p. 111)
Fries, Wulf Christian Julius. 1825-1902. (Bio-Bib., p. 135) Cellist, “Born at Garbeck, a village of Holstein, in Germany, Jan., 10, 1825. He began his favorite instrument when only nine years old, and at twelve had his first and only lessons from a local player.” (Jones, p. 60) As his father could not pay for lessons, he sent Wulf to a neighboring city where he learned on the job, playing in various municipal groups. “What he learned in the art of playing was chiefly through hearing the soloists who gave concerts while passing through the city…. In September, 1847 he came to America and settled in Boston, which has since been and still is (May, 1885) his home. About 1849 he organized assisted by his brother, August, three years his senior, the ”Mendelssohn Qunintet Club,” the immediate occasion of which was the performance at a private house of Mendelssohn”s Quintet in A. The original members of the club, with which he was connected for twenty-three years were August Fries, 1st. violin; Herr Gerloff, 2nd. violin; Theodor Lehman, 1st. viola; Oscar Greiner, 2nd. viola; and Wulf Fries, ”cello. August Fries was leader for ten years, when his place was taken by William Schulze… He is also professor of the violincello at the Boston and New England Conservatories of music, and an esteemed musician.” (Ibid) Mathews credits the clarinetist Thomas Ryan, then aged 22, as the founder of the Club, and lists the original members as: August Fries, Francis Riha, Edward Lehmann, Thomas Ryan and Wulf Fries, and describes their first consrt as being given “at the piano warerooms of Jonas Chickering, Mr. Ryan playing a clarinet concerto by F. Berr, and also the viola parts in quintettes by Mendelssohn and Beethoven…Naturally the personnel has been frequently changed…For fortyyears Mr. Ryan has been the leading spirit of the organization, and now he is the only one of the members who was at the foundation of the society.” (Mathews, p. 294) He left the Mendelssohn Quintette Club in 1872, and “was a founding member of the Beethoven Quartet in the following year. He belonged to the Musical Fund Society and played (sometimes as soloist) with the Harvard Musical Association, and then with the Boston SO (1881-2). He taught in Boston at the New England Conservatory (1869), Carlyle Petersilea”s Music School (1871), and the Boston Conservatory of Music (1889)… Papers and music from his estate are in the collection of the Harvard Musical Association.” (Am. Grove, p. 170) Fries played with the Mendelssohn Quintette Club for twenty-two years. In 1880 Dwight reported on a “Tribute to Wulf Fries, suggested and arranged by a number of the most musical ladies of Boston, Brookline, Cambridge, etc., in whose families the favorite artist had been for years esteemed and loved as teacher and companion in the parlor practice of classical trio and sonata music.” This “took the form of a beautiful Chamber Concert at Horticultural Hall on Saturday evening, December 4, 1880. The audience was very large and sympathetic, the programme very rich and choice.” B. J. Lang and Arthur Foote contributed the Saint-Saens Variations for Two Pianos on a Theme of Beethoven, Op. 35., and Lang was probably the pianist in the Schumann Quintet for Piano and Strings, Op. 44. (Dwight, December 18, 1880, p. 207)
Gardner, Isabella Stewart. April 14, 1840-July 17, 1924 (Palffy, p. 263). Good friend of the Lang family-visitor to the family farm in New Hampshire; in charge of arranging the flowers at B. J.”s funeral; among the “first visitors at Beverly Farms [in 1895] were… B. J. Lang” – the summer home of the Gardner”s – they had just returned from a almost a year in Europe. (Carter, p. 154) At the January 6, 1893 “Ladies Night” of the Harvard Musical Association she “was warmly welcomed home as one of the hostess, with Mrs. Henry M. Rogers, Mrs. Arthur Whiting, and Miss Lang… Mrs. Gardner in simple black, looking very fresh and young after her voyage.” (HMA Bulletin No. 11)
Mrs. Gardner was known for her good works. Among the young men in her circle was the composer Clayton Johns who had taken a young piano student, Heinrich Gebhard under his tutalege. Johns had Gebhard play for Paderewski who was on tour in America-the suggestion was that Gebhard should study with Leschetizky. “However, before I left for Vienna, Mr. Johns wanted to present me to the Boston public as his pupil. So in April, 1896, a concert was arranged in Copley Hall, where I played before a large representative audience a program [that included] the Schumann Concerto accompanied by sixty-five players of the Boston Symphony Orchestra under the leadership of Franz Kneisel. Mrs. Jack Gardner, that wonderful and brilliant woman, who so often was a benefactor to young promising talents, in her great generosity footed the bill for this expensive concert.” (HMA Bulletin No.13)
“The Foote”s were frequently to be seen at the Gardner home.” (Tara, Foote, p. 71) In fact Mrs. Gardner was the Godmother to their only child, Katharine. “Mrs. Jack insisted they go with her to the Copley Society”s costume ball. She dressed Arthur and his wife Kate in elaborate Korean costumes, which greatly impressed Katherine ”when they let me see them before they left. Mrs. Gardner was such a wonderful Godmother to me, and such a good friend to Papa and Mama.”” (Ibid) Mrs. Gardner help Arthur Foote in many other ways. “Throughout her life she remained a staunch and encouraging friend of his family. She introduced Foote to men and women who could bebfit him, whether at her home or during travels in Europe. Her summer home in Beverly, Massachusetts, was at his disposal for vacations and peaceful seclusion so that he could compose music. Foote was asked to play at her musical evenings before distinguished gatherings.” (Tara, Foote, p. 111)
Johns, REMINISCENCES OF A MUSICIAN, p. 74.
John Singer Sargent, 1888.
This portrait was first displayed at the St. Botolph Club, but her husband, John Gardner found it so offensive that it had it removed. It now hangs in Fenway Court, but she did not allow it to be shown to the public until after her death.
Anders Zorn: “Isabella Stewart Gardner in Venice,” 1894.
She did not always attract attention to herself; the “Table Gossip” column of the Boston Globe of February 3, 1907 noted that “Mrs. John L. Gardner herself was much in evidence at Fenway Court during the hours when it was open to the public this week, although the majority of the visitors were unaware of the identity of the short, slim figure in black, wearing a flat black hat and carrying a gold filigree bag.” (Globe, p. 50) But, Arthur Foote wrote “that Boston began its greatest musical growth soon after he started living there. He arrtributes much of this growth to the local women and their clubs… The preeminent example of a woman dedicated to the arts was the wealthy Isabella Stewart Gardner, Foote”s kindly friend and patron. She gave moral and monetary support to musical performers, composers, painters, and sculptors… She exerted herself in helping musicians to establish the Boston Composers” Manuscript Society. Its aim was to give local composers a hearing.” (Tara, Foote, p. 57) Gardner”s biographer, Morris Carter was quoted as saying: “Whether a social renaissance was created or not may be a question, but ”the Brimmer set, which represents the old Puritan aristocracy,” and ”the Apthorp set, which represents the new Bohemianism,” did meet in her house on a common ground.” (Ibid)
“Mrs. Jack Gardner”s Palace.” Message is dated Christmas 1906, and so this is how it appeared to B. J. Lang. (Johnston Collection)
On one occasion when Mrs. Gardner visited Malcolm”s home, she noted the two candlesticks on his table and said, “How wonderful, I have the other four,” but Malcolm did not take the hint and present them to her. (Amy DuBois Interview)
Elson, THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC, p. 54.
Rogers, STORY OF TWO LIVES, facing p. 74.
Gericke, Wilhelm. b. April 18, 1845 in Graz, Austria, and d. October 27, 1925 in Vienna. Studied at the Vienna Conservatorium 1862-65: began conducting career in Linz; then in 1874 offered second conductorship of the Hofoper in Vienna?there became associated with Hans Richter; took over the Vienna Singverein in 1880; 1884 appointed to the BSO and stayed five years, resigning due to health issues; returned to Vienna for three years, and then reappointed to the BSO “whose great efficiency is largely due to his indefatigableness and skill as a drill-master, his conscientious devotion to high ideals, and his remarkable sense of euphony and tonal balance.” (GROVES DICTIONARY, 1921, Vol. II, p. 159.) “Mr. Higginson brought Mr. Wilhelm Gericke from Vienna to take his [Henschel] place. Gericke was a rigid disciplinarian, a musical purist, and a devotee of two more B”s than Henschel [whose B. had been Beethoven]. Namely Bach and Brahms. He made several changes in the personnel of the orchestra, and introduced reforms which unquestionably heightened its excellence; but meanwhile he was not currying favor with the people. He made his programmes extremely severe, and rigidly excluded popular music from them, besides unnecessarily antagonizing American composers; and as the outcome of it all he fell victim to the populace, intellectual and orthodox in taste as it claims to be. As the result of his policy, however, when the new leader Mr. Arthur Nikisch, came, he found an orchestra already drilled and disciplined, and abounding in excellent material.” (Upton, “Musical Societies,” p. 81) Gericke “undertook the difficult but needed reform of replacing a number of old musicians, formerly prominent in the city”s musical life, who were holding their posts in the orchestra principally through courtesy, with younger musicians from Europe. That he accomplished this successfully and built up an orchestra in which perhaps fewer changes were later made than in any other in the world during a period of twenty years or more, is proof that Gericke possessed wonderful tact, judgment and executive ability. These qualities, combined with musical insight and tireless energy, have made the Boston Symphony Orchestra his debtor for its international position and comparative financial independence. For five years Gericke remained at the head of this organization, at the end of which time he returned to Germany and resumed the leadership of the Concert Society in Vienna, which he conducted until 1895. Then followed a period of three years” freedom from professional activities, and in 1898 Gericke was again engaged to conduct the Boston Symphony Orchestra. For eight years longer Gericke directed the body of musicians which he had brought to its present perfection of ensemble; then, in the season of 1905 and 1906 resigned his post, and in the latter year returned to Vienna… Gericke is said to have forwarded the cause of music in America more than any other one man, with the possible exception of Theodore Thomas. Elson speaks of him as the finest drillmaster among conductors… His reading of scores is considered remarkable” (Green, p. 283) “He was assistant conductor at the Vienna Hofoper when Henry Lee Higginson heard him conduct a performance of Aida in October 1883 and invited him to replace George Henschel as conductor of the Boston SO… He was a stern drillmaster, and after his first season dismissed 20 members of the orchestra and replaced them with young European players. At first there were complaints in Boston about this procedure, but most observers soon agreed that the orchestra”s improvement justified it… Gericke”s programs were thoroughly ”serious,” in contrast to those of Henschel, who had customarily opened with a symphony and filled the rest of the program with miscellaneous lighter pieces; Gericke also broke with a long-standing tradition by offering concerts without guest soloists. As a friend or personal acquaintance of Wagner, Brahms, Bruckner, and Liszt, he included a great deal of their music and introduced new European works, as well as compositions by” American composers such as Chadwick, Beach, Converse, and Foote. “Gericke”s tenure saw the orchestra”s first concerts in New York (1887), and the construction of Symphony Hall for its permanent home.” (New Am. Grove, p. 198) Gericke conducted the BSO from 1884 until 1889 and from 1898 until 1906.
His salary for his first year 1884-85 was $7,500, and he was at time thirty-nine years old. “He was a bachelor, short and stocky, with a dark beard and handlebar mustache, both neatly trimmed. He was a vivacious conversationalist. He looked more like a shoe dealer or bank cashier than a musician.” (Horowitz, p. 50) “But he was not unhappy when he was settled in well-appointed bachelor quarters at 5 Mt. Vernon Place, near the crest of Beacon Hill. He would walk across the Common on a fine day, no doubt well-tailored and gloved, to have his dinner at the ”Tavern Club.”” (Burk, p. 173) Among the new musicians that he hired for his second season was the twenty-year-old concertmaster, Franz Kneisel, and “numerous other new members to replace ”old” and ”overworked” musicians ”no longer fit for the demands of modern and more difficult orchestral ensemble.” he subdued the brass in order to perfect the balance and tone of the ensemble. he insisted on rehearsals conditions never imposed by Henschel or Carl Zerrahn. He disciplined musicians who took the stage intoxicated, in some cases repeatedly… His repertoire, stressing beethoven, was less adventurous than Thomas” in New York, less conservative than has been dwight”s and the Harvard Musical Association”s. As he disciplined his orchestra, Gericke disciplined his audience, and not by insisting on more ”serious” programs. Latecomers were not admitted except during pauses. Encores were discouraged… Gericke himself called his Boston listeners ”one of the most cultivated and best understanding musical publics I Know…Henschel had adopted the formulas of ”lightening heavier programmes;” Gericke had not. But Gericke supported the notion of a summer season modeled after the garden concerts of Germany and Austria. As it happened, the initial summer ”Promenade” season materialized in 1885, near the beginning of Gericke”s tenure… For the Promenade concerts the Music hall”s downstairs seats were removed and replaced with tables and shrubs. Light alcoholic beverages were served (a breach of public morals requiring a special annual permit). On opening night Boston”s highest social circles turned out in force and there were not enough tables and waiters to meet the demand.” (Horowitz, pp. 50-52)
Hale, in reviewing Nikisch”s first BSO concert reminded his readers what Gericke had achieved. “In applauding Mr. Nikisch, the patient and abiding work of Mr. Gericke should not be forgotten. He gave the orchestra technique. He taught it precision, he called attention to detail. Without the noble rage of the born conductor, he gave a cold and finished reading of whatever work was on his desk. He seemed to abhor contrasts; he shrank from great effects; he appeared at times to entertain contempt for brass instruments. Gorgeous and daring coloring was not so dear to him as a pale monochrome. So the orchestra became under his leadership an admirable machine, which one looked at and admired. Not without reason, then, did an irreverent New Yorker dub it, ”The Boston Music Box.”” (Swan, p. 88) Gericke replaced many players. “The axe had fallen, twenty players were dropped, and as many new ones, mostly young men from Central Europe or France, were brought over to take their places. These included a new concertmaster, Franz Kneisel. Kneisel was conspicuously young, like many of the newcomers, very much younger than Bernard Listermann, whom he replaced. The orchestra was being swept of the cobwebs of antique custom and provincialism… Civic pride was aroused, comparisons began to be made. Gericke”s name was mentioned with that of Theodore Thomas, the only other symphonic conductor America had known of strictly the first standing.” (Burk, p. 175) “The continued growth of the Boston Symphony Orchestra in the seasons following was consistent with Gericke”s beginnings. A certain amount of niggling opposition continued, and continued to be overborne by a widening respect for a tireless conductor. As his fifth season was drawing to a close, Gericke decided he would need a rest of ”at least a year.” Perhaps his fatique was as much mental as physical… Higginison said in a farewell speech at the Tavern Club: ”Mr. Gericke made our orchestra.” (Burk, p. 176)
Gericke returned to the BSO in 1898, nine years after his departure. The situation was “far different from the one he had faced in 1884. There was no longer now a provincial orchestra and audience, but an orchestra at least as expert as the one he had left, and a public seasoned by acquaintance with two not inconsiderable conductors. They had experienced the Hungarian ardors of the romanticist Nikisch and the vigorous onslaughts of Paur. Paur had been insistently up-to-date in his programs. By now Brahms was loudly applauded… He had brought a handful of new (and choice) players with him, including the oboist from the Lamoureux Orchestra in Paris-Georges Longy. (Burk, pp. 179 and 180) It fell to Gericke to conduct the opening concert on October 15, 1900 at the new Symphony Hall on Huntington Avenue. “In the end, what the Boston Symphony”s new home most resembled was its old home. In size and feel, if not in proportionate dimensions, it was the Music Hall, not the Gewandhaus, that proved Higginson”s inescapable model. Like the Boston Music hall, Symphony hall was a simple rectangle whose shallow balconies had no bad seats. Like Music hall, it secured a special bonding of music, auditors, and venue, a feeling of cultural community sealed by its town-0meeting plainness… Henry Higginson had built a house as bold and obdurate, severe and warm as the gentleman himself.” (Horowitz, p. 75) The main piece at this concert was Beethoven”s Missa Solemnis. Lang and the Cecilia Society using members of the BSO had presented the first Boston performance of this work only three years before, on March 12, 1897. (Johnson, First, p. 55) It was Gericke”s BSO that Richard Strauss called the “most marvelous in the world.” (Horowitz, p. 75) In 1906 “Gericke announced he would not come back the following fall.” (Ibid)
Germania Orchestra. In 1848 a group of young musicians in New York who had recently emigrated from Europe organized themselves into an orchestra, but they made Boston their headquarters and chose Carl Lenschow as their first conductor. “They were young men, friends, who had been drawn together in a little social orchestra in Berlin. This was in 1848, the year of social revolution. By much playing together they had grown expert in the interpretation, or at least the expressive outlining, of the master compositions; they were at home in Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Spohr, Schubert, Mendelssohn, Schumann, Gade, and even Liszt, Berlioz, and Wagner.” (Dwight, History of Boston, p. 429) “They made their first appearance in Boston April 14, 1849, where they gave twenty-two concerts in the Melodeon in six weeks. The effect was magical. The Midsummer Night”s Dream Overture had to be repeated thirty-nine times, such was the exquiste precision, delicacy, and poetic beauty of the reading. Yet they only numbered twenty-three musicians; they had but pairs of violins, violas, basses, as of reeds and flutes, and but a single violincello… In three winter seasons they performed here nearly all the great orchestral compositions. In one season they gave more than twenty concerts, besides filling the Music Hall, mostly with young ladies, by their public afternoon rehearsals.” (Dwight, History of Boston, p. 430) “When in 1850 their conductor, Carl Lenschow, chose to remain in Baltimore to head the Gesangverein, Carl Bergmann, then a cellist with the orchestra took his place… Under Bergmann [then in his late twenties], the Germania Society acquired a more dynamic approach to interpretation, as well as a braver repertoire. Bergmann championed Wagner and Liszt. He also programmed quantities of beethoven and mendelssohn. Eventually the germanians gave over nine hundred concerts in the United States.” (Horowitz, Wagner, p. 39) “In 1850 the orchestra consisted of twenty-three musicians, with Carl Bergmann at its head. Among the band was a tall young flute-player, named Carl Zerrahn, who subsequently was made director. This orchestra may be called the first organization which gave satisfactory performances of the great symphonies in America. The orchestra soon grew to fifty members and even the greatest works, Beethoven”s Ninth Symphony for example, were interpreted. The Germania dissolved in 1854; in five seasons it had given nearly ninety concerts in Boston and had made a succession of tours to New York and to other cities, giving Americans the first true model of orchestral work in the classical forms.” (Elson, National, p. 289 and 290). But “in 1853 the Germania”s Boston premier of Beethoven”s Ninth drew over three thousand listeners. Overflowing audiences, with others turned away, were excited reported in Dwight”s Journal.” (Horowitz, p. 31)
“In the eighty or ninety concerts which they gave here [Boston], the little orchestra was sometimes doubled by the addition of the best resident musicians. In the United States the Germania gave over seven hundred orchestral concrts, besides about one hundred concerts of chamber music, sonatas, trios, quartets, etc.” (Dwight, History of Boston, p. 430) “Most of its members would remain in the Boston area and generate other important musical endeavors. For a few tantalizing years [1848-1854], these Germans had given Bostonians a sample of what it was like to have a truly competent resident group of players entertain them with the finest in musical literature.” (Tara, PSALM, pp. 96 and 97) Their first flute player, Carl Zerrahn “immediately after the dissolution of the Germania in 1855, established the Philharmonic Orchestra with fifty-four men. He and the orchestra would continue to give regular concerts until 1863, when the Civil War forced a stoppage.” (Ryan, p. 97) “In New York, Carl Bergmann, an incipient Wagnerite, was made conductor of the Philharmonic.” (Horowitz, p. 31)
Globe, Boston. See Newspapers.
Seating diagram from BOSTON MANUAL of 1888 showing the 1874 building. Johnston Collection.
Globe Theater. Site of B. J.”s chamber music concerts in 1872. Opened in 1867 as Selwyn”s Theatre, its “entrance at 364 Washington Street, a lobby ran 93 feet back to a 68-foot-wide auditorium rear. To the left was the parquet floor, with its circle slightly raised, and six boxes in the rear. Above were stacked two balconies called dress and family circle, while six boxes fronted the proscenium. Walls were blue-paneled on an amber background. Parquet seats were covered in crimson satin, while upper seats were done in Bismark damask. Some 50 feet above was a dome beautifully frescoed with panels of amber, blue and scrollwork of the Muses, and in its center blazed a gas burning Frink”s reflector chandelier, producing light and ventilation. The heat from these huge gas chandeliers was vented by a shaft to the roof, pulling fresh air into the auditorium from various outside vents, doors and windows. Selwyn”s proscenium arch was 36 feet square, its stage 65 feet deep and 63 feet wide. The new theatre boasted 118 sunken footlights, having three color reflectors of white, red, and green; 196 border lights hung above the stage. All of the gas lamps were controlled from the prompter”s desk. Architect B. F. Dwight provided an iron roof, brick division walls, and ample ingress and egress; a second entrance from Essex Street to parquet rear was 12 feet wide by 60 feet long” (King, p, 56) In 1870 this theatre was sold to Arthur Cheney who changed its name to the Globe Theatre. (Ibid, p. 59) On May 30, 1873 this building was destroyed by fire, but “plans were immediately drawn for a larger and finer replacement.” (Ibid, p. 60) “The new Globe Theatre opened on December 4, 1874… The new Globe was larger than its predecessor: its parquet was 74 feet long by 72 1/2 feet wide, and height to the dome was 65 feet. The house used an innovation in seating arrangements: a row of boxes separated the first balcony from the second, and a family circle was above the latter. Capacity was 825 in the parquet, 475 in the balcony, 650 in the second balcony and family for a total seating of 2,180.” (King, p. 63)
Gluth, Victor. Teacher and composer; (b. Pilsen, May 6, 1852). Teacher at the Kgl. Akademie der Tonkunst in Munich. Has composed the operas Der Trentajager (Munich, 1885; rewritten, Munich, 1911), Hornad und Hilde (prod. Munich); Et Resurrexit (not yet produced). Address: Schackstrasse 6, Munich, Germany. (Entry from Saerchinger, p. 227) Gluth would have been in his early thirties when Margaret studied with him.
Mathews, A HUNDRED YEARS OF MUSIC IN AMERICA, p. 639.
Baker, BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF MUSICIANS, p. 226.
Page from a Musical Biographical Dictionary. Johnston Collection.
Gottschalk, Louis Moreau. “He died worn out by excessive exertion.” Amy Fay wrote: “I was dreadfully sorry to hear of poor Gottschalk”s death. He had a golden touch, and equal to any in the world, I think. But what a romantic way to die!-to fall senseless at his instrument, while he was playing La Morte. It was very strange. If anything more is in the papers about him you must send it to me, for the infatuation that I and 99,999 other American girls once felt for him, still lingers in my breast!” (Fay, p. 42) b. New Orleans, La., May 8, 1829; d. Rio de Janeiro, December 18, 1869. “The eldest of seven children. His father, Edward Gottschalk, was a wealthy and cultured English broker born in London, but not of Jewish ancestry, as has been generally stated. He emigrated to America at the age of 25 and settled in New Orleans where he married Aimee Marie de Brusle, a Creole of rare charm and beauty… Her family., of noble French lineage, had migrated from the island of Santo Domingo, where her grandfather had been governor of the northern province.” (Dic. Am. Bio. pp. 441 and 442) He studied in Paris 1841-46, and after his brilliant debut in Paris in 1845, he played concerts throughout Europe. “His triumphs were repeated in the U. S. beginning in New Orleans, he traversed the length and breadth of the land, playing his own pf.-works, and conducting his orchestral works at grand festivals.” (Baker, p. 226) “On 2 April 1845, shortly before his 16th. birthday, he gave a highly successful recital in the Salle Pleyel at which Chopin predicted that the young man would become ”the king of pianists”… Gottschalk made his formal debut as a professional pianist in the Salle Pleyel on 17 April 1849, in a recital including a group of his ”Creole” compositions, then the rage of Paris… During the summer of 1850 he toured Switzerland and the French provinces with spectacular success… Later in 1851 he decided to try his luck in Spain where he quickly won the enthusiastic approval of Isabella II.” (New Am. Grove, p. 262) “On his return to Paris in 1852 [he] created a genuine furore by his unexampled performances on the piano, both his own compositions and those of the great masters. On his leaving for New York early in 1853, Berlioz wrote of him, Feb. 4 of that year: ”Gottschalk is one of the very small number who possess all the different elements of a consummate pianist-all the faculties which surround him with an irresistible prestige, and give him a sovereign power. His is an accomplished musicians – he knows just how far fancy may be indulged in expression. He knows the limits beyond which any liberties taken with the rhythm produce only confusion and discord, and upon these limits he never encroaches. There is an exquisite grace in his manner of phrasing sweet melodies and throwing off light touches from the higher keys. The boldness and brilliancy and originality of his play at once dazzle and astonish… thus the success of M. Gottschalk before an audience of musical cultivation is immense.”” (Mathews, pp. 637 and 638) “He gave his first American concert at Niblo”s on February 11, 1853, and met with a flattering reception. In October of that year he gave a concert in the Music Hall, Boston, but was coldly received, and met with unfair treatment from the critics, who at that time could see nothing of merit that was not of German origin.” (Mathews, p. 638) “Although he was unfavorably received in Boston, his playing was so popular in New York that in the winter of 1855-56 he gave eighty concerts there (Dic. Am. Bio., p. 442). From 1853 until 1856 he toured America with a “long interlude in Cuba (1854),” but on February 7, 1857 he sailed to Havana with the young Adelina Patti. For the next five years he traveled all over the Caribbean area and South America returning to America in February of 1862. “In four and a half months Gottschalk traveled 15,000 miles by rail and gave 85 recitals, a brutal pace which he maintained for more than three years. By the time he arrived in California for a far-western tour in April 1865, he estimated that he had given some 1,100 American recitals and traveled some 95,000 miles.” (New Am. Grove, p. 262) In September 1865 an affair with a young student forced him to flee to South America-he never returned to America.
“As a pianist, he was one of the greatest of his period; he was decidedly the best American performer. He had a brilliant technique and an appealing quality of tone, tinged with deep melancholy. Undoubtedly his fascinating performance of his own compositions, which he always featured, contributed greatly to their popularity. Though he was a notable interpreter of Beethoven, he seldom performed this master”s works, choosing to please rather than to educate an unsophisticated public. He was endowed with a most lovable personality. He was modest and generous almost to extravagance, and possessed an ingratiating presence. Like his father, he was a proficient linguist, speaking five languages fluently. Though English was his mother tongue, he thought and wrote in French and nearly all of his compositions bore French titles” (Dic. Am. Bio., p. 442).
Winslow, facing p. 34.
Hale, Edward Everett. Born Apr. 3, 1822 and died June 10, 1909. He “was born in Boston, the fourth of his parents” eight children, and died, at eighty-seven, in the house, in the Roxbury district of Boston, in which he had lived for forty years.” (Dic Am Biog., p. 99) “He was no prodigy, but was warmly sandwiched between six brothers and sisters; having the middle place, he was protected from those external influences which may affect the oldest or the youngest, protected, yet set in keen competition with a bright family, and having to keep his end up or go under.” (Winslow, p. 84) His father bought the Boston Daily Advertiser in 1814 and was the editor for nearly fifty years. E. E. entered Harvard at the age of thirteen and graduated aged seventeen in 1839, second in his class. “It was always taken for granted that he would enter the Unitarian ministry,” (Ibid) but first he taught at Boston Latin School while studying theology “under private guidance.” In “April 1846 [he] was ordained minister of the Church of the Unity in Worcester, Mass. Ten years later he became minister of the South Congregational Church in Boston?his only other parish for the forty-three ensuing years through which he was to continue his active ministry,” (Ibid) In a June 1857 issue of the Boston Transcript this church was described as “the centre of Boston bourgeois society.” (Chamberlin, p. 119) Hale”s “literary work has been stupendous, reaching to fifty volumes, and ten times fifty volumes in uncollected articles, studies, and sermons. He has caught the popular fancy, as few purely literary men have done, with ”My Double, and How He Undid Me” and ”The Man Without a Country.”” (Winslow. Pp. 37 and 38)
Hale, Irene (Baumgras). “American composer; born at Syracuse, New York. Studied piano at the Cincinnati Conservatory of Music, taking the Springer gold medal in 1881. Later studied in Berlin under Moskowski and Oscar Raif. Was married in Berlin, in 1884, to Philip Hale, the distinguished Boston musical critic. Her health was undermined and she was obliged to give up her wok. After her marriage she became a resident of Boston, and has produced a number of songs and piano works, the latter under the pseudonym of Victor Rene.” Green, p. 343)
Hale, Philip. Born in Norwich, Vermont in Mar. 5, 1854 to a family that had first arrived in Massachusetts in 1638 (“eighth in line of descent from Thomas Hale,” Horowitz, p. 63), he was organist at the Unitarian church in Northampton, Mass. at fourteen, studied at Phillips Exeter Academy, “where he also had a private tutor,” (Ibid, p. 63) and then graduated from Yale in 1876. After graduation studied organ with Dudley Buck; then studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1880; practiced for two years in Albany; then spent five years in Dresden and Berlin studying music followed by a time in Paris with Guilmant; returned to Albany in 1887 for two years where he began writing music criticism; fall of 1889 went as director of music to the First Unitarian Church of Roxbury, MA (where he stayed for 17 years)[Church of the First Religious Society, Roxbury (Universalist)] and while there did criticism to supplement his income. (NAT BIO., p. 462) Grant adds that his piano study was with Xavier Scharwenka, and that his study with Rheinberger and Guilmant was in the area of composition (Grant, p. 74). “Hale early acquired a formidable breadth of learning, lightly worn. The breezy aplomb of his worldly prose set him apart from other Boston writers.” (Horowitz, p. 63)
“In the summer of 1884, while studying in Berlin, he was married to Irene Baumgras of Washington, D. C.” (DIC. AM. BIOG., p. 369)
“A man of the world, good-natured and affable, full of wisdom, love of life and social graces was Philip Hale, music and dramatic editor of the Boston Herald from 1903 until his death, November 30, 1934… Hale, who looked like a noble old Roman in his latter years, was born in Norwich, Vt. He could have become a professor at his alma mater, Yale, but all he asked of life was to let him remain a newspaperman. Symphony lovers will always remember him as a music critic in the flesh, with a flowing bow tie of red or black, sitting in his accustomed seat in the third row, right, second balcony, Symphony Hall… The busy Mr. Hale found time to edit his own humorous Herald column, “As The World Wags,” and to write editorials on any subject, with delightful obscurities raked out of his fertile mind as illustrations. In the course of his comic sallies, Philip Hale invented a foil for himself called Herkimer Johnson, the Clamport philosopher. To many, Herkimer, with his preposterous dissertations, seemed as real as Philip Hale. And the latter was as close to genius as any man in the history of Boston journalism… He died at 80.” (Herald article on the BSO, December 15, 1940)
His fellow critic Huneker “bestowed the ultimate accolade ”an artist in prose.” (Grant, p. 74) Lawrence Gilman, music critic of the New York Herald Tribune wrote of Hale: “He never hesitated to lighten musical instruction with diversion and with wit,” while Grant wrote that “A dry understated humor was a steady weapon in Hale”s armamentarium,” and that “his acidic tendencies were feared by musicians.” (Grant, p. 78)
Hale was organist of the Albany, N. Y, Unitarian Church in 1889. He gave a recital on January 28, 1889 that included Fugue in G Minor by Guilmant which had been dedicated to Hale. (Hale Crits., Vol. 1)
“Philip Hale is another eminent eastern critic. From 1889 to 1891 he was musical critic of the Boston Home Journal. In 1890 he accepted a position as critic for the Boston Post, and in 1891 went to the Boston Journal in the same capacity (he remained with the Journal for 12 years and resigned in May 1903 to take a position on the staff of the Boston Herald, to which he contributed, besides musical criticism and editorials, a special column on ”Men and Things.” Since 1908 he has had charge of both music and drama for the Herald.”(NAT. BIO., p. 462) Grant stated that, “Settling in Boston, Hale started writing music reviews for the Boston Post in 1890 and the next year moved to the Boston Journal, where he quickly became a colorful presence, writing not only music criticism but also a daily column called ”Talk of the Town,” that covered a broad human canvas. When in 1903 he moved over to the rival Herald, he wrote a similar column titled ”As the World Wags,” which retailed the exploits of such fictitious characters as Herkimer Johnson… and Halliday Witherspoon, a pseudonymous travel correspondent. He also for a few years in the 1890s wrote for the Musical Courier, edited the Boston Musical Record, and was music and drama critic for thirty years for the Herald (1903-1933).” (Grant, pp. 74 and 75) “Since 1897 he has been editor of the Boston Musical Record and was for some years correspondent of the Musical Courier. He has lectured throughout the country on musical subjects. Mr. Hale is known as one of the most brilliant and forceful writers in the interest of music connected with the American press. His articles are fair and judicious and also tinged with unique humor.” (Hubbard-p. 305) Saerchinger (p. 252) adds dates for the Boston Musical Record of 1897-1901 and editorship of The Musical World of 1901-1903, and mentions that Hale began writing the program notes for the Boston Symphony Program Books in 1901.
The NAT. BIO. entry states “Mr. Hale is one of a small group of brilliant writers identified with musical criticism in America who command respect quite as much for the literary quality of their work as for their special knowledge upon which their observation and verdicts are based. He is conspicuous among critics by reason of his pronounced individuality and he extended range of his information. His influence on musical art bids fair to be as permanent as that of any of his contemporaries in criticism, because the force and pungent flavor of his utterance fix them in the memory, and because, beneath the wit that illuminates his dicta, and beneath the occasional outbursts of contempt for mediocrity and humbug, there is manifest devotion to the high ideals that should, and often does, stimulate those who write temporarily under his lashing to stern endeavor toward improvement.” (Nat. Bio., p.463) Johnson wrote: “After 1889 Philip Hale was on hand to touch with surest wit and perceptiveness every musical and theatrical event. Trained in Germany, he also studied with Guilmant in Paris and lived there during an exciting period of artistic Impressionism. Hale”s writing was accurate, learned, brilliant in expression and lively in satire and humor.” (Johnson, HALLELUJAH, p. 160) Leichtentritt noted Hale among the early writers of the “Historical and Descriptive” notes in the BSO programs. “During the season of 1890-91 and a part of 1891-92 [these notes] were written by G. H. Wilson. On December 18, 1891, his name vanished and that of Philip Hale, destined to become the most famous of the Boston commentators appeared for the first time. From January 1892 to the end of the season, however, no author is given at all. Is Hale hidden behind the anonymity? In the two seasons of 1892-94 William F. Apthorp wrote the notes.” (Leichtentritt, p. 367) These seasons included Margaret”s April 1893 premier of Opus 12, Dramatic Overture. Apthorp was still doing the notes in 1896 as he wrote them for Margaret”s Opus 24 Armida premiered in January of that year.
From 1892 until 1903 he was the music critic of the Boston Home Journal – he also wrote a daily column entitled “The Talk of the Town.”[or “Taverner” Swan, p. 87] In May of 1903 he joined the editorial staff of the The Boston Herald began a daily column “As the World Wags.” The Langs were mentioned in both of these columns. (DIC. AM. BIOG., pp. 269 and 270) “When he moved to The Boston Herald in 1903, he was a securely established critical power in the city; however, the thirty years at the Herald were truly the years of ”Philip the Great” (or ”the Terrible,” depending upon one”s point of view). In those decades Boston could boast of two critics, Hale and Parker, with international reputations at least equal to those of the powerful New York critics of the day (Krehbiel, Finck, Henderson, Aldrich).” (Swan, p. 87) In 1878 The Boston Herald was described as “the most successful of the local papers. Its first number appeared in 1846 as an evening daily, neutral in politics. It was a small paper, issued at one cent a copy, containing four pages of five columns each. The edition was 2,000 copies.” (King, p. 145) The paper grew to morning and evening editions, and increased in copies produced so that a special edition giving the election returns in 1876 sold 223,256 copies. In 1878 the paper was located at 255 Washington Street. “It is said that The Herald presses can print more papers in any given time than the presses of all other Boston dailies combined.” (King, p. 146)
Hale was certainly a man of his own convictions. “He had no fear of the Olympian gods of music who had been placed by great critics upon heights of Parnassus. He could be derisive when he spoke of Wagner and Brahms, and in a lesser scale he could pour his scorn upon Sir Edward Elgar and others. Among his idols was Debussy.” (DIC AM. BIOG., p. 370) In the June 1, 1899 issue of the Boston Musical Record he wrote: “We heard lately in Boston the Ninth Symphony of Beethoven. The performance was technically most admirable. But is not the worship paid this Symphony mere fetishism?. Is not the famous Scherzo insufferably long-winded? The Finale is to me for the most part dull and ugly. I admit the grandeur of the passage ”und der Cherub steht vor Gott,” and the effect of ”Seid unschlungen Millionen!” But oh, the pages of stupid and hopelessly vular music. The unspeakable cheapness of the chief tune, ”Freude, Freude”! Do you believe way down in the bottom of your heart that if this music had been written by Mr. John L. Tarbox, now living in Sandown, N. H., any conductor here or in Europe could be persuaded to put it in rehearsal?” (Grant, p. 78) “A dry understated humor was a steady weapon in Hale”s armamentarium… His acidic tendencies were feared by musicians…Hale? who, persisted in waering a loose black tie on all occasions into the Roaring Twenties, looked by that time like a creature from a yester era… Hale also was far less moralistic and puritanical than his predecessor Apthorp… He was modest enough to reverse earlier negative opinions upon later hearings, as with his opinion of much Strauss… He never learned to like Brahms and is apocryphally credited with punning, when Symphony Hall was opened in Boston, that the fire exits should be marked ”Exit in case of Brahms.” (Ibid. pp. 78 and 79) He once summed up his total life”s work by saying: “Mere collections of passing opinions, citicisms that prove stale in a day-whether they be signed by Reichardt in 1792, Hanslick in the Eighties or Krehbiel in 1908 – those are tolerable neither to gods nor men.” (Ibid, p. 80)
Lawrece Gilman of the New York Herald Tribune wrote that Hale “never hestitated to lighten musical instruction with diversion and with wit. He knew much besides music; and he was able to peptonize for the reader his vast and curious erudition. He could tell you about the maceration of oriental women, and what action is described by the word ”tutupomponeyer,” and who invented the first chess-playing automaton, and how locomotives engines are classified, and what Pliny said concerning the bird called penelope… [Hale”s] amazing annotations, traversing all history and the ceaseless tragi-comedy of life, assure us that a programme note may sometimes, if an artist has contrived it, be more rewarding than the music that occasioned it. Philip Hale transformed the writing of programme notes from an arid and depressing form of musical pedagogy into an exhilarating variety of literary art.” (Grant, p. 75)
However he had his very particlular views. He “denounced the influence of Dvorak the ”negrophile.” In 1910-fully six years after Dvorak”s death-Hale was still contesting the New York view that the composer had struck an American chord. ”The negro,” he wrote, was ”not inherently musical.” His ”folk-songs” were founded on ”sentimental ballads sung by the white women of the plantation, or on camp-meeting tunes.” It would be ”absurd,” Hale concluded, ”to characterize a school of music based on such a foundation as an ”American school.”” (Horowitz)
The obit notice in Time Magazine of December 10, 1934 said: “For thirty years his shrewd scholarly criticisms made him Boston”s oracle on music and the theatre. He wore bright Windsor ties, carried a big umbrella and a green felt hat. Last week”s Symphony audience stood to show its respect for wise Philip Hale.” “He was a man of distinguished though unconventional appearance. He wore a loose black silk tie and, even in an era when the facial adornment was fast disappearing, he continued to wear a large mustache.” (DIC. AM. BIOG., P. 370) Grant”s description was: “Hale?who, persisting in wearing a loose black silk tie on all occasions into the Roaring Twenties, looked by that time like a creature from a yester era.” (Grant, pp. 78 and 79) “Hale was tall and elegantly trim; his sartorial signature was a loose black silk tie; for the opera, he always wore white tie and tails. His courtly manner was also caustic. Nothing more inflamed his pen than the influence of German music, language, and mores.” (Horowitz, p. 64)
The scholarly view of the 1980s is reflected in the following: “Hale is best known for his program notes for the Boston SO; written between 1901 and 1934, these are scholarly, witty, and ample, and became the model for American program annotators. His insistence on evaluating each work as it appeared to him, and the quotability of his negative opinions (he once said of Beethoven”s Fifth Piano Concerto that ”the finale, with the endless repetitions of a Kangaroo theme, leads one to long for the end”) have caused him to be represented as a crabbed reactionary, cringing at Brahms. In reality he was a fair-minded and forward-looking critic, one of the first American champions of Debussy and an often shrewd evaluator of later music.” (Shirley, p. 307)
Around 1900 it was written that “Hale is known as one of the most forceful and brilliant writers for the American musical press; his articles in the Looker-on, Musical Review, Music Herald, etc., are valuable contributions to musical literature, as well as being interesting for the humor they contain.” (Green, p. 343)
Comments from Eaton: “”Philip the Great,” occasionally ”Philip the Terrible,” and more intimately, ”Phil.”” Hale and Parker were opposites in many ways. Hale with private prep school, Yale, music study in Germany and Paris, professional work as an organist and choir director verses Parker with early schooling in England, Harvard, but “he was virtually a musical illiterate, unable, for example, to tell the difference between a major and minor chord and certainly lacking the ability to read notes.” Both died in 1934. Hale had retired the year before and moved, with his wife, into the “staid Hotel Vendome… This hostelry had been dubbed by the more irreverent set as ”God”s Waiting Room,” because so many of Boston”s more or less affluent elders choose it as an antechamber to Heaven.” Their writing styles were also different: “Hale used one word to his colleague”s five, yet matched him in consumed space for his more varied output.” Olin Downes, forever his disciple and later the main critic of the New York Times wrote: “If only one work could be saved from the English literature on music, we would vote for the preservation of the thirty-odd volumes of program notes which Mr. Hale has compiled.” In addition to his musical and dramatic writings, he also was “the anonymous author of a column called ”As the World Wags,” [in which] he let his fancy roam over the world… Bostonians waited eagerly for the adventures of Herkimer Johnson, an alter ego Hale created to comment on men and affairs… His humor, clean and bright, seldom curdled to satire, but he could demolish a fledgling pianist, who should never been allowed at the starting point, with four words: ”She consumed valuable time.”” Hale was offered the higher paying position at the New York Times, but he refused “believing that Boston air nourished the individualist as New York”s tended to submerge him.” Hale had a particular style of dress: “Hale”s personal badge, a flowing bow tie of either red or black, in later years occasionally enlivened by polka dots (some said depending on his charitable or uncharitable mood).” For attending the opera he wore “white tie and tails, a slim, tall figure, reminding his young assistant of a grand duke.” While H. T. Parker sat in the first row of the first balcony at Symphony Hall, usually alone, “Hale, usually accompanied by his wife, occasionally by a crony, reigned serenely a few rows behind.” All critics have their prejudices, but “Hale”s Germanophobia extended beyond Wagner even to Bach, whose music he described as ”counterpoint by the yard-you can begin anywhere and end anywhere; a sausage factory.” He was, of course, known for suggesting a sign in Symphony Hall to read: ”Exit in Case of Brahms.” Later in life he mellowed somewhat and must be credited with warm and perceptive reviews of Richard Strauss” Salome and Electra at a time when other pens dripped horror and vitriol.” Hale”s writing style was described as being an “open progression of thought and brevity of sentence. Hale”s mind clearly worked through his lean, pointed prose. ”Terse, idiomatic sentences were characteristic of the clarity of his thinking and the quick and penetrating processes of his mind,” Downes wrote after his death.” To sum it up: “Equally lofty on a pinnacle of scholarship, genuine humanity, and sheer musical competence, the proud Hale, twice honored by academia with honorary degrees, selected for a scholarship award of Sigma Delta Chi, professional journalistic fraternity, dubbed by Carl Engle, the musicologist and editor of Musical Quarterly, the ”Eaglet of Seventy” in 1924, flew banners brilliantly in to the third decade of the century.” (pp. 102-111)
Paderewski had met Hale many times, and he described Hale as “a highly educated man of great culture and he knew many things besides music. But his criticisms were sometimes – I would not say adverse, but so sardonic, in their suggestion as to be unmistakable. There was always some little personal remark. He was witty, and wit is a very dangerous weapon in a critic, and in any one practically, because witty people cannot refrain from making witty remarks, and witty remarks are not always amusing when they are a little bit ironical. There was something in me though, which always shocked him-I cannot find another word for it?and that was my hair! He apparently could never get used to it. I must confess it was always a question in my mind whether Hale was envious of my hair, or simply disturbed by the sight of it. At any rate he always had to overcome to a certain extent his feeling and his annoyance, though it often trickled through into some rather caustic remarks in his notices, which was natural enough, feeling as he did.” (Paderewski, pp. 200 and 201)
Henry Dunham, organ instructor of the New England Conservatory wrote: “we looked upon Hale as a pupil of Wolf [sic]. They were seen almost always together at the concerts and his style and even opinion seemed more or less influenced by the older man. After a few years, Wolf disappeared from the scene and Philip Hale continued on to become the famous critic he is today, and I am sure none the less so from his intimacy with B. E. Wolf.” (Dunham, p. 229)
Handel and Haydn Society. It would seem that the early 1870s were a difficult period for the group. “The Handel and Haydn Society of Boston is about played out. Its white headed members are beginning to grow famous by their squeaky, husky voices-and they ought to know it. They wouldn”t think of retiring in the background, or of admitting young voices and fresh talent into their exclusive ranks. They have grown old-fogyish in their notions, and can”t give a respectable concert without outside assistance. Their day is past; and our hopes now centre in the rising Apollo Club, from which the public is led to expect many wonderful successes.” (Folio, February 1872)
Elson, HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC, p. 51.
Henschel, Georg. Born February 18, 1850 in Breslau of Polish descent – “He was the only son of his mother, though there were three other children by his father”s first marriage.” (Henschel, H., p. 9) He died September 10, 1934 in Aviemore, Scotland at his holiday-home “Alltnacriche.” At the age of twelve he played the piano solo in Weber”s Concertstuck “at a new music school which his professor had just started in Berlin.” (Ibid, p. 10). In 1867, aged seventeen, he went to study at the Conservatory in Leipzig where his favorite piano teacher was Ignace Moscheles. He studied voice with Goetze whom he felt gave him “the solid foundations of a vocal structure of great simplicity, inteneded for duration rather than show.” (Ibid, p. 11) Henschel”s daughter remarked that “this instinct was fully justified, as anyone will realize who heard my father broadcast on his eighty-fourth birthday or who is familiar with the records he made just before he was eighty.” (Ibid) At about this time he met Liszt who invited him to his Weimar home. At one of Liszt”s Sunday mornings “at-home” Henschel was part of a group that included Anton Rubinstein, Carl Tausig, Hans von Bulow and Liszt. At this occasion Wagner”s Valkyrie was played from the recently published score?Henschel was then just eighteen, and it made a great impression on him. In 1870 Henschel transferred to Berlin to study at the High School of Music headed by Joseph Joachim, and Professor Schulze was his vocal teacher. “During his stay in Berlin he met Madame Schumann, the Joachims, and most of the other great musicians living there.” (Ibid, p. 13) In 1874 Henschel first met Brahms. Henschel”s first appearance in England was at “a Monday ”Pop” in St. James” Hall on February 19th., 1879, the day after his twenty-ninth birthday.” (Ibid, p. 14) First conductor of the BSO, “Henschel made a strong impression in Boston, not only as a singer and composer, but also, at a concert of the Harvard Musical Association, as a conductor. In a surprise appearance, he led the orchestra in his own Concert Overture, and even John S. Dwight was struck by ”the revelation (from the very first measures of the work) of that rara avis, a born conductor.” Higginson evidently was impressed too: that concert took place March 3, 1881; within the month he had conceived a new orchestra and engaged Henschel as its conductor.” The opera singer Clara Rogers recorded: “Georg Henschel, who had come to America in July, 1880, with his bride-elect, Lillian Bailey, offered both his and Lillian”s services as soloists for the last symphony concert of the [HMA] season, with the understanding that he should conduct an overture of his own composition. The orchestra, roused to unwonted effort by the magnetism of Henschel”s ardent and highstrung temperament, fairly outdid itself… They played with a vim and spirit as unusual and startling as the vivid tone colour displayed in their performance. Mr. Higginson was quick to recognize his man at once. No further search for a conductor was necessary.” (Rogers, Two Lives, p. 69) Henschel recorded in a letter : “I engaged the members of the orchestra, selecting them, at Mr. Higginson”s very wise suggestion, as nearly possible from those of the old Harvard Society and among other local players.” (Henschel, H. p. 31) The BSO “numbered at the outset sixty-seven musicians, and its first conductor was Mr. George Henschel, who prior to that time had been better known as a song-writer and pianist of exceptional ability. He remained as conductor until 1884. He was an ardent devotee of Beethoven. His concerts began with The Dedication of the House, and each season closed with the Ninth Symphony. All the nine symphonies were played during his administration, but his work was not confined to Beethoven, for the classical and modern composers had a fair representation on his programmes, and he gave considerable attention to American compositions. Notwithstanding his ability he did not succeed, however, and in 1884 Mr. Higginson brought Mr. Wilhelm Gericke from Vienna to take his place.” (Upton, “Musical Societies,” p. 80) “There was some criticism of the selection at first, partly because Henschel”s appointment was deemed a slight to local conductors and partly because his multiple talents aroused suspicion as to his competence in any one area, but he came to be regarded as a fine musician, if not a stern drillmaster… At Higginson”s suggestion, his first season included all the nine Beethoven symphonies played in chronological order; the Ninth was performed at the last concert of the season with a volunteer chorus of subscribers and others.” (Am Grove, p. 372) “The early days of the orchestra were not by any means peaceful. The Press, for some reason, were almost unanimous in trying to kill the new venture… Fortunately, they seem to have had no effect on public opinion.” (Henschel, H., p. 31) Henschel was “a young German singer-composer who came to the United States in 1880 to appear in concerts as soloist and in company with his fiancee, Lillian Bailey, a gifted soprano who had grown up in Boston. The couple had met in London, where Henschel was well launched on a career when Bailey arrived from studies in Paris.” (Sablosky, p.249) “While in Boston before their wedding, they performed several recitals and appeared as Mephistopheles and Gretchen in B. J. Lang”s performance of Berlioz”s La damnation de Faust (1880).” (Am. Grove, p. 372) After leaving the Boston Symphony Orchestra Henschel did return to Boston on various occasions. “Mr. and Mrs. Georg Henschel gave four vocal recitals in the Meionaon, Tremont Temple, March 21, 23, 28, 30. Only Mr. Henschel”s compositions were sung at the concert of the 30th., at which Miss Gertrude Edmands, Contralto, and Mr. G. J. Parker, tenor, assisted.” (MYB, 1888-89, p. 24)
He first appeared in England (1877) as singer; engagements during the following years included those with the Bach Choir (1878) and at London Philharmonic (1879), where he sang a duet with the American soprano Lillian June Bailey (1860-1901)(her London debut), who became his pupil and later his wife (1881). At Henschel”s “Second Vocal Recital” held at Tremont Temple on January 31, 1881, Lang and Miss Lillian Bailey were listed as assiting artists. Lang and Henschel played the Hommage a Handel by Moscheles for two pianos. Whether Henschel accompanied himself and Miss Bailey is not clear from the program. (BPL Lang Prog., Vol. 3) At the fourth concert in the 1881-82 “Season of Mr. and Mrs. Georg Henschel”s Vocal Recitals” held at the Meionaon on Monday January 9, 1882 Lang was an assisting artist along with three other performers-two singers and a pianist (Miss Lamson, probably a Lang pupil). Lang did two solos, and he and Lamson accompanied selections from Op. 52 and 65 Liebeslieder Waltzes by Brahms. (BPL Prog., Vol. 3) Lang had also taken part in the earlier three concerts in the series. For the first on December 6, 1881 he played two solos and was probably the accompanist. For the second on December 16, 1881 he played three short solos, and for the third on December 27, 1881 he played two Bach pieces as arranged by St. Saens. (BPL Prog., Vol. 4)
After three years as a conductor of the Boston Symphony (1881-84), Henschel made his home in England, where he succeeded Jenny Lind as professor of singing at Royal College of Music (1886-88); he established London Symphony concerts; appeared in Britain and on Continent as both conductor and singer. (Sablosky, pp. 297-98) “At his final concert [with the BSO] on March 22, 1884, Henschel gave the downbeat for Schumann”s Manfred Overture only to see the entire orchestra rise and begin playing Auld Lang Syne. At this, the audience stood and proceeded to sing along. he was too much moved to speak.” (Horowitz, p. 50)
Portrait by Lawrence Alma-Tadema, 1879. Wikipedia article, downloaded February 28, 2010.
“Henschel at the piano of Alma-Tadema, Townshend House”
Henschel returned to Boston as a singer and composer in 1892. “A friend of Brahms and Joachim, [he] was distinguished in many fields and highly honored in London, where he had finally settled. On April 14, 1892, the Boston Symphony Orchestra performed his Opus 50, Suite from the Music to Shakespeare”s Hamlet, under his direction. In the same concert his wife, a former pupil of his, sang arias by Handel and Massenet. In March and April 1892 they gave four vocal recitals, classed among the finest of the season. At another concert Henschel”s ballad for contralto and orchestra, here Was An Ancient King, was sung; and Arthur Foote included five vocal quartets by him in his concert of April 13, 1893, in which oboe pieces and a piano suite by Foote were performed.” (Leichtentritt, p. 380)
“He brought out many of the newer compositions and revised [revived?] forgotten works of excellence. From 1893-1895 [he] conducted the Scottish Orchestra in Glasgow and gave a command performance at Windsor Castle. His compositions include a suite in canon form for stringed orchestra, the 130th. Psalm for chorus and orchestra, a serenade for chorus and orchestra, and several part-songs.” (Green, p. 370) The Cecilia Society performed his “Missa pro defunctis, composed in memory of his wife, in which he and his daughter Helen took the leading vocal parts.” (Am Grove, p. 372) Ledbetter”s list of compositions includes “two operas, a number of sacred choral works, about 20 piano pieces, and many songs and duets. Besides his book of memoirs, he published Personal Recollections of J. Brahms (1907) and Articulation in Singing (1918).” (Am. Grove, p. 372) “To do justice to Henschel”s personal character would need many words. Suffice it to say that he was a man of great physical and mental vitality, of outstanding intellect, and of notable charm and kindness.” (Musical Times, Oct. 1934, p. 895)
Lillian and Georg Henschel. Boston Symphony Archive.
Henschel, Lillian June. “1860-1901. Lillian Bailey, a gifted soprano, was born in Ohio. Her first teachers were her uncle, C. Haydn, and Mme. Rudersdorff. When but sixteen years old she made her first pubic appearance in Boston, and met with much success. In 1878 she went to Paris and became a pupil of Mme. Viardot-Garcia. It was while singing at the Philharmonic in London that she met Georg Henschel. Later she became his pupil, and in 1881 they were married in Boston. Wherever Mrs. Henschel sang she met with success; her method was excellent and her voice possessed a charm which merited the applause given her. She appeared with her husband in song recitals in most of the largest cities in America, and delighted most critical audiences, as well as the pubic at large. She died in London in 1901.” (Green, p.370) Her “first public performance” referred to above may have been a concert that she presented at the Revere House on Friday evening, April 7, 1876 where B. J. Lang was among the seven assisting artists. In this concert she only sang three songs with the majority of the concert being provided by the guest instrumentalists and vocalists (HMA Program Collection) Arthur Foote referred to this concert: “In 1876 I assisted at two of Lang”s concerts in Boston… In these concerts a wonderful young girl, Lillian Bailey, afterwards Mrs. George Henschel, made her first appearance: a lovely voice and most beautiful singing-one of the finest artists I have known. She, her mother, brother, and uncle (Charles R. Hayden), lived at the top of Hotel Pelham (where the Little Building now stands), and I was a frequent visitor, making music there with her.” (Foote, Auto., p. 44) On February 10, 1877 she presented a concert at Union Hall which was “appreciated by a large and cultivated crowd. This gifted lady, yet in her teens, shows a remarkable improvement since her first semi-private appearance a year ago. Her fresh, sweet, penetrating voice has develped into larger volume and capacity of various expression… For she has intellectual talent likewise, and seems to be prompted by a genuine musical entusiasm… Miss Bailey”s teacher, Mr. C. R. Hayden, [her uncle] to whose judicious training the young maiden bore such testimony” also sang. Lang students Sumner and Foote were the accompanists. (Dwight, March 3, 1877, p. 399) Fifteen months before Mr. C. R. Hayden had been called “one of the best tenors of our concert rooms” when he took part in the 452nd. recital of NEC. (Dwight, December 11, 1875, p. 142) In December 1877 Miss Bailey was the soloist at the Second Harvard Musical Association Orchestra Concert singing both with orchestra and piano accompaniment. Dwight wrote: “Miss Lillian Bailey, with her delicate, sweet, fresh voice, her charming naturalness of manner, and her artistic, earnest feeling and expression, sang to great accetance. She has gained much in power and style within a year, and, being very young, she will gain more. But it is already a rare treat to listen to her.” (Dwight, December 8, 1877, p. 142) A month later she presented herself in a concert that “was very agreeable and lively. The audience, which filled Union Hall, was of as select and flattering a character as a young artist could be honored with.” Her uncle also sang and Mr. Dresel was the vocal accompanist. (Dwight, February 2, 1878, p. 175) Later that spring she appeared again at Union Hall at a “testimonial concert tendered to the favorite young Soprano by the Second Church Young People”s Fraternity.” It was a great success: “Union Hall was crowded: Miss Bailey sang her best.” Again her uncle was part of the performance, and Lang served as accompanist and piano soloist playing the Nocturne in C Minor and Etude in E Flat Major by Chopin and the “Introduction and Scherzo” from the G Minor Piano Concerto by Satint-Saens. (Dwight, May 11, 1878, p. 231) In October she sang the soprano solos in Messiah for the Handel and Haydn Socity. “Miss Bailey, who sang here for the first time since her studies in Paris, and her successful career in England, took the soprano solos; and, considering her youth, and the yet juvenile though much improved quality of her voice in firmness, evenness and fullness, acquitted herself most creditably… The young lady”s tones are pure and clear as a bird, her intonation faultless, and all the exacting arias were well studied and agreeably sustained with good style and expression.” (Dwight, October 23, 1880, p. 174) A month later it was noted that she was “affianced to George Henschel. (Dwight, November 20, 1880, p. 191) Two months later Bailey and Henschel were sharing recital programs where he “splendidly played all the accompaniments.” Lang and Henschel played the Moscheles Homage a Handel, a duet for two pianos to finish their January 31, 1881 concert at the Tremont Temple. (Dwight, February 26, 1881, p. 37) Twenty-five years later, on Saturday March 13, 1901 3PM at the Association Hall, Lang and Foote repeated the St. Saens”s Variations on a Theme of Beethoven for two pianos which they had performed at Lillian”s Boston debut (which this 1901 program said had happened on March 13, 1876 “at Mr. Lang”s concert”), but this time the concert”s featured artist was Lillian and Georg Henschel”s daughter, Helen Henschel. This 1901 concert was a family affair, for part of the program was a group of duets sung by mother and daughter, accompanied by father. (BPL Lang Prog, 6665) Helen, the Henschel”s daughter, recorded the remarks of Edith Hipkins who remembered that in 1879 Georg”s London debut been “like a great wind, with his glorius voice, his flashing eyes and his splendid vitality. He was invited everywhere at once, and appeared even to be everywhere at once… As for your mother, she was too charming for words. And how jealous we all were when your father got engaged to her. That this glorious creature should be going to marry a very young and unknown singer from America seemed unbearable! But quite understandable, too. How pretty she was. So gentle and amusing. And she sang like a little bird.” (Henschel, H. p. 14)
Herald, Boston. Started in 1846. Considered in 1889 as one of “two popular newspapers, of the modern ”hustling” order,” the other being the Globe… For several years the Herald had no rival as a two-cent people”s newspaper. Its circulation was as large as its enterprise, and it had its particular field all to itself. It is a Republican-Independent paper, or as a latterly coined word expresses it?”Mugwump”.” (Grieve, p. 104)
Higginson, Major Henry Lee. After Boston Latin School, Higginson attended Harvard, but poor eyesight ended his studies there after only a few months. The next few years were spent mainly in Europe, ending in Vienna aged twenty-three, where he began a two-year period of music study. He arose each day at 6:30AM and followed a regimen of nine music lessons and two lectures per week. At the end of this intensive period he determined that he “had no special talent for music,” and returned in 1861 to Boston. (Horowitz, pp. 70 and 71) he fought in the Civil War until he was wounded in June 1863. After marrying the daughter of the Harvard anthropologist, and then having suffered several failing business projects, he was taken into his father”s banking firm. Here he made his mark and was able to “amass a sufficient fortune to undertake his true lifework. The Boston Symphony, on which he expended nearly one million dollars in deficit relief alone, was the most generous of his many philanthropies.” (Ibid, p. 72) George Henschel wrote of Mrs. Higginson: “[She], a daughter of the great scienist, Louis Agazziz, was one of a small circle of ladies who held what in France they call a ”salon,” at whose afternoon teas the representatives-resident or transitory-of art and science, music and literature, used to meet and discuss the events and questions of the day. These highly cultured women, among whom I recall with delight dear old Mrs. Julia Ward Howe… Mrs. George D. Howe, with Mrs. Bell and her sister Mrs. Pratt, Mrs. John L.?familiarly Mrs. Jack-Gardner, were the leaders of what certainly was society in the highest and best meaning of the word.” (Quoted by Tara, Foote, p. 110) Higginson died in Boston on Friday, November 14, 1919 at the age of 84. (Methuen Memorial Music Hall website, 11/26/10, p. 5)
Hill, Francis G. “The sudden death of Mr. Francis G. Hill, which occurred a week ago at his residence in Newtonville, was a painful blow to very many musical and other friends of the deceased, who, by his sweet and kindly disposition, his rare modesty, his sincere interest in Art and fellow artists, and his zeal for their success, more almost than his own, had become attached to him. Mr. Hill was among the first of Boston young men who went to Germany to study music. He returned a really accomplished pianist, but his extreme modesty, ever inclined to underrate his own abilities, kept him from public performance. As a teacher he was faithful and successful, and as a friend all who have come within his quiet sphere have valued him.” (Dwight, June 1, 1872, p. 247) The short notice in the Folio mentioned that his death “on May 24th, resulting from an overdose of chloral, will not only carry sadness to the hearts of many who knew him, but ought to serve a severe lesson to those like addicted.” (Folio, July 1872) Chloral was first discovered in 1832 by Justus von Liebig, and “Its sedative properties were first published in 1869… It was widely used recreationally and misprescribed in the late 19th. century.” (Wikipedia “Chloral hydrate,” May 7, 2010) Mixed with alcohol it becomes a “Mickey Finn,”” and “it has been speculated that it contributed to” the death of Marilyn Monroe. (Ibid) James Bond was drugged by it, and in “Russia With Love” it was used to knock out Tatiana Romanava. (Ibid) The brief notice in Dexter Smith”s noted: “In the death of Mr. Francis G. Hill, the musical profession lost a zealous worker, and his many friends parted with one whose modest worth will be held dear as long as memory shall preserve to us the remembrance of his kindly heart and open hand.” (Dexter Smith”s, July 1872, p. 154) In the spring issues of the Boston Musical Times he had advertised himself as a “Teacher of the Piano-Forte” with an address of 21 LaGrange Place. (BMT, March 24, 1860) A short notice in the Boston Musical Times listed Hill”s teachers as Dreyschock and Ch. Mayer who is described as “a modest gentleman, and a teacher of experience and ability. During the past ten years [1853-63] Mr. Hill has numbered among his pupils a large number of the most accomplished amateurs who have obtained recognition in our city; and his style as well as his thoroughness in whatever pianism he undertakes, commend him to the consideration of all who doubt as to whom they had best employ teach their children. So much testimony we bear in common justice to Mr. Hill, without his solicitation or knowledge.” (BMT, April 4, 1863, p. 22)
Homer, Louise. Soloist with the HMA Orchestra in January 1880. (Dwight, January ??, 1880, p. 4)
Homer, Sidney. “Husband of our great opera singer” was an organ pupil of George Whitefield Chadwick in the mid 1880s. (6392)
Homer, Winslow. 1936-1910. In the Portland Maine Museum of Art is a pencil sketch of Lang made in 1895. It was given to the Museum in 1991 by William D. Hamill. The card under the drawing records: “Winslow Homer shared confidences with his sister-in-law Martha, known as Mattie. Married to Homer”s brother Charles, Mattie preserved their correspondence, thus providing a glimpse at the artists”s social life at Prouts Neck, Boston, and in New York. This rare portrait is of Mattie”s great friend Benjamin Johnson Lang and, when combined with Homer”s letter to Mattie, serves as a document of the tight-knit Homer family. Lang – a prominenet Boston symphony conductor, pianist, and organist – sat for Homer on April 19, 1895, in the musician”s studio on Newbury Street in Boston. Homer sent the sketch to Mattie the following day as a token of his affection, along with a detailed letter describing the fidgety sitter.” (Portland Museum, item 1991.19.3) The Portland Museum also has a short note dated November 29, 1884 from Homer to Mrs. Lang acknowleding her invitation to him and his father.
Hopekirk, Helen. (b. Edinburgh, May 20, 1856 and d. Cambridge, MA, November 19, 1945). When Helen returned to Scotland in 1919, she was given a “silver bowl-among the donors” names engraved on that bowl was M. R. Lang, so presumably Margaret Lang and Helen Hopekirk were good friends.” (Ammer, UNSUNG, CENTURY EDITION, p. 112)
Print from the lower first page of “Harper”s Weekly”, April 13, 1867. Johnston Collection.
Clark”s Boston Blue Book 1888, p. 320.
James Henry Stark, Stranger”s Guide to Boston, 1883. Wikipedia, August 8, 2013.
Horticultural Hall (c. 1871) “In 1865 Horticultural Hall moved again to the building at Tremont and Bromfield Streets the site of the first Boston Museum, opposite the Studio Building.” (King, p. 56-he has a photo from the 1870s provided by the BPL Print Department) “Stores were on the ground floor, and the auditorium was on the second floor. In 1882, the new Dime Museum took over the first floor.” (Ibid, p. 57) “A plan by G. J. F. Bryant and A. Gilman was adopted, the design being in accordance with that in the modern public buildings in France. The building, which is constructed of white Concord granite, fronts on Tremont Street, and covers the lot between Bramfield Street and Montgomery Place. The lower floor is devoted to stores, and the second story contains a hall 51 by 57 feet and 17 feet high, withy various apartments for the use of the Society. The third story contains a grand Exhibition Hall, 50 by 77 feet, and 26 feet high… The exterior of the building is ornamented by three large statues in white granite… The material used was white granite from Fitzwilliam, New Hampshire, and it presented great difficulties in the mechanical execution.” (Harper”s Weekly, p. 1)
Houston, Miss J. E. Soprano-Was one of the assisting artists in Lang”s “Sacred Concert” given at the Music Hall in February 1864 (the organ had just been opened the November before). Lang presented solo organ pieces, and other artists included the violinist, Mr. Eichberg and the organist, Mr. Willcox. In 1861 she had been an assisting artist with the Mendelssohn Quintette Club at a concert in Jamaica Plain where she was listed as a member “of the Old South choir,” and the evaluation was that she “sang two songs to great acceptance.” (Dwight, March 23, 1861, p. 415) Perhaps Lang introduced her to the Club.
Hughes, Rupert. 1872-1956. “Among the brightest of the younger writers on musical topics in America, yet not permanently attached to any of the great dailies, is Rupert Hughes. He is a Westerner, having been born in Lancaster, Missouri, January 31, 1872.” Educated in Iowa, he graduated from Western Reserve University, and began work in New York City. After his early work (c.1900) centered on American composers, he turned from “the compilation of popular volumes on music to fiction, an early example of which is Zal (1905), a study in the psychology of the concert pianist.” (Lueders, p. 145) A writer of fiction, verse, essays and criticism, he wrote a number of books on music. “Mr. Hughes is an indefatigable student of facts, yet one of the liveliest and wittiest of American authors.” (Elson, p. 327) Grant describes him as a “millionaire novelist and screenwriter who also wrote a biography of George Washington.” (Grant, pp. xx and xxi) Grant also cites him as “the only classical music critic to become millionaire and Hollywood celebrity.” (Grant, p. 208) He began “as a quiet journeyman classical music critic and appreciation book writer. He ended up the author of fifty books of fiction and nonfiction (one of which helped influence the creation of the observance of Mother”s Day); prolific screenwriter; silent movie director whose films are even today generating a cult among cinephiles; soldier under Pershing in the 1916 Mexican expedition to catch Pancho Villa; radio commentator; controversial George Washington biographer; publicly declared agnostic; and Hollywood chum of the stars. He was also the uncle of billionaire Howard Hughes, but Uncle Rupert earned his own fortune, thank you.” (Grant, p. 208) As a writer, “So far ahead of his time was he that he even included a chapter on ”Women Composers” in his 1900 book on composers; Hughes was a staunch advocate of women”s rights in those suffragist days.” (Grant, p. 209)
Ipsem, Mrs. L. S. Wife of the designer of the programs for the Apollo Club, she performed as a singer with Lang in various concerts in the mid-1870s. She would often include a group of Norwegian songs. (BPL Lang prog., Vol. 2)
Jaell, Alfred. Born Trieste-March 5, 1832 and died in Paris-February 27, 1882. “Began his career  at eleven years old as a prodigy, and seems to have acquired his great skill by constant performance in public.” In 1844 [aged 12] “he was taken to Moscheles, who called him a Wunderknabe.” (Lahee, p. 144) After his debut in Venice, he then appeared in Vienna in 1844, and in Brussels 1845-46. After the French Revolution in 1848, “he went to America for some years. In 1854 he returned to Europe. In 1862 he played at the Musical Union in London… from that time he played frequently in England… Her always showed himself anxious to bring forward new compositions; and played the concertos of Brahms and of Raff at the Philharmonic, at a time when they were unknown to that audience.” (Grove-Dictionary-1921, p. 524) Lahee notes “the revolution of 1848 appears to have been of direct benefit musically to the United States, for many excellent musicians sought these shores and made America their permanent home. Others merely remained until the difficulties had passed, and Jaell was one of those who found the United States a resort convenient and lucrative for a time. He is described by one who heard him in the sixties as a short, rotund man, with a countenance beaming with good humour, and, in spite of his unwieldiness, full of life and energy. A drawback to his playing was the constant staccato of short fat hands, which made legato, such as was common in the playing of Henselt, Thalberg, and Liszt, impossible to him. But his tone was round, full, yet sweet and penetrating – the very biggest, fullest pianoforte tone to be heard at the time. Jaell married in 1866 Mademoiselle Marie Trautman, also a distinguished pianist.” (Lahee, p. 144) Baker, BIO. DIC. p. 293 adds: Pupil for violin and piano of his father, Eduard J.; pianistic debut at Venice, 1843, after which time his almost continual concert-tours earned him the title of “le pianiste-voyageur.” From 1852-54 he traveled in America; after this he made Paris, Brussels, or Leipzig his temporary home… He was made court-pianist to the King of Hanover in 1856. His playing was remarkable rather for suave elegance and refinement than forceful energy… He wrote many extremely effective transcriptions from Wagner, Schumann, Mendelssohn, etc. (Baker BIO DIC. p. 293) The Chicago critic George P. Upton described Jaell as “a showy, brilliant player in the Thalberg manner, and a charming, likeable man, whose greatest delight, moved perhaps like von Bulow, by sense of rhythm, was to beat the bass drum when the Germania drummer had a night off.” (Upton, p. 83) While in Boston he was an assisting artist with the Mendelssohn Quintette Club. (Dowell, p. 39) Alfred Jaell, a virtuoso whose highest honor in life, perhaps, was the offer once made him to become director of the Leipzig Conservatory. (Boston Transcript, Apr. 5, 1909) Lang had probably heard Jaell who had been the soloist in the Boston premier of Mendelssohn”s Piano Concerto No. 2 in D Minor, Op. 40 with the Germania Musical Society at the Melodeon Theatre on February 19, 1852 conducted by Carl Bergmann. Early in 1853 Dwight wrote: “Alfred Jaell is now, we suppose, generally acknowledged the foremost pianist who has visited this country. Evident to any one, who once hears him play, in whatever music, is the brilliancy of his touch, the liquid purity and smoothness and consummate finish of his passages, the well-conceived, clear, elegant rendering of the whole piece, with just regard to light and shade and fair proportion, and full bringing out of every point, and above all, the happy certainty and ease with which he does it… He certainly possesses the genius of execution. It is not any possible method or amount of practice that could place another by his side, unless equally gifted… In the two winters he has spent in Boston, he has interpreted to us a pretty long list of compositions of the nobler masters… [Describing his performance of the Symphony Concerto by Littolf Dwight noted] It was Jaell”s crowning triumph in the way of execution; octave passages of incredible rapidity, lightening-like leaps from bass to treble, and all sorts of difficulties were achieved, with only a little more air of determined concentration, but with his usual success… Mr. Jaell”s audience, though the Music Hall had capacity for many more, was very large – at least fifteen hundred persons – which proved the high estimation in which he is held, seeing that he can be heard at every Wednesday afternoon rehearsal of the Germanians for an almost nominal price.” (Dwight, January 22, 1853, pp. 124 and 125) In June 1861 it was reported: “Alfred Jaell, the young pet, some years ago, of our whole public, young and old, the caressed of the young ladies, the feted of the young men, has taken a position in Europe which his early abilities promised. he has been giving concerts in Paris during the last winter, and the best journals of the city speak warmly of his powers… It seems that Jaell has all the versatility which characterized him in this country, when he would go from a Chopin concerto to his own concert polkas, and thence to a Beethoven sonata with equal power and beauty in all… We are pleased to record all this, for Alfred Jaell has always remained in our memory and affections as among the very noblest of the pianists who have visited this country.” (BMT, June 15, 1861, p. 133) Six months later the same newspaper reported: “Alfred Jaell is at Zurich. After making a professional tour through Switzerland, he will proceed to Northern Germany, and give concerts in Berlin, Hamburg, Dresden , Leipzig, etc. The papers don”t add that he will go to America next. The papers may be right in not doing so. We only wish they were not. What a treat it would be to hear the dapper little pianist once more.” (BMT, December 28, 1861, p. 243) Under “Musical Gossip” the Boston Musical Times reported that: “Mr. Aldred Jaell, formerly a distinguished teacher of the piano in this city, has recently given a brilliant concert in London, which, the World says, netted him a large amount of money. Mr. Jaell is as popular as he is able.” (BMT, October 1, 1864, p. 147) In 1866 Jaell was married was married to Mlle. Marie Trautmann. “A wedding like this has happy auspices. Not only is the prospective bridegroom a pianist of incontestable and universal ability, but the lady is a brilliant executant on the same instrument, such as the present day has rarely witnessed.” (BMT, September 8, 1866, p. 3) Unfortuneately Jaell died “quite suddenly in 1882, aged only 49, leaving Marie a 35-year old widow.” (Wikipedia, March 9, 2009)
Jenks, Francis H. Assistant to Apthorp at the Boston Transcript from 1881 whose function was to do “the regular and constructive work of the department, and indeed everything that Mr. Apthorp did not chose to take in hand.” (Chamberlin, p. 206)
Elson, HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC, p. 251.
Johns, Clayton. See another photo in “Lang”s Social Circuit.”
Elson, HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC, p. 290.
Pratt, AMERICAN MUSIC AND MUSICIANS, 1920, p. facing 258.
Mathews, p. 125.
Joseffy, Raphael. 1852[or 1853]-1915. “Born in 1852, at Muskolcz, Hungary. He first studied under Moscheles at Leipsic and then under Thalberg. Dilligent application combined with a great degree of natural talent ensured him rapid progress, and he soon began to astonish the people of Vienna with his wonderful playing… Two or three years ago (1879 or 1880) he came to this country, and has regularly appeared in the principal cities of the Union with great success. As a player he has a marvelous technique, noted not only for brilliancy but also for softness and elasticity.” (Jones, p. 80) More details were provided in 1981: “The son of a rabbi, Joseffy began his studies in Budapest with Brauer, who had been the teacher of Stephen Heller. When he was fourteen he entered the Leipzig Conservatory, where he had lessons with Reinecke and Moscheles, followed by two years of study with Tausig in Berlin. He was a pupil of Liszt in the summers of 1870 and 1871.” (Ibid, pp. 179 and 180) “His technique. while equal to every possible demand of modern pianoforte composers, is nevertheless remarkable chiefly for its delicacy and finish. For this reason it has been frequently denied of him, by critics, that he possesses anything of the fire of artistic genius; this, however, is entirely unjust. Many of his interpretations are masterly, and notwithstanding the delicacy of his playing, at times he calls out the entire force of the Steinway pianos, upon which he invariably plays… In person Mr. Joseffy is short, inclining to stoutness. His manners are singularly quiet, but he is witty and, upon occasion, very sarcastic,” (Mathews, p. 126) The Chicago critic George P. Upton described Joseffy as “a most graceful, polished player, who was a great favorite for many years.” (Upton, p. 83) Lang conducted the orchestra for three performances of a concert featuring Joseffy, “The Piano Virtuoso” at Horticultural Hall on Thursday evening October 30, Friday Evening October 31 and Saturday Matinee November 1, 1879. Dwight wrote: “On the first evening Joseffy was accompanied in two pieces by a very small but select orchestra, under the able direction of Mr. B. J. Lang.” (Dwight, November 8, 1879, p. 182) There were two orchestral selections-an opening overture, Prometheus by Beethoven and the “Allegro” from the Italian Symphony by Mendelssohn. Joseffy played three solos and was the soloist in Chopin”s Concerto in E Minor and the concert ended with Liszt”s Hungarian Fantasie. “The two purely orchestral selections were nicely suited to the occasion, and were played with spirit and refinement, as was also the long and pregnant introduction to the Chopin Concerto. A very few bars sufficed to convince the audience of the marvelous touch of the pianist, as well as of a perfect technique… Indeed, we dare not say that we have ever heard in any artists (Rubinstein, Von Bulow, Essipoff, included) a more near approach to absolute perfection in every element of technique and execution… That concert was a fresh sensation and surprise, even to old concert-goers. The result of it was the general feeling that here is a man who unites all the qualities of a complete pianist, with no weakness, no flaw anywhere.” (Ibid) Tickets, from A. P. Schmidt 146 Tremont Street were $1 with reserved seats for an additional 50 cents. (BPL Lang Prog., 6562) Lang assisted Joseffy in St. Saens Variations on a Theme by Beethoven on Saturday afternoon, May 22, 1880 at 2:30PM at the Music Hall. The rest of the concert was solo material. This was advertised as Joseffy”s “Farewell Paino Concert (Positively his last appearance in Boston), and tickets were $1 with reserved seats 25 cents extra, available from the Music Hall. (BPL Lang Prog., 6572) However in 1882 he did three concerts in Boston (the second with orchestra conducted by Zerrahn) which were also advertised as “his last appearance in Boston.” (BPL Music Hall Prog., Vol. 3) Joseffy was born in Hungary, July 3, 1853; sent as a child to be a pupil of Moscheles and then “to the greater Tausig;” debut in Vienna followed by concert tours around the world; came to America in 1879; “for over five years [1879-1884] he disappeared from the concert platform, studying most zealously during that time; then a new Joseffy came back, – an earnest and powerful musician who strove for the best in art, not for immediate success. He has given his best work to America. As a teacher (in the National Conservatory of New York)[1888-1904], Joseffy has done much for piano playing with us.” (Elson, Hist. Am. Mus, p. 289) “Of all Liszt”s pupils, Sauer and Joseffy were the most refined, and also the most concerned with presenting Chopin”s style without unnecessay subjectivism.” (Methuen-Campbell, p. 52) “I incline to the view that of all Liszt”s pupils, the Chopin of Sauer, Joseffy and Rosenthal was probably the most convincing and natural. The three of them played a vast cross-section of Chopin”s works and they appear to have grasped something of the essence of Liszt”s genius as a pianist?this genius was the ability to re-create a piece anew at each performance.” (Ibid, p. 58) Although Joseffy did make occasional appearances, he was an exceptionally shy man, who cared very little for the applause of an audience. Once his playing had reached maturity, it was beyond criticism. Albert Parsons, an American who had studied with Tausig at the same time, contrasted Joseffy”s playing with that of their teacher as being ”like the multi-coloured mist that encircles a mighty mountain; but beautiful.” James Huneker, who was his assistant for ten years… believed that Joseffy”s playing had greater intellect and greater brilliance than that of Anton Ruinstein.” (Ibid, p. 180)
Journal, Boston. Started in 1833. “Since 1860 it has been published from 264 Washington Street… In many respects an excellently edited paper… Its features are all arranged in departments… and it corresponds to its constituency, which is largely made up of systematic merchants and families of the old school… It still  adheres to the old four page ”blanket sheet” form, with a supplement when an overflow of matter calls for it…It publishes morning and evening editions.” (Grieve, pp. 103 and 104) “It has attained a firm foothold among thrifty middle-class Republicans; its special strongholds being in Maine, New Hampshire, and the country towns of Massachusetts… It aims to secure full, prompt, and reliable intelligence from all quarters of the world. The local news columns are full and fresh, there being a large and active staff of reporters. No attempt is made at fine writing; and the paper has a practical, business-like tone, which is suited to the tastes of its constituency. The Journal is a large folio sheet, and sells for 3 cents a copy.” (King, p. 148)
Elson, “Musical Boston,” Supplement to “Music and Drama,” June 3, 1882. HMA Collection
Kreissmann, August. 1823-1879. “Born in 1823 at Frankenhausen, Germany. He studied singing at Dresden, Vienna, and Milan, and about 1849 came to the United States, settling in Boston… His singing was expressive and intelligent, and his voice, a tenor, full, sweet and sympathetic. On account of failing health, he returned to Germany in 1876, and died at Gera, March 12, 1879. He was of a kindly nature, and highly esteemed by all who knew him.” (Jones, p. 83) Director of the “Orpheus Musical Society” c. 1864-1870s. (BPL Music Hall Prog., Vol. 4) “There was also a German society, the Orpheus (male chorus), which, at the time when Kreissmann was the conductor, enjoyed quite a good reputation.” (Ritter, p. 393) On June 13, 1879 the Orpheus Society held a memorial service at their club rooms in memory of their first conductor. One of the members, F. H. Underwood gave a detailed address of over four columns when it was printed by Dwight. Underwood noted that Kreissmann became friendly with Boston”s leading musical families: “The Chickerings, in particular, were his ardent supporters; and the Dwights, Schlesingers, Dressels, Uphams, Apthorps, Lorings, and many more, were constant and devoted to him… Boston was his heart”s home…He was largely occupied with church music… For a considerable period, he led the choir at the Rev. Edward E. Hale”s church. This situation he resigned on account of ill health. Subsequently he sang at St. Mark”s, and later at Brookline.” He specialized in conducting male voice choirs. In 1854, all the eligible members [of previous groups] were brought together under the name of Orpheus… The Orpheus was the first among societies of the kind in America. Now every city boasts its club, all modeled after their prototype. Kreissmann was leader and the first tenor.” Underwood mentioned that the success of later groups such as the Apollo Club was due in part to the pioneering work done by Kreissmann. (Dwight, August 2, 1879, pp. 123 and 124)
Kneisel Quartet. During their 1886-86 Season at Chickering Hall Lang played the first Boston performance of the Brahms Horn Trio Opus 40. (BPL Lang prog., Vol. 5) Then on Monday December 17, 1888 he played the Rubinstein Trio Opus 52 for piano, Violin and Cello. (BPL Lang prog., Vol. 5) Helen Henschel described the members of the group: “Kneisel himself, leader of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, was a sensitive and charming person; Otto Roth, the second violin, a crazy and lovable buffoon… Otto Roth was always known to his friends as Utter Rot… Then there was Svecenski, gentle, enigmatic, very Slavonic in temperament, playing the viola like an angel; and Alwin Schroder the cellist, I think one of the finest cellists I ever heard in a quartet. He was also rather a quiet person, but crammed with humour which manifested itself in a delightful sort of deprecatory manner, and was quite irresistible… I have always envied Mr. Montgomery Sears of Boston, who in his beautiful music room, on Commonwealth Avenue, used to have the Kneisels to play to him and a dozen or so friends every Tuesday evening after dinner.” (Henschel, H., p. 67)
Lang, Benjamin. Father of B. J. Lang. Hannah B. Lang (maiden name, Learock).
July 20, 1860 census entry: age 43; born MA; resident of Ward 5, Salem; wife Hannah B. Lang, age 42; his profession-pianoforte Dealer; one daughter at home, Harriet, born in MA, age 18; one servant, Ann McKinnon, age 23, born Nova Scotia.
June 23, 1870 Census entry: age 54; Traveling Agent; born MA; wife Hannah, age 52, born MA; living in Ward 10 of Boston; five lodgers-N. W. Osborne, no occupation, age 29 and Kate Harding, no occupation, age 53 and Herbert Harding (Kate”s son ?), no occupation, age 18 and Herbert Wesson, bookkeeper, age 23 and James Wesson, bookkeeper, age 25-all lodgers were born in MA; two domestic servants, both from Ireland-May Hurley, age 25 and Hellen Griscole, age 24. Benjamin Lang”s real estate was worth $10,500 and his personal worth was $800.
Hannah B. Lang died on September 25, 1874 from cancer, aged 57 years, 7 months at her home, 93 Waltham Street, Boston. Her birthplace was listed as Salem as were the birthplaces of her father, John Learock and her mother, Hannah. (Death Certificate)
June 10, 1880 Census entry: age 64, widower; residence at 93 Waltham St., Boston; both of parents were born in MA; mentions that he is sick with kidney trouble; occupation, Music Teacher; six boarders-Samuel Gray, married, age 52, born N. H., Ticket Agent and his wife Sarah E. Gray, age 44, born N. H. and Charles Bacon, single, age 24, born in N. Y.,Dealer in Glassware and Julia Bacon, widow (mother of Charles ?), age 55, born in MA, at home and Eliza W. Sweet, widow, age 42, born MA, at home and Clara E. Wardell, single, age 36, born MA, at home; two servants, both single-Mary Deady, age 28, born Ireland and Jane Freer, abe 26, born Prince Edward Island.
The 1885 Boston Directory lists Benjamin Lang as having a home at 93 Waltham Street, but boarding at 112 Boylston Street which was the home of Mrs. Johnson C. Burrage. (1885 Boston Directory, p. 643)
Benjamin”s Death Certificate lists the date of death as December 11, 1909, age 93, eight months after his son B. J. had died. The immediate cause of death was pneumonia, but he had been at Worcester State Hospital suffering from senile dementia for the previous twenty years. He was listed as a widower and the place of birth for his father, also a Benjamin Lang, was listed as Scotland-the place of birth of his mother was listed as unknown. His birthplace was listed as “?, ME.” (Death Certificate)
The Library of Congress has a copy of a Harvest Waltz by B. Lang published c. 1850 by Oliver Ditson. In the second section, in the relative minor, he uses the “Scottish Snap” which may be a reflection of his heritage.
Lang, Miss Alice. A vocalist who sang two operatic solos and a duet with Dr. Langmaid at a charity concert in aid of “Our Dumb Animals” held November 29, 1871 (see also Mr. Dixey) (HMA Program Collection).
Langmaid, Dr. Samuel Wood. Graduated Harvard 1859. Became member of the Harvard Musical Association in 1860 and was its President from 1902-1912. “Has during the past half-century given much of his time and much of his talent as a tenor singer in the interest of the organization. In the records of dinners, Dr. Langmaid and Arthur Foote, ”74, are frequently spoken of as having furnished delightful entertainment. Dr. Langmaid is president, also, of the Harvard Alumni Chorus.” (Darling, p. 31) “Born in Boston in 1837… Graduated from Harvard Medical School in 1864… His speciality was throat and nose troubles… He attained widespread fame as a throat specialist and many of the world”s most noted singers, and actors as well, were his patients… He was a singer of ability and sang tenor in the quartet of Trinity Church for over twenty-five years. He belonged to various musical organizations: the old-time Chickering Club, the old Parker Club, the Boylston Club, the Apollo, and the Cecilia.” (HMA Bulletin No. 11) At the annual dinner held at the Parker House on January 22, 1877 Langmaid sang Hidalgo “with splendid voice and spirit” accompanied by Lang. He was then asked for an Italian song, but he demurred and the President then said “Since we can”t have the Langmaid, let us have (what we were sure to insist on sooner or later) the Lang without the maid. Great laughter. Lang retired ”to get his music” – but failed to come back!!” (HMA Bulletin No. 10) In the 1888 “Clark”s Boston Blue Book” their address is 129 Boyston St.
Leichtentritt, Hugo. B. Poland, Jan. 1, 1874, D. Cambridge, MA, Nov. 13, 1951. Sent to America at the age of 15 where he studied liberal arts at Harvard and music with John Knowles Paine graduating with a BA in 1894. He returned to Europe for further study: music during 1894-5 in Paris and 1895-8 in Berlin at the Hochschule fur Musik, and liberal arts at the Berlin University, 1898-1901 where he received a doctorate. After teaching in Berlin until 1933, he returned to Harvard as an instructor in music until he retired in 1940. His early years in Boston would have been 1889-1894, and he recounted them in an article “Music in Boston in the ”Nineties”” published in the December 1946 issue of “More Books” which was “The Bulletin of the Boston Public Library.”
Leonhard, Hugo. d. 1879. Arrived in Boston in 1856, had studied in Leipzig; “has done much here to inspire an interest in the works of Beethoven and the other great ones, but especially of Schumann; but, alas! as it was with Schumann, so it was finally with his enthusiastic follower; his reason was beclouded, and his too short career was closed in the autumn of 1879.” (Dwight, History of Boston, p. 442) He often performed with Lang. In the spring of 1860 he advertised as a teacher in the “Boston Musical Times” with an address of his residence at No. 14 Hudson Street. (BMT, March 24, 1860) Whereas Lang often received special mention in the Boston Musical Times when he appeared as an assisting artist, in a review in that paper of the soirees given by Messrs. Kreissmann, Leonhard, and Eichberg, the pianist”s contribution was that “Mr. Leonhard has rendered efficient assistance at the piano.” (BMT, January 2, 1864, p. 21) Leonhard “often contributed to” Dwight”s “Journal of Music.” (Elson, Hist. Am. M., p. 314) In 1882 Leonhard was described by Elson as someone “whose piano playing was not of the greatest virtuosity of today, but was poetic and thoroughly artistic. He introduced the modern school of piano playing to Boston, and first planted the seed which bore such abundant fruit; that was the triumvirate which first led Boston to its eminence in the modern school of music – Dresel, Kreissmann and Leonhard, of whom the first only is alive now.” (Elson, “Musical Boston, p. 2) Leonhard was not able to play at his “Last Piano Matinee” on Friday December 1, 1876 at 3:30PM because of his Doctor”s orders, and so five of his pianist friends stepped in. The concert opened and closed with Bach Concerti for Three Pianos: the first was the Concerto in D Minor played by Lang, Perabo and Parker with Dresel playing the orchestral reduction, and the second was the Concerto in C Major played by the same personnel. Lang and Foote played the St. Saens Variations on a Theme of Beethoven for two pianos in the middle of the program, and Miss Nita Gaetano offered two groups of songs. (BPL Lang Prog., Vol. 2)
Leschetitzky. Paderewski was his star pupil. “Since the success of Paderewski, which was phenomenal, Leschetitsky has, in a large measure, held the position which Liszt occupied in Europe, and his influence has enabled many pianists of more or less celebrity to obtain their real start in life, – but few of them have been as well prepared by life”s great lesson as Paderewski… No teacher has suffered more from misrepresentation. The ”Leschetitsky method” is talked and advertised by hundreds of his pupils who have become teachers, and each one has a different method. This can only be explained by the fact that Leschetitsky studies his pupils. He is quick to notice their deficiencies, and he applies to each some remedy for his special case. Each pupil then goes forth into the world calling that particular treatment the ”Leschetitsky method,” and applies it indiscriminately to all pupils. Leschetitsky”s method is that of common sense, and is based upon keen analytical faculties… His career as a concert pianist ended with the advent of Annette Essipoff, for whose advancement he used all his influence. That influence was exercised with equal readiness after their marriage was dissolved, and he had married Eugenie Donimierska.” (Lahee, p. 218-220)
Liebling, Mr. S. In 1877 he was listed as a teacher at the Boston Conservatory. (BPL Music Hall Prog., Vol. 1) On Friday evening March 2, 1879 at 8PM at the Union hall, Liebling and Lang performed the Boston premier of Raff”s Grand Fantasie for Two Pianos Opus 207. (BPL Lang Prog., Vol. 2) He often included some of his own piano compositions in his recitals. In 1880 a program listed him as “Herr” S. Liebling.
Elson, “Musical Boston,” Supplement to “Music and Drama,” June 3, 1882. HMA Collection.
Listemann, Bernhard. B. August 28, 1841 in Germany, and died in Chicago, February 11, 1917. Trained as a violin soloist in Germany with David (1856-57), Vieuxtemps (1861) and Joachim (1862), came to America with his brother in 1867 – spent two years in Boston – 1871-74 was concertmaster of the Theodore Thomas orchestra, and 1881-85 concertmaster of the newly formed BSO. “In 1875-79 he was leader of the Philharmonic Club of Boston, in 1879-81 of the Philharmonic Orchestra which succeeded it, and in 1881-85 of the Listemann String Quartet, of all of which he was founder and moving spirit. In 1885-93 he taught in Boston, but also kept up tours with the Listemann Concert Company. From 1893 he worked in Chicago… Before his retirement in 1911 he once lived more for two years in Boston.” (Grove, AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT, p. 272)
Liszt, Franz. During the summer of 1873 Amy Fay had lessons with Liszt which were probably much like the lessons that B. J. had 15 years before. She describes Liszt as “the most interesting and striking looking man imaginable. Tall and slight, with deep-set eyes, shaggy eyebrows, and long iron-gray hair, which he wears parted in the middle. His mouth turns up at the corners, which gives him a most crafty and Mephistophelean expression when he smiles, and his whole appearance and manner have a sort of Jesuitical elegance and ease. His hands are very narrow, with long and slender fingers that look as if they had twice as many joints as other people”s. They are so flexible and supple that it makes you nervous to look at them… But the most extraordinary thing about Liszt is his wonderful variety of expression and the play of feature. One moment his face will look dreamy, shadowy, tragic. The next he will be insinuating, amiable, ironical, sardonic; but always the same captivating grace of manner.” (Fay, pp. 205 and 206) In May 1873 she wrote: “He gives no paid lessons whatever, as he is much too grand for that, but if one has talent enough, or pleases him, he lets one come to him and play to him. I go to him every other day, but I don”t play more than twice a week, as I cannot prepare so much, but I listen to the others. Up to this point there have been only four in the class besides myself, and I am the only new one. From four to six P.M. is the time when he receives his scholars.” (Fay, pp. 210 and 211) Fay described her lessons: “Liszt generally walks about and smokes, and mutters (he can never be said to talk), and calls upon one or other of us to play. from time to time he will sit down and play himself where a passage does not suit him, and when he is in good spirits he makes little jests all the time. His playing was a complete revelation to me, and has given me an entirely new insight into music. You cannot conceive, without hearing him, how poetic he is, or the thousand nuances that he can throw into the simplest thing, and he is equally great on all sides… You can never ask him to play anything for you, no matter how much you”re dying to hear it. if he is in the mood he will play, if not, you must content yourself with a few remarks. You cannot even offer to play yourself. You lay your notes on the table, so he can see that you want to play, and sit down. He takes a turn up and down the room, looks at the music, and if a piece interests him, he will call upon you. We bring the same piece to him but once, and but once play it through.” (Fay, pp. 219 and 220)
Little, Lena. “A socially correct and also beautiful girl of about eighteen [c. 1880] – a fine contralto… Lena Little became the second of Mrs. Gardner”s close women friends.” (Tharp, MRS. JACK, p. 112). “Miss Little is one of Mrs. Jack”s favorites and through this lady”s friendship has become the accepted concert singer for that ultra swell coterie.” (Ibid, p. 195) She appeared as soloist with the Boston Symphony Orchestra on March 21, 1891 singing an aria by Gluck and songs by Brahms, Secchi and Hiller. (Musical Year Book, 1890-91, p. 11) She also appeared often with the Handel and Haydn Society: December 20, 1891 in Messiah; April 14, 1895. (History-1911)
Pratt, American Music and Musicians, p. 272.
Loeffler, Charles Martin (1861-1935). Born Alsace, American by adoption. One of Joachim”s favorite pupils. Came to America, aged 20; spend remaining 54 years here. From1881-1903 first desk player with BSO, then composer “and recluse on his Massachusetts farm.” (Friedberg, p. 25) He “came to Boston in 1882 not as a composer but as a professional immigrant musician to be the new assistant concertmaster of the Boston Symphony Orchestra… Loeffler played in the Boston Symphony for twenty-one years. From 1883 until his retirement in 1903, he was featured each season as a soloist and was continually praised for his technique, musicality, and modern repertoire (including the introduction of many French works. His public debut as a composer did not come until November 1891, when he played his own work, Les veillees de l”Ukraine, with the BSO under Nikisch.” (Fox, Rebellious Tradition, pp. 226 and 227)
Grove”s 1921, Vol. “M-P” facing p. 4.
MacDowell, Edward Alexander. Born in New York City December 18, 1861. “As a boy he studied the pianoforte with Juan Buitrago, a South American, and Pablo Desvernine, a Cuban, and for a brief span with Teresa Carreno, a native of Venezuela.” (Grove, 1921, p. 4) Beginning in 1876 he studied in Europe?he studied piano for three years at the Paris Conservatory, then with various teachers in Germany. He started his teaching career in Darmstadt followed by a time in Frankfort as a private teacher not attached to any music school. He gave up teaching settling in Wiesbaden for four years through 1877 where his chief work was composition. He then returned to America and “settled in Boston, taught and gave concerts, producing his two pianoforte concertos with the Boston Symphony Orchestra in Boston, and the Theodore Thomas Orchestra in New York… In 1896 he was called to Columbia University in New York to fill the chair of music, a new foundation… He remained professor at the institution until January 1904, when he resigned the post because of a disagreement with the faculty touching the proper footing of music and the fine arts in the curriculum… Mr. MacDowell”s career ended in the spring of 1905, when overwork and insomnia, the consequence of morbid worry over disagreeable experiences, brought on what eminent medical specialists pronounced to be a hopeless case of cerebral collapse.” (Grove, 1921, p 4 and 5) According to Chadwick “B. J. Lang found him [MacDowell] very ”difficile” although I was sure his efforts were meant in all kindness. With me, MacD was very frank & companionable for a time. He and Mrs. often came to our house and we had many long walks, rides and talks together. Of others he was suspicious and shy. It was difficult to get him to commit himself on any subject except publishers and royalties. From [?] these he was absolutely convinced that we were all getting a raw deal. He disliked some of our friends, especially Arthur Whiting who was a bit too witty for him. He had a subtle vein of irony of his own, but he was very careful of its use among strangers.” (6442) MacDowell had rented a small house on West Cedar Street “and at once became the fashion as a piano teacher.” (Ibid) Chadwick remembered that “we would not go out among people if he could help it and was very ill at ease when he did so. It was for this reason that he resented Lang”s good offices. He [Lang] tried to ”arrange” functions for him and MacD thought he wanted to pose as his discoverer. MacD really had B. J. to thank for his start for he produced his Suite (his first work) and his first Pf. Concerto at his concerto concerts and did a lot of talking. MacDowell must have cut into Lang”s piano teaching more or less for he was a very facile, brilliant player and an interesting figure on the stage. At his first appearance (at a Kneisel concert) he stumbled a little as he came on stage which at once evoked the sympathy of the audience. Playing with orchestra he was rather unsteady, lacking repose, and his fingers sometimes ran away with him. I think he had not played much with orchestra before he came to America. He always hated public performance and eventually confined his programs almost entirely to his own works.” (6443-44) Lang supported MacDowell by teaching his works to his pupils. At the April 3, 1888 “B. J. Lang Pianoforte Concerto-Concert” where Lang conducted an orchestra of 33, his pupil B. J. Whelpley played the solo part in MacDowell”s Piano Concerto No. 1 in A Minor, Op. 15. (MYB, 1887-88, p. 12) This would have been the first American performance of the complete work; Movements 2 and 3 had been played at a “Novelty Concert” in New York City on March 30, 1885, conducted by Frank Van der Stucken, Adele Margulies, pianist. MacDowell was the soloist a year later in a Boston Symphony Orchestra performance led by William Gericke on April 13, 1889.(Johnson, Firfst, pp. 225 and 226) Lang also contibuted to MacDowell”s support by hiring him as a soloist for the December 4 and 10, 1888 concerts of the Apollo Club at the Music Hall where MacDowell played Berceuse – Chopin, Rhapsody No. 14 – Liszt, and his own composition, Hexentanz. (MYB 1888-89, p. 13)
Mathews, p. 127. Also have print with certificate saying published by Theodore presser, 1900..
Mason and Hamlin building. 154 Tremont Street. Warren Devenport, vocal instructor had a studio there. (Ditson, Musical Record, September 1878). The Boston Conservatory of Music led by Julius Eichberg was also located there at this time. (Ibid)
Masonic Temple. Used by the Mendelssohn Quintette Club for their concerts in the early 1850s. It was located at the corner “of Tremont Street and Tremont Place,” it had three stories, and “consisted of school rooms, a Masonic Hall and a 900-seat chapel.” (Dowell, p. 33)
Mechanics” Hall. Part of the building of the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanics” Association. Site of B. J.”s chamber music concerts Spring 1874. “Around the 1860s and 1870s, the association”s building, known as Mechanics Hall, was located at Bedford Street and Chancey Street. A new building, Mechanics Hall, was constructed for the association in 1881, on Huntington Avenue, at West Newton Street, near Copley Square… Like its predecessor, the new Mechanics Building featured an auditorium, sometimes referred to as the Grand Hall. The building was demolished in 1959.” Wikepedia, February 27, 2010) Mechanics” Hall “was formerly much used for chamber concerts, but is now  principally devoted to the purposes of the association.” (King, p. 231) The hall must have had an organ: “The concert at Mechanic”s Hall, on Dec. 22nd, proved successful, and the entertainment was very enjoyable. Mr. Thayer presided at the organ.” (Folio, February 1872)
Meionaon, The. A small hall suitable for chamber music built at the lower level of the new Tremont Temple at 78 to 86 Tremont Street. Julius Eichberg, cellist and Hugo Leonhard, pianist presented a series of concerts here in 1859, a year after Eichberg had moved from New York to Boston. (Dowell, p. 22)
Melodeon Theater at 365 Washington Street, (Dowell says 361 Washington Street, formerly the Lion Theatre, p. 25) between West and Avery Streets (Elson, National, p. 279) Site of the 1862 Gottschalk concerts that included B. J. “Melodeon Hall, where Keith”s Theatre now  stands, next door to the Boston Theatre.” (Ryan, p. 50) This hall was “admirable for sound.” (Ryan, p. 51) The Harvard Musical Association leased a room here for it”s library in the 1840s. (HMA Bulletin No. 10) In 1860 it was owned by Hon. Charles Francis Adams who had leased it for a number of years to Mr. John P. Ordway “who is determined to maintain for it an unexceptionable name and character, by introducing only first class entertainments. The Melodeon is 40 feet in height, 66 feet wide, and 86 feet in length, admirably lighted in the day by four large and twelve small windows, and in the evening by one hundred and thirty-two gas-burners; the clearest atmosphere is preserved, even when the hall is crowed, by means of four of Emerson”s ventilators; and some ides of its acoustic properties may be gained when we state that even the slightest whisper may be distinctly heard in the remotest corners. the plan of seats is excellent, the aisles being sufficiently broad for two persons to walk abreast without inconvenience, while the seats themselves are wide, spacious, liberally stuffed and covered with enameled leather, the frame-work being of black walnut. The floor is carpeted with a thick matting. the size of the stage is 32 x 22, which, together with the dressing rooms, etc., is admirably fitted and furnished in every respect. (BMT, April 7, 1860, p. 58) Ryan gave the seating as 900, while Dwight claimed 1,200. (Dowell, p. 25) “In 1860 the Melodeon had a churchlike flat floor auditorium, and its balcony, which ran around three sides of the auditorium, was squared. At the back of its stage, which was more like a platform, was a large organ whose pipes surround it.” (King, p. 51) However, things change: “The Melodeon, one of the prettiest and best adapted concert-halls in Boston, is about to be converted into a billiard-saloon.” (BMT, September 8, 1866, p. 3) “The Melodeon had drifted along with sporadic minstrel shows and exhibitions until its closing in 1863 for repairs. From 1867 to 1878 it was the Melodeon Billiard Hall.” (King, p. 56)
Mathews, A HUNDRED YEARS OF MUSIC IN AMERICA, 1889, p. 295.
Ryan, facing p. 94.
Mendelssohn Quintet Club. Begun in the winter of 1849-1850, “The formation of this club for public performances was the result of a chance suggestion. The original members used to meet for private practice and enjoyment of chamber-music, when a lover of classical music pointed out to them the great benefit they might confer on many musical amateurs by giving public performances. Acting up to this suggestion they gave their first public concert at Boston in the piano-rooms of Jonas Chickering, Dec. 4, 1849, when the following program was presented:
Quintet, Op. 8 – Mendelssohn
Solo, Violin, “La melancolie” – Prume
Concertant for flute, violin, and cello – Kalliwoda
Concert for clarinet – Berr
Quintet, Op. 4 – Beethoven
The five original members of the club were:
August Fries, first violin
Francis Riha, second violin
Edward Lehman, viola and flute
Thomas Ryan, viola and clarinet
Wulf Fries, violoncello
During its long existence changes in the membership took place. Thus after the first year Riha retired, and was replaced by Carl Meisel; and, later, August Fries was replaced by William Schultze.” (Ritter, pp. 332 and 333) “No winter passed for many years without from six to ten concerts at Cochituate Hall, at the Masonic temple, at Chickering”s tasteful little hall, at the Meionaon, and other convenient places.” This period was from 1849 to 1858. “Admitting that it was mostly the exclusive priviledge of the few, an audience seldom exceeding two hundred persons, and sometimes not half that number, yet was not the good influence sure to make itself felt in ever widening circles?” (Dwight, History of Boston, pp. 431 and 432)
Melodean(Melodeon). located next to the “Boston Theatre,” on Washington St. between West and Avery Streets. (Elson, National Music, p. 279) “In 1860 the Melodeon had a churchlike flat floor auditorium, and its balcony, which ran around three sides of the auditorium, was squared. At the back of its stage, which was more like a platform, was a large organ whose pipes surround it.” (King, p. 51)
“Mercantile Library, Summer Street, Boston.”
From “Ballou”s Pictorial Drawing-Room Companion.” Collection of James W. Johnston.
Mendelsson Choral Society. Dwight recorded that this choir elected Mr. Thomas Ryan of the Quintette Club as the conductor “of their exercises this summer.” The work to be rehearsed was Beethoven”s Mass in C in Latin. “We trust that ere long they will give us a public hearing of the same with orchestra.” (Dwight, May 6, 1854, p. 39)
Mercantile Hall. Located at 32 Summer Street, Boston. (HMA Program Collection) The Mendelssohn Quintette Club concerts in the spring of 1859 were held here. (Dwight, March 5, 1859)
Monthly Musical Record (1878-1898) and Musical Record (1898+). Established by Oliver Ditson “in place of Dwight”s Journal of Music… A high class magazine” which was edited by Philip Hale October 1897 until December 1900. In 1901 it was combined with the Music Review, which had begun in 1898 as a bulletin to announce new Ditson publications – the new magazine was called the Musical Record & Review. (Ayars, p. 81)
The Mozart Club. Begun “along 1860, lived a short but by no means second rate life. The personnel was composed entirely of amateurs, the concerts were semi-private, no tickets were sold and attendance was by invitation. Carl Zerrahn was the conductor.” (HMA Bulletin No.15)
Winslow, facing p. 84.
Moulton, Louise Chandler. Boston poet?one of the few poets that Margaret set more than once. “For many years the centre of literary Boston has been located in the drawing-room in Mrs. Louise Chandler Moulton”s house in Rutland Square. Rutland Square is in Boston”s unfashionable South End, and is one of the quiet, shaded places, with the typical Boston swell-front houses, ivy-clad… She has remained steadfast in her loyalty to the home which she has occupied since the time when the South End was the fashionable quarter, before the Back Bay had been reclaimed from water and marsh… She still remains at No. 28 Rutland Square, a house that is world-famous. Thither all the best of the town, those who have achieved anything worth while in letters, in art, in science… turn their steps every Friday afternoon of the winter, for she keeps open house then. In London, where Mrs. Moulton spends every summer, she receives as she does at home… She is quite as fully appreciated over there as in her own Boston, and from a literary standpoint, even more highly rated?if that be possible?than she is in her native land… Her weekly receptions in Grosvenor Square call together all the great literary world of London… It is said of her that she has maintained on both sides of the water the nearest approach to the literary salon that is now in existence… At fourteen her first poem was accepted and printed… The name by which the public first knew her was not Louise Chandler Moulton, but Ellen Louise Chandler, although the name under which her poems and stories appeared was simply ”Ellen Louise.”” (Winslow, pp. 77-85)
Wikipedia-public domain: June 12, 2010.
View from the stage. James Henry Stark, Stranger”s Guide to Boston, 1883. Wikipedia, August 8, 2013.
Walker”s 1883 Map of Boston. Wikipedia, August 8. 2103.
Music Hall. Stood in Hamilton Place where Loew”s Orpheum Theater is now (1955)(Baker, p. 10) – see entry for Orpheum Theatre. “The Boston Music Hall was built in 1852, after a donation of $100,000 was made by the Harvard Musical Association towards its construction. Ten years later, the members of the Association raised an additional $60,000 to install in the hall an organ built in Germany by Walker. It was regarded as the largest organ in the United States, containing 5,474 pipes and 84 registers… The organ is now in the Methuen Memorial Music Hall, in Methuen, Massachusetts.” (“Boston Music Hall” entry in Wikipedia.org). This entry has a picture of the room that shows two balconies in the same configuration as Symphony Hall, Boston. Dwight printed a “Letter to the Editor” signed by “E” giving more of the history of the building. He mentioned that the idea was presented at the January 1851 annual supper of the Harvard Musical Association, and that a committee was formed that night that within four weeks presented a Report that included six possible locations-the Bumstead estate being selected. He continued with a description: “The Music Hall is to be 130 feet long, 78 wide and 65 high. The lower floor level, and 78 feet square… two balconies are carried along the sides of the Hall, projecting 8 feet 6 inches from the walls… It is estimated that nearly 3,000 persons can be comfortably accommodated in this Hall-none of whom will be so placed that they cannot both hear and see the orchestra, or easily leave the Hall by some adjacent door leading into the corridors.” (Dwight, April 10, 1852) Further details were printed in July, just before the opening of the Hall. Mention was made of “The corridors, which traverse the entire length of the two sides of the hall, on the three stories, giving forty-two doors of entrance to the hall.” (Dwight, July 17. 1852) In November Dwight detailed the earlier efforts at building a concert hall for Boston – “The first public action taken upon the subject was at a meeting of the Council of Advice of the Boston Musical Fund Society, held at their rooms, in the old Tremont Temple, on the 27th. Day of September, 1850.” Dr. J. B. Upham had requested the meeting, and a Committee of five was formed to consider the idea, but after “many meetings” where the group “had labored assiduously at their duties,” their final report was negative, and “the whole matter slumbered for a time.” A few months later, Dr. Upham then presented the idea to the Harvard Musical Association, whose committee presented a favorable report within a month”s time. And raised the amount of $100,000 within sixty days! “About one-fourth part of this sum was given by members of this Association. Foremost in these subscriptions will long be remembered the names of Perkins, Curtis, Chickering and Apthorp, whose munificent aid, at a critical period of the work, ensured its success… Perhaps a third part of the whole was subscribed in large sums by a few persons; for the rest, there is scarcely a professional musician or amateur in Boston, who could command a spare hundred dollars (the price of a share) who is not the owner of one or more shares in our new Music Hall.” (Dwight, November 13, 1852, pp. 45 and 46) A week later Dwight added that eight builders had been invited to bid on the project, but six refused when they were told that the project must be completed with in one hundred and fifty days. However, two bids were submitted, and the lower, by Mr. F. W. R. Emery was accepted, and “Mr. Emery has conducted the various works in his department with such excellent management, that they were finished in a highly satisfactory manner thirty days earlier than the appointed period.” (Dwight, November 20, 1852, p. 54) The next issue had details of the Grand Opening: “The opening drew an audience of near 2500, not quite filling all the seats. Many waited, more attracted by the promise of the second night. Having easily found our way, by ample corridor and stair-case, to our seats in the first end balcony, opposite the stage, our marvel at the general beauty of the scene was not greater than that at seeing how the well-dressed multitude around us and below us kept silently and mysteriously increasing at every point, through the forty doors of floor and balconies, like spring water softly rising in its basis.” Six columns of details about every aspect of decoration and then details about the music heard followed. The big choral numbers sung by a choir of 500 sounded wonderful, but the orchestral sections had less impact. However, when Alboni sang, “her large and luscious tones told upon every ear with roundness and distinctness; and certainly it cost her but the smallest effort, for she appeared more nonchalant, if possible, than is her wont… On the next (Sunday) morning, the Rev. Theodore Parker, whose voice is by no means a very strong one, was distinctly heard in every corner of the hall by an overflowing audience.” Dwight ended his report: “The audience seemed delighted with the feast, of ear, and eye and soul; and, lingering in parties here and there to take a last look of the magic scene, the crowds mysteriously melted away through all the forty doors aforesaid. Commonly three minutes would suffice to empty the main hall of any crowd it could contain. We understand that about $1,000 were realized, over, expenses, to go toward an organ fund.” (Dwight, November 27, 1852, pp 61-63)
Elson, THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC, 1904, p. 263.
Collection of James W. Johnston.
Henry M. Dunham, THE LIFE OF A MUSICIAN, p. 31.
The 1861 annual meeting of the stockholders of the Music Hall was held early in June. Receipts for the year were $10,106.98 with expenditures of $7,298.92, thus showing a profit of $2,808.06 “The old Board of Directors was re-elected as follows: J. Baxter Upham, E. D. Brigham, Eben Dale, George Derby, J. M. Fessenden, H. W. Pickering and J. P. Putnam. The President stated that the organ intended for the hall was completed, and that it would be ready to be shipped from Rotterdam next month. After discussion, it was voted to allow the Directors to bring it over at the present time or delay till next year, at their discretion.” (BMT, June 15, 1861, p. 135)
Musical Fund Concerts. Ran from November 1847 until April 1855. With the addition of “that refined and classical musician Mr. George J. Webb… the great symphonies” were added to the repertoire which had mainly been lighter compositions. The concerts “were commonly given in the old Tremont Temple, then the largest hall in Boston. Public rehearsals, too, were given at a low price of admission, placing such music within the reach of all who cared for it… These Fund Concerts must have contributed essentially to the creation of a taste among our people for the music of the masters. They were continued through eight seasons; the last of which we find mention was in April, 1855, and in the new Boston Music Hall.” (Dwight, History of Boston, pp. 428 and 429)
Musical Record, The. “A weekly paper of sixteen pages devoted to the interests of music in general. It is published at Boston by O. Ditson & Co., and edited by Dexter Smith. It has recently [c. 1883] been changed to a 36-page monthly, under the same management and editorship. Subscription price, $1.00 per annum. Established in 1878. Circulation, upwards of 5,000.” (Jones, p. 106)
Musical Herald. “A monthly magazine of forty pages devoted to the advancement of music in all its branches, especially church music. The first number appeared in January, 1880. It is edited by Dr. E. Tourjee, assisted by Louis C. Elson, Stephen A. Emery, W. F. Sherwin and G. E. Whiting. Published by the Musical Herald Co., Boston. Subscription price, $1 per year. Circulation about 10,000. It is one of the most ably conducted journals in this country.” (Jones, p. 105)
Musicians Club. “Members were some of the best known musical people of the city, including the critic William Foster Apthorp; Louis Elson… the composers Arthur Foote and John Knowles Paine; the conductor B. J. Lang; and Arthur P. Schmidt, the music publisher who brought to the world most of the best works by the Boston School.” (Yellin, p. 45)
National College of Music. According to Dwight”s article of October 5, 1872, this college was founded by Thomas Ryan and located within the Tremont Temple. It”s opening recital, September 24, 1872 included Lang, as a professor, playing Liszt”s transcription of Weber”s Polonaise in E minor, and Lang presenting three of his students, Messrs. Adams, Sumner, and Tucker in Bach”s Concerto for Three Pianos in C major, with an accompaniment of string quartet. Sumner had opened the recital with the Last Movement from Mendelssohn”s First Organ Sonata. This notice had appeared in Dwight”s June 15, 1872 issue: “MUSICAL EDUCATION. The Mendelssohn Quintette, with Mr. B. J. Lang, and other good musicians and teachers, will open in September, here in Boston, a new ”National College of Music.” During the coming weeks, while the city is full of musical visitors, the Directors will be present at their rooms in Tremont Temple, every day, from 11 to 1 o”clock, to answer questions. A notice in the September Folio also noted: “Another marked feature of this college will be the new vocal teacher, Mr. Cirillo, secured through the agency of Mr. Howard Ticknor, who writes of him pleasantly.” (Folio, September 1872) Ticknor”s remarks centered on how difficult it was to find good vocalists, even in Italy. Ticknor felt that “He is upon the whole the best vocal teacher I have ever met, and he is the man of men whom I would like to bestow on Boston… If he could work in Boston for one year, I”ll stake all my critical reputation that even the unskillful in such matters will recognize his rare merits.” (Ibid) He then mentioned his eight years of journalism “to support the development of good taste.” (Ibid) On April 15, 1873, the college gave “its first Exhibition Concert of the Pupils, closing the Spring term… The most remarkable performance of the afternoon was that of the difficult Schumann Concerto, by Miss Barton, a young pupil of Mr. Lang, whose rendering of the first movement was highly satisfactory… It was a most arduous undertaking for a young girl, and such a measure of success seems full of promise. There was al least the merit of adhering to true time in all the movements; one could trust her teacher for that, who sat at a second piano, helping out the quintet accompaniment.” (Dwight, May 3, 1873, p. 14) Apthorp, a teacher of the school described its organization: “The teachers in each department look to some one definite head for guidance in the management of their various classes. The head teacher in each department [Lang in piano] has been brought up in the same school of playing or singing as the other teachers under his direction, many of whom have for some years been his own pupils and coworkers [George W. Sumner, Hiram Tucker, William Apthorp, Mr. Dixie, and J. Q. Adams- (Ryan, p. 172)], so that a pupil may begin at the lowest grade in any department and successively pass on to higher and higher grades, without being forced to adopt a new system at each successive step.” (Musselman, p. 101) Unfortunately the great Boston Fire of 1872 happened just a month after the school had opened, and this forced many students to withdraw which in turn affected the financial condition of the institution which then closed at the end of its first year. (Ryan, pp. 172-173) The school did present an “Exhibition Concert of the Pupils” which represented the closing of the Spring Term on Tuesday afternoon, April 15, 1873 at Tremont Temple. The students were assited by their teachers and the Mendelssohn Quintette Club. A Summer Term was advertised to begin April 21, 1873 with a “Corps of Artist Teachers” including Harmony and Composition taught by W. F. Apthorp; the voice instructors were Sig. Vincenzo Cirillo (from the Royal College of Music, Naples), Mr. Charles R. Hayden, and the Director of the school, Mr. Thomas Ryan; the piano faculty were Lang and his pupils G. W. Sumner (who was also the organ instructor). H. G. Tucker. W. F. Apthorp, and R. C. Dixey together with the members of the Mendelssohn Quintette Club: Violin, William H. Schultze and Carl Hamm; Flute and Viola, Edward Heindl; Clarinette and Viola, Thomas Ryan; and Violoncello, Rudolph Hennig. Another page of the program gave further information about the faculty. “The vocal department is so crowded with pupils that the services of two teachers additional to Signor Cirillo have become a necessity… Mr. C. R. Hayden, tenor singer, recently a graduate from Leipsic [sic] Conservatory, and for two years afterwards a student under the best singing masters in Naples, has just commenced his labors in the college… The celebrates Tosti, known throughout Italy as a finishing teacher for the opera, in Rome and Naples, has been secured, and may be expected next term (HMA Program Collection).
Henry M. Dunham, THE LIFE OF A MUSICIAN, p. 41.
Elson, “Musical Boston,” Supplement to “Music and Drama,” June 3, 1882. HMA Collection.
From KING”S HANDBOOK OF BOSTON, 1878, p. 47.
The Conservatory took over this building in 1882.
“Franklin Square House, Hotel for Young Women.” Hugh C. Leighton Co., Portland, Me. Made in Germany.
It was first built in 1868 as the elegant Saint James Hotel “with four hundred rooms and a steam-powered elevator. Seven stories in height, with a domed center pavilion and flanking wings with corner quoining;” later it later became the New England Conservatory, and later still “was remodeled for the Franklin Square House, a non-profit women”s residence, after the Conservatory moved to Back Bay. Today,  the Franklin Square House is a senior citizens” apartment building.” (Sammarco, p. 55)
New England Conservatory. “On Monday, February 18, 1867, the New England Conservatory of Music opened its first classes in the Music Hall building, Boston. [Wiki article of 11/3/11 says the school “consisted of seven rooms rented above Music Hall off Tremont Street in downtown Boston]: Its directors were Messrs. Eben Tourjee, who had previously used the class system of instruction in music at the East Greenwich Musical Institute, and at the Musical Institute in Providence, R. I.; and Robert Goldbeck, a New York pianist and composer. In 1868 Mr. Goldbeck went to Chicago, and the directorship was assumed by Dr. Tourjee alone. The instructors were announced as follows: Pianoforte, Otto Dresel, B. J. Lang, Ernst Perabo, S. A. Emery, Robert Goldbeck; harmony and composition, Messrs. Goldbeck and Emery; instrumentation, Carl Zerrahn; vocal culture, Signor Dama, Messrs. Zerrahn and Tourjee; organ, S. P. Tuckerman, G. E. Whiting; violin, W. H. Schultze; violincello, Wulf Fries; contrabass, August Stein. Opening thus with a faculty composed of foremost musicians of the day, and offering advantages which the directors intended to be equal in rank with those of the renowned conservatories of Leipsic, Paris, Stuttgart, Prague, and others, the new institution at once secured a large enrollment of pupils. In 1870 it was duly incorporated under the laws of Massachusetts. In that year the first class was graduated… In 1882, the Conservatory having outgrown its quarters in Music Hall, the St. James Hotel in Franklin Square was purchased and converted to the uses of a music school. Dr. Tourjee died in 1891, and was succeeded in the directorship by Carl Faelten.” (Goodrich, p. 89) A year later, the February 1868 Catalog listed eleven piano instructors-two from the previous year had left and eight new instructors had joined the department. the February 1869 catalog listed all of the current pupils among whom were Jeanie Burrage and Ruth Burrage-their instructors were not listed. This same catalog listed the “Whole Number of Pupils for the year ending February 15, 1868″ as 1414,” while the “Whole Number of Pupils for the year ending February 10, 1869” was 1827. This gave a “Total attendance at the Conservatory in two years” of 3241. (NEC Catalogs, BPL) By 1877 Lang pupils William F. Apthorp, Arthur W. Foote, Hiram G. Tucker (and possible pupil Fred. H. Lewis) had joined as piano instructors in a department which now numbered twenty-one teachers. By 1901 nither Lang nor his pupils were connected with NEC. The tuition at that time was: $10 for a class of four, two lessons per week, per term of nine or ten weeks, elementary level; $20 for a class of three, intermediate level; $27 for a class of three, advanced level; other studies, Conducting Composition, harmony, Score Reading, etc. had extra charges of from to $25 per term. (Ibid)
1878 edition. Johnston Collection.
Piano information from booklet above.
Mathews, p. 159.
In a program from the Boston Music Hall of September 1869 the following was was advertised: “The Fall term of the New England Conservatory of Music (located in this building) begins Sept. 13th, 14th and 15th. Pupils received and classified on and after Aug. 30th. Tuition $10 or $15 per quarter of ten weeks, according to study and grade.” (HMA Program Collection-Sept. 11, 1869 Lang Organ recital) Henry Dunham described the Conservatory as occupying “the three upper floors of the western side of the Music Hall building. The entrance to the Music Hall and the Conservatory were side by side at the end of an alleyway extending for some little distance off Winter Street.” (Dunham, p. 49) Another source stated that the school “consisted of seven rooms rented above” the Music Hall…”In 1870 it moved to the former St. James Hotel in Franklin Square in the South End.” (Wiki. article, August 22, 2011) A one page ad in a program from the Music Hall of 1872 called the Conservatory “THE LARGEST MUSIC SCHOOL IN THE WORLD.” The ad went on to say that it was “Established upon identical principles with the celebrated Conservatories of Europe, and in many respects offering even greater advantages than they, receives beginners and pupils in every stage of proficiency, and affords the instructions of the most eminent masters at less rates of tuition than any similar institution in this country… A beautiful three-manual Pipe Organ has been constructed with special reference to the requirements of its classes, by Messrs. E. & G. G. Hook and Hastings. Organ practice free.” The ad also noted that there were “Frequent Concerts by leading artists, orchestral and organ Recitals, Lectures, Instruction in Singing and in harmony, and the use of a fine Musical Library, are among the many advantages enjoyed by its pupils, without extra charge.” There were four terms per year: “FALL TERM open Monday, September 16, 1872. WINTER TERM open Monday, November 25, 1872. SPRING TERM opens Monday, February 10, 1873. SUMMER TERM opens Monday, April 21, 1873 (HMA Program Collection). Among the concerts were faculty recitals. “Perhaps [one of] the most attractive features of the conservatory here, as well as among the most improving to the pupils, are the private concerts given by the teachers. Yesterday was given what was numbered as the thirty-first concert of the New England Conservatory, at Chickering”s Hall. The performers were Messrs. Lang and Fries, and Miss Annie M. Granger; the entertainment, short as it was, was peculiarly interesting and artistic. The gentlemen played Mendelssohn”s Sonata in D for piano and violincello, with great spirit and delicacy of rendering. Mr. Lang gave with the same finish a scherzo of Chopin; and, instead of three as the programme indicated, one caprice of his own composition. If the suppressed two are as attractive as the one performed, it was a pity the audience should have been deprived of them.” (Boston Daily Advertiser, Saturday Morning, January 30, 1869. p. 1) In the fall of 1878 the Conservatory was advertising that it was the “Largest Music School in the World” having taught 18,000 pupils since its beginning eleven years ago in 1867. Tourjee still headed the school and it was still located in the Boston Music Hall. (Ditson, Musical Record, September 7, 1878) Chadwick recorded when Carl Faelten was named Director [1891?], “at first everything went along well but before long trouble began to develop which culminated in 1897 [when Chadwick was named Director].” (6461) Faelten joined the St. Botolph Club on Novemeber 30, 1894, and was still a member in 1905. (1905 membership List, p. 32)
Newspaper and magazine critics.
Atlantic Monthly – William Foster Apthorp: 1872-1877
Boston Daily Advertiser. Began 1813 – ceased 1929. 20 Court Street (Wikipedia, June 5, 2010)
Wikipedia, June 12, 2010: Daily Advertiser Building (20 Court Street ) c. 1870s?
Wikipedia, June 12, 2010: Boston Advertiser building c. 1872 from Edward Stanwood, Boston Illustrated. 1872.
Wikipedia, June 12, 2010: Edward Stanwood, Boston Illustrated, 1886.
In January of 1869 The Boston Daily Advertiser was a paper of four pages which cost four cents per issue. Each page was nine columns wide (23 inches) and 32 inches high. When the paper was opened to read the two inner pages, the reader was holding a sheet 46 inches wide! The entertainment ads were found on the first page, left a hand column, and these usually filled the entire column. Any comments or reviews were found in the column beside, usually beginning about half way down the page. E. H. Clement probably did the music reviews, although they were unsigned. (Johnston Collection)
Boston Evening Transcript (Boston) – Founded in July 1830 – ceased publication April 30, 1941. William Foster Apthorp: 1881-1903.
The Boston Transcript building rebuilt and enlarged after the Great Fire of 1872.
Wikipedia, June 12, 2010: King”s Handbook of Boston, 1881.
Courier (Boston) – William Foster Apthorp
Boston Globe – Originally begun in 1872 “as an independent four-cent morning paper, aiming at a high literary character,” it was reorganized in 1878 and became a two-cent paper with Morning, Evening, and Sunday editions. Within six years the circulation went from under 10,000 to 50,000, and by 1889 “the figures for the daily edition were 147,382, and the Sunday 143,592… Throwing off all conservatism of the older papers, the Globe has hesitated at no legitimate and proper scheme to interest and please the masses.” (Grieve, pp. 104 and 105) Its building at “Nos. 236 and 238 Washington Street,is large and unpretentious, extending through to Devonshire Street. It was formerly occupied by The Boston Transcript… It has a large corps of special correspondents throughout New England, and at leading centres throughout the United States.” (King, p. 149)
Wikipedia, June 13, 2010: Illustrated Boston, the Metropolis of New England, 1889.
Boston Herald – Began in 1846.
Wikipedia, June 13, 2010. Building at 255 Washington Street, built 1878. From King”s Handbook of Boston, 1881.
Boston Journal. Began 1833 – merged with the Boston Herald October 1917. 264 Washington Street.
Wikipedia, June 11, 2010-Stanwood, Edward (1886) Boston Illustrated, p. 102.
Boston Post. Founded in 1831, by the 1930s it “had grown to be one of the largest newspapers in the country, with a circulation of well over a million readers.” It closed in 1956. The music critic Olin Downes wrote for this paper. (Wikipedia, June 5, 2010)
Boston Post Building, 15-17 Milk Street, King”s Handbook of Boston, 1881, p. 146.
Journal of Music: John Sullivan Dwight
c. 1900 GG Co. #2307: Johnston Collection.
Postcard of an autographed photo done by Dreyfoos in New York – the card was printed in Germany. Johnston Collection.
Nikisch, Arthur. Leichtentritt described the BSO audience of the early 1890s as being “Boston”s most exclusive society, the residents of Back Bay, with additional forces from Brookline and Cambridge [who] set the tone. In this festive assembly of dignified ladies and gentlemen, the socially unimportant little music lovers in the second balcony and the standing room [of which, as an undergraduate at Harvard, he was one] only served to heighten by contrast the general picture of rank, wealth, and proud self-consciousness. Arthur Nikisch, the conductor, seemed to be especially created for this Boston Symphony audience. The handsome man with his raven-black hair and artistically shaped beard, the pallor that made his face even more romantic, his slim figure with its perfectly tailored dress suit, was elegance itself. As he raised his fine hand, overshadowed by broad snow-white cuffs, with an inimitable wave and the most graceful bend of the wrist, with a nonchalantly protruding little finger crowned by a sparkling diamond ring, and as his long, tapering baton gave the sign for the orchestra, one could feel in the air the pent-up admiration of the ladies – one almost expected a loud acclamation of bravos and enthusiastic applause. The faux-pas was, however, averted at the last moment by the sounds emanating from the orchestra. So far Nikisch might have been taken for a Hungarian count, a fascinating hero of the salon. But as his baton seemed to draw the music out of the instruments – now caressing, now beseeching, now commanding – he was transformed into a true artist, a musician filled with the ecstasy of the creator, and at the grand climaxes he carried the orchestra away to an irresistibly brilliant dash, a frenzy of passion that never missed in its effect on the audience. With his wonderfully keen sense of orchestral color Nikisch often produced real marvels of sound. Later in Berlin I heard him conduct for more than twenty years and became well acquainted with his art; he did everything with his admirable musical instinct, not with an effort of intellectual insight. His performances were not the result of carefully prepared study – he was notoriously lazy – but were improvised on the spur of the moment.” (Leichtentritt, p. 368) When “Mr. Arthur Nikisch came [to the BSO] he found an orchestra already drilled and disciplined, and abounding in excellent material [the results of the work of Wilhelm Gericke]. The new conductor is a Hungarian by birth, with all that nationality”s characteristics of temperament, though at the conductor”s desk he is seemingly as impassive as the sphinx. His greatest success has been won in his readings of the modern school rather than of the classic, and while unquestionably there are some who may regret the absence of the intellectual interpretations of the Gericke regime, still the work of the orchestra has been more popular since Mr. Nikisch took the baton.” (Upton, “Musical Societies,” p. 81) He was thirty-three years old when he came to Boston. “Nikisch was hypnotic, a poised Svengali with fathomless eyes. ”He does not really conduct,” Tchaikovsky later testified. ”He resigns himself to a magical enchantment. ”…In America, Nikisch”s significance was instantly appreciated. W. J. Henderson of the New York Times traveled to Boston to attend his American debut, on October 11, 1889. Henderson”s first impressions confirm precisely with the great reputation Nikisch would later establish in Berlin.” (Horowitz, pp. 56 and 57). Whereas all of the New York critics were enthusiastic about Nikisch, in Boston, the critical opinion was divided. Concerning a performance of Beethoven”s Fifth Symphony, Philip Hale and William Apthorp, although coming from differing critical camps, both found points of interest in the new conductor”s performance whereas Warren Davenport, writing in the Boston Herald found the performance “peculiar,” without “repose,” and generally a “vulgar display of noise.” (Hor