HANDEL AND HAYDN SOCIETY. SC(G). WC.

HANDEL AND HAYDN SOCIETY. SC(G). 

WC-3,529. 09/20/2020.

B. J. Lang began his long association [as organist from October 1859 until June 1895: as conductor from June 1895 until May 1897] with the Handel and Haydn Society on October 1, 1859 with rehearsals for Handel’s Samson. An entry in the Society’s History dated October 1, 1859 notes: “Mr. J. C. D. Parker being obligated by pressure of manifold professional duties to resign the place of organist…Mr. B. J. Lang was chosen his successor.” (H & H History, Vol. 1, 194) Parker had served for several seasons. Lang seems to have gotten off to a positive start as in was noted that, for the December Messiah, later in that first season, “The organ voluntaries of the young new incumbent Mr. Lang, were well chosen and effective.” (Perkins and Dwight, History of the Handel and Haydn Society, 195, hereafter known as P&D) In February 1860 the Society was part of “Mr. Zerrahn’s third Symphony Concert, singing in Beethoven’s Choral Fantasia, of which Mr. Lang plays the pianoforte part.” (P&D, Op. Cit., 195) “His rapport with Zerrahn was complete and among the countless references to Lang in the annals of the Society and in the Press there is not one that fails to express confidence, approval, and gratitude for the presence of so sterling a musician. He played the Great Organ in Music Hall throughout its being there and ”made do” with the inadequate instrument that came after.” (Johnson, Hallelujah, 167) When the Society moved to the newly opened Music Hall in 1853, it brought along its own pipe organ-a three manual and pedal instrument built by Thomas Appleton in 1832. “Originally installed in Boylston Hall, the society and its organ moved in 1839 to Melodean Hall. As relocated a second time to the Boston Music Hall, the organ stood in the niche behind the screen of the stage. The Boston Music Hall Association rented this organ for $240 a year, and eventually purchased it.” (Methuen Memorial Music Hall website, 11/26/10, p. 1)

The “inadequate instrument that came after” the Walker was removed was “a very large one-manual Geo. S. Hutchings” instrument. “While having only one manual, the organ provided the widest possible range of accompanimental nuance from a delicate whisper to a thundering tutti. To distinguish this from its noble predecessor, it was opined that it would be known as the ”little” organ (28 stops, 38 ranks.)” The full list of stops was given in an unknown newspaper article dated December 16, 1884 which stated that its first use was in the December 1884 Handel and Haydn Messiah performance. The instrument did have a Contra Bourdon at 32 feet, and six of the stops were enclosed within a swell box.” (Huntington, 32 and 33)

On September 30, 1860 “rehearsals began in the beautiful hall of the new and spacious warerooms of Messrs. Chickering & Sons, on the corner of Avon Place and Washington Street, made free to the Society with the characteristic liberality of the proprietors.” (Perkins/Dwight, History.  195 and 196)

The early 1860s saw a low point in the finances of the Society. The debt of the 1861-62 season was so great that both Zerrahn and Lang “readily agreed to retain office without fixed salary and be content with whatever small balance might remain in the treasury after the expenses were paid. (At the end of the year, July 1, 1862, they got $41.68 each!).” (Perkins/Dwight, History, 199) In contrast, Mr. Muller who was organist for the 1857-58 Season had received $250. (Handel and Haydn Archives, rare Book Room, BPL) One positive note was the election of a new President of the Society. “After the unanimous nomination of Dr. J. Baxter Upham for the office of president, the meeting was adjourned to June 4, when Dr. Upham – a gentleman of culture and large public spirit, a graduate of Dartmouth College in 1842, and of the Harvard Medical School in 1847, a gentleman to whom Boston was indebted more than to any other for the enterprise which built the Music Hall, and secured the noble organ which was soon to adorn it and complete it, and from whose enthusiasm the cause of music in our public schools was still receiving such an impulse – was elected president, with no change of other officers.” (Perkins/Dwight, History, 199)

Other costs to the Society at this time were-$15 per night for the use of the rehearsal room at the Music Hall/Lecture Hall and $75 for the use of the Concert Hall. The orchestra players each received $5 per performance, and on April 1, 1858, Dennis Ryan Sr. received $11 in payment “For Filling the Bellows of the Organ at 11 Concerts.” (Handel and Haydn Archives, bills for 1857-1858).

At the Tuesday morning, May 23, 1865 50th. Anniversary Concert of the Handel and Haydn, a chorus of 600 with an orchestra of 100 performed Mendelssohn’s Hymn of Praise with Lang as organist. Other concerts that week included Haydn’s Creation on Tuesday night, orchestral and vocal concerts on Wednesday and Thursday afternoons, Handel’s Israel in Egypt on Thursday night, orchestral and vocal concerts on Friday and Saturday afternoons, Elijah on Saturday night and Messiah on Sunday night. Lang also gave a solo organ recital Saturday, May 27 at noon as part of the Festival.

 

 

 

 

Johnston    Collection.

FIRST TRIENNIAL FESTIVAL

The program shown above listed the musical content of three concerts. The first was Mendelssohn’s St. Paul, given on Thursday, May 7; the second was a “Grand Orchestral and Vocal Concert” which ended with Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony given Friday afternoon, May 8; and the third listed the compositions for Lang’s organ recital on Saturday, May 9 at noon.

Also performed during the Festival Mendelssohn’s Hymn of Praise and his ninety-fifth Psalm, Handel’s Samson, two miscellaneous concerts, Haydn’s Creation and to end, what else but Messiah. (P&D, Vol. 1, xvi) The Society had produced Festivals before in 1857 and 1865, but neither had the scope of this festival. The performers included a chorus of 750, an orchestra of 115, and famous soloists. The choir had been rehearsing all winter and for the last month, there had been four rehearsals each week. Artistically it was a high point and financially the Society was able to add the profit of $3,336.94 to the Permanent Fund that then stood at $7,576.05. (P&D, Op. cit., 278) The Society had made a great financial turn around since the early days of the decade.

GRAND GALA CONCERT FOR GRAND DUKE ALEXIS.

On Sunday evening, December 10, 1871, the Theodore Thomas’ Entire Concert Organization presented a “Grand Gala Concert” in honor of the Boston visit of the Grand Duke Alexis. Held at the Music Hall, The Handel and Haydn Society (Mr. B. J. Lang, Organist, Carl Zerrahn, Conductor,  “have kindly volunteered for this occasion.” (Concert Program)  To open the concert the choir sang “The Heavens are Telling” from Haydn’s Creation, and the finale was “Hallelujah” from Handel’s Messiah. During the first section the choir sang an unaccompanied part song by Mendelssohn, Farewell to the Forrest, and to begin the second half they sang, “Thanks be to God” from Mendelssohn’s Elijah.

In the June 1874 Annual Report of the choir, Lang’s role as accompanist was noted. “The pianist who is willing to devote his time to the dry study of the intricate choruses of any new and difficult work with a society of amateurs like ours, who stumble at every step, requiring the closest attention on his part to aid them in their work, most assuredly must be induced to do so from love of the compositions and from the advantages which must thereby accrue to the cause of art, and in this, his chief recompense is found. Mr. Lang has not only shown a self-sacrificing spirit in all this, but he has in no small degree contributed his powerful and valuable support to the chorus from his obscure position behind the Beethoven statue, [at the Music Hall] through the instrumentality of the superb organ under his control. One less skillful than he might have jeopardized many a performance, however able the hand which wielded the baton.” (Dwight (June 13, 1874): 244)

For the 1890-91 Season, Lang’s salary as “organist and pianist” was $300. Zerrahn was promised $750 “and such further sum not exceeding two hundred fifty dollars ($250) as the Society may be able to pay out of the current receipts of the season.” (History-1911, p. 7) For the next season, 1891-92 Zerrahn was promised $1,000 while Lang remained at $300. (Op. Cit., p. 15) These terms were the same for the 1894-95 Season. (Op. Cit., p. 45)

After having been the organist for the Handel and Haydn Society for thirty-five seasons, he succeeded Carl Zerrahn as conductor for two years 1895-1897, but this was a period when the group was at a low ebb and torn with dissensions. During the season before he became conductor, Lang had the chance to conduct the Feb. 3, 1895 concert of Handel’s Israel In Egypt as Zerrahn had had an accident. With no rehearsal, Lang conducted a brilliant performance. President Browne’s annual address included these words of praise: “Mr. Lang conducted. He had no time for rehearsal with the chorus, but he held them so firmly and conducted with so much coolness and intelligence that it was a notably good performance.”(History-Vol. II, 47) Secretary Stone wrote: “Under such circumstances, Mr. Lang was the center of interest, and covered himself with glory. He held command of the situation throughout. His depiction of ”There was not one feeble person” was sublime: an amazing revelation of the possibilities of the passage. The chorus worked hard. its performance was somewhat uneven, but always powerful and vital. The reserve power which was flung into the final chorus carried it out with a sweep and rush that was new in the story of the Society….It was voted that the cordial thanks of the Society should be extended to Mr. Lang for his invaluable services, generously rendered without charge, in conducting the performance of Israel in Egypt.” (History-1911, pp. 46 and 47) The critical response was very favorable: the Globe critic was very complimentary. Secretary Stone noted: “A most interesting event of the evening was the appearance of Myron W. Whitney, father and son. Mr. Whitney senior seemed restored to his old greatness, and the son showed himself a youth of noble promise.” (History-1911, 47) Louis Elson wrote: “Probably no audience has ever before heard ”The Lord is a man of war” given by father and son, and the result was something that both might be proud of.” (Ibid)

Lang had also conducted the Society almost twenty years before. At its April 12, 1876 concert at the Music Hall he conducted Mendelssohn’s Hymn of Praise (their 12th. performance of the work) and the Rossini Stabat Mater (their 20th. performance). J. K. Paine had been the organist. (BPL Lang Prog., Vol. 2) Perhaps Zerrahn needed a rest or had an engagement with another group, as he had conducted the Society in Bach’s St. Matthew Passion on Palm Sunday, April 9, 1876, just four days before!

At the June 25, 1895 meeting of the Board, President Browne read a letter from Carl Zerrahn saying “that I will withdraw at any time from the candidacy of the conductorship.”(History, Vol II, 54) The letter had actually been written a year before, May 1894 and probably reflected the mood of the Board at that time when “the opposition was so great that Mr. Zerrahn was not as usual elected at the early meetings of the board of 1894 and not until Sept. 10, 1894 when he was elected conducted at a salary of $1,000 and Mr. Lang organist at a salary of $300.” (History-Vol. II, p.55) therefore it probably was not a surprise when the June 25, 1895 meeting decided to accept Zerrahn’s withdrawal as a candidate for the conductor. At the same meeting B. J. Lang was elected as conductor at a salary of $1,000 by a vote of nine yeas and three nays.

President Browne later wrote that “With his (Zerrahn’s) retirement came, for the first time in forty years, the necessity of choosing a conductor, but hardly a question as to who it should be. The excellent musician who has been our organist for thirty-six years, and had, as conductor of the Cecilia and Apollo clubs during a quarter of a century, abundantly shown his high capacity in that regard, was, of course, the choice of the board…It might have been expected that a feeling of unfamiliarity because of the change in conductorship would operate to the disadvantage of the chorus singing, but nothing of the kind was shown. There was no falling off in attendance or interest at rehearsals or as have his skill and success in instruction, so that in some very important respects the chorus improved during the year.” (History-Vol. II, p. 63) Thus with the success of his conducting debut with this group and his long connection as organist, Lang began leading the major choral group of Boston. Tara described Lang’s era: “Lang nursed back to health a Handel and Haydn Society that was almost moribund.” (Tara, Foote, 41)

The repertoire for Lang’s first season included two performances of Messiah in December (the 92nd. and 93rd. time the group had sung this work). One writer said of the first concert, the 701st. by the choir: “As Conductor Lang walked up to the platform warmly applauded by the immense audience that completely filled Music Hall, one could not feel that it was a case of ‘Le Roi est mort; vive le Roi’; for there in the foremost row sat Carl Zerrahn in the audience. As he watched the every motion of the man who now conducts his beloved Society, many an eye grew moist at the deep suggestion of the picture.” (History-Vol. II, 57) It is ironic that he would have to begin his conductorship with this work as “Mr. Lang regarded the singing of Messiah by the Handel and Haydn on Christmas week so many consecutive years as having really no fitness for that season. He viewed as the most fitting music for that season the Christmas Oratorio by John [sic] Sebastian Bach. Bach, he considered the greatest name in Protestant church music.” (Transcript, April 5, 1909) The Globe wrote of the first evening: “The performance was generally good without any marked features of excellence. The solo singing was uneven in quality, the work of the chorus was commendable and there were but few variances between the orchestra and the singers.” (Globe, December 23, 1895, 4) It would seem that “variances” had come to be expected. The review also noted another custom that had come to be expected: “The effect of the closing ”Amen,” as usual, was marred by the departure of uneasy auditors.” (Ibid) This review listed the soloists for the second Messiah performance which were completely different from the first performance. Certainly, this would produce rehearsal problems, and as the vocal demands of the Messiah are not too great, it would seem that this tradition also could be changed if the conductor thought it worthwhile to suggest.

The Verdi Requiem was performed on Feb. 2, 1896 (for the fifth time) to mixed criticism. Part of the problem was that three of the soloists were last-minute replacements!  The Globe wrote: “The choruses were well sung as a rule. The contingents were well balanced, and the gradations from forte to piano were given without too sudden contrasts of tonality…The orchestral work was generally smooth.” (Globe, February 3, 1896, p. 6) Of the soloists, the Globe had generally favorable comments. “The quartet ”Domine Jesu” called forth great applause from audience and chorus, and the trio for tenor, alto and bass was also deservingly applauded.”  (Ibid) On Good Friday, April 3, 1896 Bach’s St. Matthew Passion was presented (for the thirteenth time), also to mixed critical response and a very poor house which led the Society’s Secretary Charles W. Stone to predict the “doom” of this work as an annual feature in the Society’s programming. Only two days later, on Easter Sunday, Haydn’s Creation was given (the sixty-sixth time since 1819) to a full house that produced a profit of $1,282.80. The soloists were well received, the chorus performed well, and Lang was lauded by the critics.

On Sunday evening April 12th, an orchestral program was given at Bumstead Hall featuring works of Bach and Handel; Lang, Foote, and Tucker played the Bach Concerto for Three Keyboards, Lang played a Prelude in C Major by Bach and an Allegro in C Major by Handel on a harpsichord furnished by Chickering and Sons, and Bach’s Coffee Cantata was also performed. A footnote in the program stated, “Except in some portions of the cantata, for which Mr. Lang will play accompaniments from Bach’s figured bass, the original instruments will be used.” The final event of the season was an entertainment held on June 30th.

The Annual Meeting held on May 25, 1896 was described as “stormy.” It was demanded that the correspondence between President Browne and Carl Zerrahn be read to the full meeting. The meeting was continued until June 8 and continued again to July 1 at which time Lang was elected conductor for the next season. The program was to be Messiah in December, Elijah in February, and Horatio Parker’s Hora Novissima in April.

               Philip Hale announced to his Journal readers: “Gentlemen of the Handel and Haydn, now lay aside all strife and unseemly bickering and consecrate yourselves to the arduous labors of nest season. It is rumored-and we see no reason for disbelieving the report-that you will produce on or about Christmas a new work, which has excited considerable attention in Europe. We believe the oratorio is entitled The Messiah. Gird up your loins and buckle yourselves bravely to the taste. Look your conductor straight in the face, and sing “Wonderful! Counselor!” (Journal (June 10, 1896): 10, News Arc.)

For the December concerts Lang was unable to conduct because of pneumonia, and, without rehearsal, George W. Chadwick conducted. The February Elijah performance was called a “triumph” for Lang, and even Philip Hale said “It is only just to say that the performance as a whole deserves hearty praise.” (History-Vol. II, p. 69)

The Bach Passion was not presented this season. The Easter Sunday, April 18th. performance included Lang leading Mendelssohn’s Overture to St. Paul and Hear My Prayer together with J. C. D. Parker conducting his own Redemption Hymn and Horatio Parker conducting his own Hora Novissima.

At the Annual Meeting of the Handel and Haydn Society on May 24, 1897 nine of the thirteen board members elected were seen as “Anti-Lang men”. This board then elected Zerrahn conductor again, and, disregarding precedent, created an executive committee that did not include the Vice-President and Secretary. It also removed from the President the duties of appointing the voice committee and superintendents. The result was that the four major officers of the Society resigned. In a story dated June 23, 1897 in the “Boston Record” the various officers were quoted. Ledbetter summarizes the story-

“The four principal officers of the Society were older men, while new members of the board in 1897 were younger. Nonetheless, these younger fellows preferred Zerrahn to Lang, feeling that his personal magnetism and familiar ways of conducting were more healthful than the stricter discipline immediately imposed by Lang. Lang was at a disadvantage with the orchestra and had difficulty in holding all forces together in concerts. The younger men felt that the older Zerrahn had not outlived his usefulness and wanted him back again…After two years under B.J. Lang, Carl Zerrahn returned to the Society in triumph with audiences giving him cordial, but not tumultuous applause…Mr. Zerrahn served out the season and then was given an honorable and eloquent farewell.” (Hallelujah Amen, pp.167, 168 171)

“This unfortunate situation explains why Elson refers to Lang as a musical ”admirable crichton,” after the sixteenth-century Scottish scholar who was attacked one night by a party of armed and masked men. Crichton recognized one of them as his pupil and offered him his sword, and this young prince of Gonzaga immediately ran him through with it. Lang must have felt acutely the betrayal of the young Boston musicians.” (Fox, Papers, 11)

“The conflict rocked the town, and the Press gave the Society its most complete coverage to date. The Record showed a large drawing of the decrepit Zerrahn leading an orchestra of bald-headed men while disgruntled officers with large portfolios headed toward the Exit sign, above which, in a coffin, rested B. J. Lang on the shelf. The title was Why Do the Heathen Rage? Letters of a most confidential nature were gleefully printed in full in the Journal, and officers, behaving like prima donnas were interviewed…There was even hidden treasure! A rumor ran widespread that a wealthy man in another city intended to contribute about $150,000 to an organization which would use it effectively and that he had communicated with B. J. Lang. Mr. Lang talked it over with the President and Secretary of the Society, Mr. Hagar and Mr. Stone, giving the implication that the long-desired building might become a reality. Thus had the air of being a bid for the conductorship of Mr. Lang…Charges and countercharges upset the musical boat as the newspapers used the words ”row,” ”fight,” ”factions,” ”strife,” ”clash,” in protesting that both sides held Mr. Zerrahn in affection but that the dissenters felt that he had last his ”vital fluid,” and they preferred Lang in perfect health at sixty years of age…The final meeting of September 29, 1897 proved to be quite tame, for the Lang forces withdrew, Zerrahn was ”vindicated,” and an unconvincing attempt made to gloss things over.” (Johnson, Hallelujah, pp. 169 and 170)

 Zerrahn’s return lasted only one year, and after a May 2, 1898 “testimonial concert of Elijah-the work he had first led for the Handel and Haydn on December 3, 1854-combining these three choruses [Handel and Haydn, Worcester Chorus, and the Salem Chorus] with similar groups from Lynn, Lowell, New Bedford, Hyde Park, Chelsea, Quincey, Waltham, a vast throng of 1700 voices with soloists headed by Johanna Gadski, the great Wagnerian prima donna,” Zerrahn retired to Germany. However he spent only five years there, and then “returned to Milton, Massachusetts, where he enjoyed eleven years (1909) of comfortable retirement at the home of his son.” (Ibid, p. 171) Thus Zerrahn and Lang died in the same year.

B. J.: DRAWING FROM 1895 BY WINSLOW HOMER (see Owen, 59)

GAINESVILLE 2011

GAINESVILLE 2011. UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA XV INTERNATIONAL FESTIVAL OF WOMEN COMPOSERS.

Play the very beginning of the Tchaikovsky First Piano Concerto

WHERE WAS THE PREMIER OF TCHAIKOVSKY”S FIRST PIANO CONCERTO GIVEN?

WHO WAS THE PIANIST?

WHO WAS THE CONDUCTOR?

For this lecture we will be concerned mainly with MARGARET RUTHVEN LANG, born in 1867, just after the end of the Civil War and who died 104 years later in 1972, and her father, BENJAMIN JOHNSON LANG who was born in 1837 and died in 1909, aged 71. Benjamin Johnson Lang was born in Salem, MA. His father, Benjamin Lang, American born, was of Scottish descent; a piano maker or dealer, (Mathews) music teacher and organist of some prominence in the area. Lang senior found his best pupil in his own son, and by the age of twelve, B.J. was already an accomplished enough musician to perform the A flat Ballade of Chopin. His next teacher was Francis G. Hill of Boston (Hubbard, p. 464). In 1850, aged 13, he was given his first organ lesson at a little church in Danvers. An unsigned interview [from probably c. 1908 just before his death] with B. J. stated “I received my first musical instruction from my father, and at the age of fifteen secured my first appointment as organist. But I desired the career of a pianist primarily, and was in Europe about three years, from 1855 to 1858. There I studied with Jaell, Salter, and afterwards with Liszt. I shall never forget my association with the greatest pianist of his time. He was most generous in his artistic advice, which always was given gratis, and I fear this generosity led many to impose upon his good nature, for their own ends. On my return to America, I began teaching and playing in Boston, and for fifty years I have been active. There was absolutely nothing in the way of a musical atmosphere here in those early days. I was successful from the start, perhaps owing to enthusiasm, with a natural aptitude for doing pioneer work at a time when things were ripe for musical development. My enthusiasm led me to carry through projects to which I had set myself.” (Clippings collected by Gould, HMA) Lang was among the first of over 500 Americans who studied in Europe between the 1850s and 1900. His selection of Berlin may have been influenced by the fact that his piano teacher, Frances G. Hill, “was among the first of Boston young men who went to Germany to study music.” (Dwight, June 1, 1872, 247)

Franz Liszt never gave regular piano lessons to anyone, but he did oversee B.J’s piano studies for some time.” (Ryan) The 1897 entry in The NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY states that Lang “was so fortunate to have the personal direction of Liszt while studying piano.” (430) The meeting of Liszt and Lang may have occurred over a card game when “One evening, at the whist table, he [Lang] had held all the trumps, and when suspected of being a card sharp found a supporter in Liszt. This was remembered in 1968 by his daughter Margaret. (Boston Globe 100th year article)

She also revalled that “Liszt took father to many concerts.”(Miller-Globe article) “During these years [1855-1858] he [Lang] began a lasting friendship with Franz Liszt and Liszt’s daughter, Cosima. In later years this friendship with Cosima would provide him with an entrée into the circle of luminaries surrounding Richard Wagner.” (Cline, 9) Cosima might also be the link with Hans von Bulow (whom she married in 1857- in 1870 she married Wagner) who hired B. J. as his conductor for concerts in 1875 that included the world premier of the Tchaikovsky Piano Concerto No. 1.

When Lang returned to Boston after his three years of European study, he “made his first public appearance in Boston as a pianist in 1858 at a concert of the Mendelssohn Quintet Club, taking part in Beethoven’s C Minor Trio, Opus 1, No. 3. (its first performance in the city) Thus at his first appearance before a Boston audience, he already gave evidence of a tendency that has since become characteristic of him-a constant desire to introduce new works to the public.” (Apthorp Article in Music, August 1893) John Dwight”s review in his weekly Journal of Music said: “The piano part was played by Mr. B. J. Lang, with a precision, cleanness, and expression that would have done honor to far more experienced artists. We do not remember a more promising debut in this kind.” (Dwight, February 6, 1858, p. 359)

In addition to concert appearances, one of Lang”s main sources of income was piano teaching.”A teacher of incredible activity (when I knew him he was giving regularly lessons from 8.30 to 6).” (Foote, Auto., p. 45) Another source noted that he taught as many as fourteen lessons daily and claimed to have instructed over two hundred concert pianists.” His obituary mentioned that he: “Had Taught 5,000 Pupils.” (Globe, Apr. 5, 1909, p. 1) The building at 6 Newbury St. where he had his studio, is entirely peopled with his former students.” (Ibid) The singer Clara Kathleen Rogers (Clara Doria) wrote that Lang “had an unusually large following of devoted disciples… [His] pupils, one and all, adored him, and only awaited a sign from him to render willing service.” (Rogers, TWO LIVES, p. 146 and 147) As a piano teacher Lang was very well regarded. “His class of private pupils upon the pianoforte belongs to the very elite of Boston.” (Mathews p. 429)

Another important part of Lang’s career was founding and conducting two choral groups which still exist in Boston today. The older of the two, the Apollo Club, a male voice choir, was begun in 1871 with Lang as its first conductor, a post that he held for thirty years, until 1901. “The success of the Apollo, both musically and socially, was so great and so rapid that it soon had imitators all over the country. The general taste of the time was represented by the light part-songs of the lesser German Romantic composers, but B.J. favored larger works with orchestral accompaniment.Lang”s rehearsal methods also were not appreciated by some: Apthorp wrote-“Nothing like such drilling has ever been known before in Boston.His principle was that in chorus singing, as in every sort of musical performance, the indispensable basis is technique; without a solid technique nothing worthwhile can be done, and the technique can only be acquired through severe drilling.That arduous system of drilling to which Gericke subjected the Boston Symphony Orchestra, and which was so much commented on at the time, both favorably and adversely, as something utterly unprecedented by its severity, was really first applied to the Apollo Club and Cecilia by Lang.” (Fox, Lang Papers, p. 7)

In the spring of 1901 an insert in the May 1, 1901 concert program of the Apollo Club (their 171st. concert) noted that Mr. Lang “positively declines a renomination” as conductor. This final program appropriately opened with Sullivan”s The Long Day Closes followed by two choral pieces by Margaret Ruthven Lang, Alastair MacAllistair (Old Scotch Song) and Here”s a Health to One I lo”e Dear (Old Scotch Song) while in the second half, two of Lang”s own solo songs, The Lass of Carlisle and The Chase were sung by Mr. Clarence E. Hay. (BPL Lang Prog., Vol. 7) Just a short word about Lang as a composer-he regularly preformed his piano pieces in his concerts including concerts in Germany-he also programmed his solo songs and choral pieces with the groups that he conducted. But, except for one short piece, he never allowed his works to be published. In fact, in his will, he instucted his son to destroy all his manuscripts!

The second choral group that Lang founded was a mixed chorus called the Cecilia Society. This was begun in 1874, first as a part of the Harvard Musical Association Orchestral Concerts, but it soon became independent. The music critic Louis Elson wrote “The Cecilia has given more first performances of great works in its own city than any other Boston musical society, and these have extended all the way from Bach’s B minor Mass, to Massenet’s Fall of Jericho and Wagner’s Parsifal”. (Elson: History American Music, p. 82) The group’s internet site states: “It all began when B. J. Lang founded the Cecilia Society. A man of great force of personality, Lang’s boldness set the tone for what Cecilia was to become. He had a passion for ‘firsts,’ and presented the Boston premieres of 105 works that have now become standard choral repertoire, including perennial favorites like Brahms’ Ein deutches Requiem.” (www.bostoncecilia.org/about/about-us.html) This represents a massive amount of work: first, getting to know the new works; then deciding when and where they should be programmed; ordering the vocal scores, and then renting the orchestral parts from the individual publishers which would have been spread all over Europe!

Lang also performed as a solo pianist with the Harvard Musical Association and the first seasons of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. In fact “It was he (Lang) who first suggested the great series of Harvard Symphony Concerts; it was he who more than any other held the programmes up to their first high level. It was his influence which brought out in Boston for the first time the pianoforte concertos of Bach, and most of those of Schumann, Mendelssohn, and Beethoven, as well as the works of the newer school of Rubinstein, St. Saens, Bronsart, etc.” (Mus. Ob., 1884)

Another area in which Lang supported these concerts was through pre-concert lectures. Dwight praised him for “assembling a hundred or two of his pupils and their friends on the Thursday preceding that of each concert, and, with the aid of a brother pianist (Mr. Perabo), playing over the entire programme to them with historical and analytic explanations.” December 1868 was the third winter that he had been doing this. (Dwight, December 12, 1868, p. 367)

One of the most notable points in Lang”s career occured when he was asked to conduct the WORLD premier of Tchaikovsky”s First Piano Concerto. The pianist was Hans von Bulow whom Lang had probably met when strudying with Liszt, von Bulow had married Liszts” daughter Cosima (who, incidentally later left him to marry Richard Wagner). The well known New York conductor, Carl Bergmann had been hired to conduct-Dwight had called him the best conductor in America! But von Bulow recorded that “Bergmann had not taken as much interest in the concerts as he had in drinking beer, he had missed two meetings to discuss the concerts which forced Bulow to make suggestions to the orchestra himself, and then, while Bulow was beginning his solo pieces in one of the concerts, Bergmann audibly invited the musicians to ”go get some refreshments,” and brought six of them back half tipsy.” (Lott, p. 251) The Tchaikovsky premier was in the fifth of von Bulow”s series of Boston concerts. Von Bulow”s gratefulness to Lang extended to having him also conduct the sixth concert, and he also asked Lang to conduct the same work in Philadelphia. The recent critic Michael Steinberg mused: “I do wonder, though, what it all sounded like with B. J. Lang”s little orchestra with [just] its four first violins (Steinberg, p. 477)

At his death his estate was worth $600,000. What would that be today?

There are many connections between B. J. Lang in his era and Leonard Bernstein in a more recent era. Both were fine pianists; both were composers; both were educators; both were conductors; and both had a major impact on the musical life of their respective times.

Next we consider B. J.”s most famous child, MARGARET RUTHVEN LANG.

We will begin by hearing her most popular song, Irish Love Song for which she probably also wrote the text. This song uses a simple strophic construction well suited to it”s folk style. The text is addressed to ‘Mavoureen,’ which could be the woman being sung about-the word itself is an Irish Gaelic word meaning ‘my darling’. The popularity if this song is reflected in the number of copies sold. The total U. S. press run for was 120,835 copies, almost 20,000 copies more than for Edward MacDowell”s best-loved song, The Beaming Eyes.”(Cipolla, p. 91)

PERFORM IRISH LOVE SONG (No. 4 on George recording)

Margaret Ruthven Lang, eldest of three surviving children, was born in Boston on November 27, 1867. Her first musical instruction was piano lessons with a student of her father. He, himself later took over her instruction. (Downes, “Boston Post,” August 25, 1907) Her non-musical education was at private schools (Saerchinger, p. 356). “Her environment has been most helpful to artistic growth, for the Lang home is the rendezvous for gifted people and the informal ‘at homes’ very stimulating to higher thought and purpose. When a child of twelve, [1880] Miss Lang used to play ensemble with two friends. It occurred to her to write something for this group, so she launched forth her craft. She humorously relates how her father helped her to ‘paw out’ the consecutive fifths and other startling intruders in well-ordered composition. But he wisely saw that her thought was of more value than its expression.”

In a letter dated May 22, 1893 she wrote: “I first studied harmony in Boston with my father, and the pianoforte and violin under various teachers…During a two years sojurn in Munich, I studied counterpoint and fugue and the violin under two different teachers. On returning to America I studied, in Boston, orchestration with Mr. Chadwick and the pianoforte with my father. During these years I wrote many songs, and after my return from Munich I published the first group of six songs at the advice and under the supervision of Mr. MacDowell.”(Scrapbook 1887-1904)

“Margaret Lang held great respect for her father’s teaching and continued to seek his advice after her career was well-established.”(Cline, p. 11) “Margaret Lang was raised in a cosmopolitan household. Visitors from overseas were welcome and frequently present in the Lang home. In addition, Margaret was accustomed to traveling abroad with her parents, making her first trip to Europe at the age of two. She was present, as a child, in the home of Richard Wagner, and knew the Wagner children as playmates. As she grew older and more aware of her musical surroundings she undoubtedly listened with interest to the music performed at the evening gatherings at Wagner’s home. These soirees, involving musicians of the magnitude of Liszt, Wagner, Von Bulow, Dvorak and Paderewski, certainly contributed to Margaret Lang’s sense of sophistication regarding the work of composition.” (Cline, p. 11)

The first public performances of Margaret’s pieces were given at the second of “Two Song-Recitals” sung by William J. Winch in Boston’s Chickering Hall on December 14, 1887. The reviews were consistently positive. The “Advertiser” singled out Ghosts,” …Mr. Winch has never sung better than in these fairy-like bits of melody which Miss Lang has made so signal.” The spring of 1889 saw the first of her songs published. A newspaper review of May 4, 1889 had particular praise for Ghosts. “Despite its simple character and musical structure, Ghosts was a song that helped establish Lang’s reputation as a composer. It was well received critically and was popular among Boston audiences, being performed many times from 1887 to 1896. Certainly, the song’s simplicity appealed to both the concert-going audience and the music-buying public. The critical response, however, was guided by gendered views. Reviewers notes its ‘sentiments soft, delicate and sweet.’ Rupert Hughes in AMERICAN COMPOSERS describes it as ‘elfin and dainty as snowflakes.’ In fact, he reprinted Ghosts as the only musical example of Lang’s work as a composer, while describing her music as ‘supremely womanly.’ Ghosts was perhaps the perfect example of what critics believed was an outlet for female composers, and hence they praised the work for its simplicity and unpretentiousness at the same time recognizing it as a legitimate art song.” (Blunsom, p. 218)

PLAY GHOSTS (No. 10 on George recording)

To show the growth of Lang as a composer, we will now hear a late song which also is concerned with SNOW. You will hear a much more sophisticated accompaniment and harmonic pallette.

PLAY SNOWFLAKES (No. 20 on George recording)

Soon after, she had first performances at the Manuscript Club which was “Formed in 1888, this club was founded to offer local composers the opportunity to hear their works performed before an intelligent audience. The date was January 19, 1888, and B. J. accompanied William J. Winch. The Manuscript Club performance was held at the home of Isabel Stuart Gardner at 150-152 Beacon Street.A year later, February 28, 1889, the Manuscript Club gave another performance at Mrs. Gardner’s home which included Ojala, sung by Mr. George F. Parker and accompanied by Margaret. It would seem that Mrs. Gardner became a good friend of the family as she gave to “the composer Margaret Ruthven Lang her much-prized harpsichord. The Guest Book of the Lang farm in New Boston, NH records visits from Mrs. Gardner in 1895, 1902, 1903 and 1907. Another indication of the Gardner-Lang friendship is reflected in the fact the Mrs. Gardner was in charge of arranging the floral offerings at B. J. Lang’s funeral in 1909. Locke also cites many letters from Margaret and B. J. to Mrs. Gardner, and suggests that she may have been “a regular sponsor of his several choral societies. (Locke, pp. 120 and 108)

Also in 1889 Margaret”s song Ojala was performed in Paris at the July 12th. concert in the Trocadero during the Paris World”s Fair Exposition. The American composer Edward MacDowell who played his own Second Piano Concerto in this concert, wrote to Margaret:

Dear Miss Lang,

I showed your songs to van der Stucken who says he will put Ojala on his programme. I expect to accompany it myself and hope to bring down the house. Concert is day after tomorrow. All Well. Kind regards to all.

E. A. MacDowell (Scrapbook)

PERFORM OJALA (No. 2 George recording)

This gesture by MacDowell was possibly a thank you to the Lang family for all that B. J. had done for MacDowell. George Chadwick wrote that “MacD really had B. J. to thank for his start, for he produced his Suite (his first work) and his first Pf. Concerto at his concerto concerts and did a lot of talking. Lang also supported MacDowell by teaching his works to his pupils. At the April 3, 1888 ” B. J. Lang Pianoforte Concerto-Concert” where Lang conducted, his pupil B. J. Whelpley played the solo part in MacDowell”s Piano Concerto No. 1 in A Minor, Op. 15 which was the first American performance of the complete work. MacDowell was the soloist a year later in a Boston Symphony Orchestra performance led by William Gericke on April 13, 1889.(Johnson, First, pp. 225 and 226) Lang also contibuted to MacDowell”s support by hiring him as a soloist for the December 1888 concerts of the Apollo Club at the Music Hall.
B. J. took advantage of his own connections to benefit Margaret. Within just a few weeks of his arrival in America, Lang had hired Antonin Dvorak to conduct his own Requiem Mass with the Cecilia in November 1892. The composer probably stayed with the Lang family. In Mrs. Lang’s “Diaries” there is also a reference to the composer looking over Margaret’s instrumental compositions. B. J. has wasted no time in making use of Dvorak’s presence in America-he had only just arrived on September 27, 1892!

The “Musical Courier” of January 25, 1893 announced that Margaret Ruthven Lang “will visit New York next month as the guest of Mrs. Winslow Homer, the wife of the well-known painter.It will be remembered that several receptions were given here last year in Miss Lang”s honor, Notably one at Dr. and Mrs. Gerrit Smith”s, at which several of the lady”s works were performed to the delight of all who listened.Similar receptions are being planned for her this season, in order that Miss Lang may meet as many as possible of New York”s prominent musicians and in order that the latter may have an opportunity of becoming acquainted with this gifted and beautiful woman.” (Scrapbook)

Thus, Margaret was, in 1893, a composer well known in here native Boston, and performed regularly in other parts of America and also in Europe. What would be next? Now aged twenty-five, she had her first large orchestral work was premiered by the Boston Symphony Orchestra-the Dramatic Overture, Opus 12 conducted by Nikisch on April 7 and 8, 1893. This was the FIRST TIME THAT AN AMERICAN ORCHESTRA HAD PLAYED A PIECE BY AN FEMALE COMPOSER!! A description of the worked noted: “It has some strong contrasts, especially between the chief theme and the subordinate. The first is grim and medieval, the second tender and human. To place these two in juxtaposition in itself gives something of dramatic power, and the development of both is singularly unconventional.”(Elson:History American Music p. 306) Francis H. Jenks in his “Musical Herald” review described the work as “an ingeniously devised and constructed composition with evidences of thought at every turn.” Philip Hale reported that the overture was applauded, but the attempt to call the composer forward was in vain. Seventy-four years later Miss Lang remembered the incident well: “I crept up to the balcony and hid.” Hale’s specific comments were probably a trial for the young composer. He wrote: “Miss Lang’s overture is perhaps a creditable work for a young student. Whether it deserved a place in a Symphony concert is another question. Although Miss Lang in certain songs has shown in the past a pretty melody, the themes of the overture are not of marked originality or striking effect. There are ingenious passages in the detail, but there is a general lack of definite purpose in the conception and in the carrying out. As a result there is occasional piquancy, and there are pleasing measures, but this dramatic overture is a promise rather than a fulfillment.” (Scrapbook, Musical Courier, April 12, 1893)

In preparing to write her Dramatic Overture, Margaret was able to use her father’s standing in the Boston musical community and his connections for her own benefit. She recalled: “They told me…to take some Grieg to the orchestra (BSO) and hear how it sounded, so I could learn about orchestration. So I went to one of Nikisch’s rehearsals and they played for me. Things were so easy in those days.”(Miller-100th birthday interview) The more relaxed standards of the time are reflected in a story recorded by Leichtentritt. “A scene I witnessed at a rehearsal of the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra years later [after his Boston years] showed Nikisch’s habitual practice. A complicated new work by Max Reger was to be rehearsed for the first time. Nikisch stepped to the conductor’s desk with his customary aplomb. When he opened the printed score before him, it turned out to have uncut leaves, a sure proof that he had never looked at it before. He became acquainted with a new work only as he rehearsed it, relying on his amazing musical instinct and his vast experience as a conductor. Studying scores at home as a preparation for the performance did not appeal to him.” (Leichtentritt, p. 368)

As Margaret destroyed all her instrumental works and all her unpublished works, we only have brief descriptions to help us imagine what the piece sounded like. The critic, William Foster Apthorp, who was also writing the Program Notes for the Boston Symphony, sent a letter to Margaret concerning his study of the score in preparation for writing the note. “Where did you get the idea of reinforcing the effect of those jumps from C major to E minor, and E major to A minor, by that Scharfrichter’s rhythm? I don’t know when I have heard that ‘Meyerbeer’ snap of the two short notes and a long one sound so new, and so little as if Meyerbeer had written it. I have also great hopes for the place where the third horn comes in against the twiddle-twiddle in the violins. And how stunning of you to have kept your trombones and trumpets for the preaching, and made your big crashes without them! I hope Nikisch will follow his native bent, and give the final ‘pa-pa-pum——-PUM!’ as it looks in the score. Ever so many thanks, yrs., &c., &c., &c.” (Scrapbook)

Critical judgement of the piece was generally negative. The Courier review of April 9, 1893 said: “The overture while evidently the work of a skillful and refined musician is nevertheless a very characteristic sample of ‘kapelmeistermusik.’” (Unsigned) Another review devoted 75 per cent of its content to the new piece: “Of the composition itself there is not much to be said that is pleasant in the saying. It is creditable as the result of a laudable ambition to essay an important work, and it may be pronounced a promising first attempt; but it is scarcely of a worth to warrant its performance, unless, indeed, to afford the composer an opportunity to hear it, and to profit by the experience.” (Unsigned) But not all reviews were negative. However, another review devoted one-half of its space to Margaret”s work, all of which was complimentary. “Miss Margaret Ruthven Lang”s new dramatic overture was given for the first time at the Symphony last week, the composition by our talented townswoman proving to be of great merit. In the beginning two themes are developed, one sombre and of an antique character,the other passionate and modern treatment, each played against the other and producing a dramatic effect original but melodic. The work received a most flattering reception, and Mr. Nikisch”s orchestra gave a delightful interpretation of the number.” (Courtesy of the Boston Symphony Orchestra Archive)
There is no record of the work ever being performed again by the BSO or any other orchestra. Still Margaret continued to compose large orchestral works. Her Opus 10, Witichis Overture was played at the Chicago Columbian World”s Fair in the summer of 1893, having been chosen by a noted group of musicians including St. Saens, oh, and yes, Margaret”s father was on the committee. She also wrote another overture, Totila, and an orchestra Ballade that was played in Baltimore in 1901. She composed three Concert Arias with orchestral accompaniment. Sappho’s Prayer to Aphrodite for alto was performed in New York on October 24, 1895. Soon after, on January 29, 1896, it was sung by Mrs. H. E. Sawyer at a concert at 265 Beacon Street where the accompanist was Arthur Foote, one of B. J.s star piano pupils. Another performer who quickly learned this aria was Lena Little who sang it at the “Concert in Aid of the Free Hospital for Women” on March 26th. of that year.
A second aria, Armida for soprano was performed by the BSO on January 13, 1896 with Gertrude Franklin as the soloist and Emil Paur conducting. The critic Louis Elson, who was usually very supportive, wrote: “The setting is by no means as dramatic as its poetic subject, and the composer seems to have missed the majestic power of the great death-scene.” Margaret also wrote a third aria for baritone which was entitled Phoebus’ Denunciation of the Furies At His Delphian Shrine that probably was never performed.
However, Margaret”s success in the solo song and choral material continued. Her father”s programming of her work with his groups the Cecilia Society, a mixed voice choir and the Apollo Club, a male voice choir, certainly helped introduce her works, but many were soon taken up by singers and choirs all over America and in Europe.
In 1905 Schmidt published a set of limericks by Edward Lear set to music by Margaret under the title Nonsense Rhymes and Pictures, Opus 42. Two years later a second set was published, Opus 43. The first set contained twelve songs, while the second had ten. As the texts are only four short lines, often Margaret began each setting with a longish piano introduction that sets the mood. In There was an old Man in a Tree the mood-setting introduction is done by the voice doing the sound of a bee buzzing.
PLAY OLD MAN TREE (No. 18 George recording) (1:46))
The success of these songs led Margaret to set a number of them for SATB, SSAA, or TTBB voices. In 1998 Walton Music republished three SSAA settings; earthsongs republished two for SSAA including Old Man in a Tree; Hildegarde Publishing (Theodore Presser) reprinted Opus 42 in 1997. The Library of Congress has slso free downloads of a number of these settings-they also reproduce Lang”s original manuscript of each piece. At the 2009 National ACDA Convention, the High School Honors Choir sang The Old Man With a Beard.
PLAY OLD MAN WITH A BEARD # 13 (1:18)
Margaret”s “Scrapbooks” in the Boston Public Library contain many programs were her works were heard. If these were Boston performances, she would try to attend as many as possible. her Christmas Cantata, The Night of the Star: Opus 52 was published in 1913. The following Boston area churches performed the work:

St Paul”s CathedralDec. 2412:10PM

First Church, UnitarianDec. 244:30PM

Harvard Musical ClubDec. 249:30PM

King”s Chapel (B. J.s last church) Dec. 2511AM

A note in the Scrapbook said that Margaret attended all four of these performances!

The previous Sunday six area churches had performed the work.

PLAY ST. JOSEPH”S VIGIL FROM OPUS 52 THIRD TRACK (2:00)

Margaret stopped composing c. 1920. The musical world was changing-Stravinsky, Schoenberg and even early Copland where far different from her musical style. When asked why she stopped composing, her answer was: “Why did I stop, I had nothing to say.”

Margaret obviously kept up with new musical styles-not only those that she heard at the BSO Friday afternoon concerts, but also such composers as Charles Ives. There are two notes from Margaret in “The Charles Ives Papers” at Yale which thank Ives for sending her copies of his pieces. A card dated 7 March 1921 says that “I shall take great pleasure in playing it through, at the earliest opportunity,” while on 16 August, 1922 Margaret wrote that “Miss Lang begs to thank Mr. Ives for his very interesting + original music so kindly sent, + just received.” (MSS 14, The Charles Ives Papers in the Irving S. Gilmore Music Library of Yale University)

From 1927 until 1939 Margaret self-published from her home at 8 Brimmer Street a series of leaflets entitled Messages from God which she distributed at her own expense. In a biographical note written in 1960 she describes the project thus: “My music writing stopped soon after The Heavenly Noel’s many performances in many places; much-involved housekeeping took place during my mother’s last housebound years. At this time I obeyed a very strong spiritual call, and began to write, print, send forth, and reply to wide requests for spiritual religious messages-to which I gave my time and money-my life’s best work-over many years, anonymously [underlined twice], but with deep devotion; taking form in privately printed paper tracts. They were used by churches, far and wide, in the United States, England, Canada, and even one in Egypt.” (Lang Scrapbooks, Vol. 17) Each one was 8-10 pages.

1927 – Intercession1928 – A Gift for Almighty God1928 – The Communion of Silence

1932 – Our Continuing City1934 – Our Father’s House1939 – Christmas and the Cross

Another aspect of Margaret’s character is reflected in the fact that she “had been raised to visit the sick and the ill, and visited Mass General Hospital every week. She wrote to a World War French war orphan until the end of his life. She was also a very practical person who never signed her birthday or other holiday cards ‘so that you could reuse them again!’” (Amy DuBois Interview)

Miss Lang’s interest in music “as a thankful listener” continued unabated until her death on May 30, 1972 at the age of 104. Members of her family had occupied seat B-1 of the first balcony since Symphony Hall opened in 1900, and she continued to occupy it regularly attending by subway “until three years before her death.” (Fox, Sexual Aesthetics, p. 5) “The woman next to me wants my seat. We chaff about it. But I want to keep the name Lang on the subscriber’s list.”(Miller-Globe article) The Lang”s family friend, Isabella Stewart Gardner had also bought season tickets the first season near to where the Langs sat.
One celebration of her 100th Birthday was on Friday, November 24, 1967 when Erich Leinsdorf conducted the BSO and dedicated some of the pieces to her. Henry B. Cabot, one of the Symphony Trustees, made a personal contribution of $2,500 to the Commemorative Fund so that seat B-1 could be named in her honor. Like a typical Bostonian, even at the age of 100, she used the subway to travel to Symphony Hall. She was described at this time as being “tiny and chipper as a semi-quaver…Dressed in black, with a knotted rope of pearls and rings her adornments.” (Miller-Globe article) The program book for this concert mentioned that “She has a vivacity and alertness that would put many people half her age to shame.” (BSO Program Book for November 24 and 25, p. 455) The Globe Society Editor, Marjorie Sherman wrote that “A brisk figure will emerge from the subway at Symphony Station today with ample time to take her place in a first balcony seat where she has been a familiar sight since the hall was opened in October, 1900…Miss Lang has listened to every conductor since George Henschel in 1881.” (Article courtesy Boston Symphony Orchestra Archives, Boston Globe, November 24, 1967) “At fourteen she attended the first season of the Boston Symphony, in 1881. She has been attending ever since, under all eleven conductors, first in the old Music Hall in downtown Boston, and then in Symphony Hall since 1900. During a recent discussion of future plans for Boston and Symphony Hall, Miss Lang remarked: ”Everything is so interesting. I”d like to live to be 125 so I can see how it all turns out.”” (Scrapbook) An article by John J. Mullins entitled “Composer Margaret Lang, 101, just ‘wants to live forever’ began with quote: “I’d love to see what’s coming. That’s why I want to live forever.” ” Another example of Margaret’s continued interest in the world around her is reflected in Amy DuBois’ remembering that during a visit in 1969, Margaret showed her that she was reading Aldridge Cleaver’s Soul On Ice. (Interview) Another example is that she “was known to correspond with over 60 individuals a month, writing letters in four languages.” (Cline, e-mail July 9, 2008)

With the release of Donald George”s two CDs, both the sounds and the scores for about 50 of her toal of 130 published songs will be available. The first musical CD had a companion CD with all of the scores of the songs so that any interested singer can immediately download the printed music for any piece that they might want to perform. One Doctoral Dissertation has been written about Margaret-“Margaret Ruthven Lang: her life and Songs,” 1993 Washington University, and Margaret is also part of a Brandeis Dissertation completed in 1999 by Laurie K. Blunsom entitled “Gender, Genre and Professionalism: The Songs of Clara Rogers, Helen Hopekirk, Amy Beach, Margaret Lang and Mabel Daniels, 1880-1925.” Another Brandeis work is the a recent Masters Thesis entitled “How to appreciate that which no longer exists: A case study in the life and lost works of Margaret Ruthven Lang.” I also maintain a website on the Lang family which can be found by searching under the name of “Margaret Ruthen Lang.” It is usually the third or fourth entry, and its title is “Margaret Ruthven Lang and Family.” All the information there is available to anyone who might want to use it, and I welcome any enquiries.

CONCERT PROMOTER-BJL. SC(G). WC.

CONCERT PROMOTER.

SC(G).    Word Count-18,559.     10/10/2020.

       Before promoting his own concerts, B. J. was a featured artist with many Boston groups. Soon after returning from his three years of European study, he appeared in the fourth and last orchestral concert conducted by Carl Zerrahn at the Music Hall. Dwight felt that the orchestra of only thirty players was too small to realize the “grand conceptions” of Beethoven’s Symphony No. 5. Lang was the soloist in Mendelssohn’s Concerto in D Minor –Dwight’s review was not overly complimentary. (Dwight  (March 6, 1858): 390) Lang also was part of the vocalist Mrs. Long’s Annual Concert where he, with the brothers Fries, “renewed the delightful impression of a part of Beethoven’s early Trio in C Minor, namely the Theme with variations and Scherzo. The same young pianist also proved his skill and tact in the nice matter of accompanying some of the vocal pieces” (Ibid)-Lang’s Boston premier had been with the Beethoven.

      On Saturday evening, February 11, 1860 B. J. was the soloist at the Third Philharmonic Concert at the Music Hall led by Carl Zerrahn in W. S. Bennett’s Capriccio for Piano and Orchestra [recording available on Hyperion CDA67595 “The Romantic Piano Concerto No. 43 with Howard Shelley and the BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra] and Beethoven’s Choral Fantasia with the choir being the Handel and Haydn Society. A year before, March 12, postponed to March 14. Lang had performed this piece with only the accompaniment of the Mendelssohn Quintette Club at a “Grand Complimentary Concert” for the sing Elisa Biscaccianti-in the second half of this concert he performed as a solo, Fantasie from “Il Puritani” arranged by Prudent.[?]. (HMA Program Collection) Late in February 1860, Lang was part of a Mendelssohn Quintette Club concert “in the pleasant new hall in Bumstead Place, with [a] large audience, and, for the most part, excellent programme.” Lang’s contributions were in the Mendelssohn Sonata Duo for Piano and Violoncello, Op. 58 where he “displayed his fine crisp qualities of easy execution to fine advantage” together with cellist Wulf Fries. As a solo, he performed the Chopin Ballade in A Flat, Op. 47 which “was played with facile brilliancy; and yet there was a lack of life in it; one missed the aura of Chopin.” This concert was the sixth in the series for the Club. (Dwight (March 3, 1860): 390) A month later, in March 1860, he arranged a “Compliment Concert” to raise funds for his European stay the following summer. “The new Hall in Bumstead Place was fuller than it has ever been.” Assisting artists were the Mendelssohn Quintette Club, vocalists Mrs. Long and Mr. Wetherbee, and pianists Dresel, Parker, and Leonard. Highlights of the concert included the “Adagio and Scherzo” from Mendelssohn’s Sonata in D for Piano and Violoncello with Wulf Fries and two eight-hand arrangements for the four pianists. “Mr. Lang was rich in audience and in programme, rich in the friendly aid of other artists, in his own strength, and particularly rich in pianos; since there were two of those superb Erard-like Grands, just manufactured by the Messrs. Chickering.” (Dwight (March 31, 1860): 6) Dwight mentioned in this review a mannerism which he had observed in Lang-“With all the excellencies of this rapidly rising young pianist, it is but friendly justice to him to make him aware of this one little unartistic habit which he has of running his fingers unmeaningly over the instrument when he sits down to play something. It is not preluding: it does not express a mind full of the music and the meaning coming; it is just an idle or a nervous physical outbreak of the fingers; and often, we have noticed, even fails to modulate into the key in which the piece commences. Mr. Lang will not find such things done in Germany.  is such crudities which make it desirable for a young native musician, be he ever so facile and brilliant an executant, to pass some time in a musical atmosphere like Germany, and get imbued with the artistic tone.” (Dwight (March 31, 1860): 7) Dwight also mentioned that Lang was to receive another “Complimentary Concert” in his hometown of Salem.

      On November 30, 1861, at a “Private Concert” held at Old South Church, the musicians included a vocal quartet of Miss Houston, Mrs. Macfarland, Mr. Downs and Mr. Weterbee with Mr. Bancroft as pianist [Bancroft-organist of Emmanuel Church?] (BPL Lang Prog., Vol. 1) Three days before Lang had been an assisting artist for the opening concert of the Mendelssohn Quintette Club’s Thirteenth Season when, on Wednesday, November 27, 1861 he played the Mendelssohn Second Piano Trio with Schultze and Fries at Chickering Hall. (BPL, Lang Prog., Vol. 1)

      Lang appeared in the closing concert, the eighth of their thirteenth season, in March of 1862 with two movements from the same Mendelssohn work again, and Chickering Hall “had scarcely standing room for all who came on Wednesday night.”He also was part of the American premiere of the Graedener Piano Quintet in G Minor, Op. 7-the composer lived then in Hamburg and was seen as a follower of Schumann. (Dwight (March 22, 1862): 407) Lang was an assisting artist for Mr. Eichberg’s Soiree at Chickering Hall on February 14, 1863 where he was the pianist in the Mendelssohn Trio in D Minor, accompanied Eichberg in Beethoven’s “Variations and Finale” from Sonata Op. 47, and offered three piano solos. Tickets were 75 cents each or two for $1.00 (HMA Program Collection). Dwight’s opinion of the evening was it “was a success, and, for lovers of good classical music, who filled the hall, one of the pleasantest musical offerings of the season.” (Dwight (February 21, 1863): 374) The previous month Lang had assisted at Mary Fay’s Soiree on Saturday, January 25, 1862 at Chickering Hall where he joined Fay in the Fantasie on Norma for two pianos. (BPL Lang Prog., Vol. 1)

“Mr. B. J. Lang gave recently a concert in Salem, his old home, with so excellent a programme, that, even at this late hour, we wish to record it.

Grand Sonata, Op. 22 Beethoven

“Jerusalem” from St. Paul Mendelssohn

Scherzo, Op. 31 Chopin

Andante for two Pianos Schumann

Song of Spring Mendelssohn

Rondo Capp. Op. 14 Mendelssohn

Prelude in E Minor Mendelssohn

Fugue Handel

The Mother’s Song Kucken

Concerto, acc’p’t by 2nd. Piano Hummel

Mazurka, F Sharp Minor Chopin

Impromptu Mason

Mr. G. W. Steele played the second piano, and Miss J. E. Houston was the vocalist. The Salem people do not often have so fine a treat.” (Dwight (May 16, 1863): 32)

At the February 4, 1864 concert by the Mendelssohn Quintette Club Lang played two solos, Agitato in A minor, Op. 15 by Schulhoff and Slumber Song in D flat, Op. 81 by Heller, and Dwight noted that “Mr. Lang’s brace of piano-forte pieces were nicely rendered and very acceptable, especially the charming Slumber Song by Heller, which had to be repeated.”Lang also was part of the Mendelssohn Quartet in B minor for Piano and Strings that Dwight noted was Opus Three by the composer, written two years before the Midsummer Night’s Dream Overture. “Truly a wonderful work for a boy; as full of charming and surprising thoughts, and skillful, genial mastery of means, as it is of difficulties of execution. These were admirably surmounted by Mr. Lang and his associates, and the whole work produced a fine impression.” (Dwight (February 20, 1864): 190) Within days Lang was also appearing with the Orchestral Union in their Fifth Concert of the season where he “played a good sterling Prelude and Fugue in C, by Bach, one which we have not had before, and played it well and won applause…The rest of the programme consisted of the “Adagio and Allegretto” from Rink’s Organ Concerto in F (with flute solo); the Turkish March from a Sonata by Mozart, arranged for orchestra by Thomas Ryan; and the Faust potpourri as usual.” This was a program that resembled those of the Boston Pops one hundred years later under Arthur Fiedler.

Within the same week, Sunday evening, February 7, 1864 at 7:30 PM, Lang presented at the Music Hall a “Grand Sacred Concert” to be given with “The Great Organ” and with the assisting artists, Miss J. E. Houston (vocalist), Mr. Julius Eichberg (cellist), and Mr. J. H. Willcox (Pianist). Lang opened and closed the concert with major organ solos, Miss Houston sang twice, the second being the aria “In Praise of the Organ” from Handel’s Ode to St. Cecilia, and Eichberg and Lang performed Eichberg”s Religious Meditation for organ and violin. The tickets were 50 cents. (BPL Lang Prog.) The same format was used for “Mr. B. J. Lang”s Grand Sacred Concert” at the Music Hall on Sunday evening March 6, 1864. The three soloists used before returned with the addition of Mr. J. C. D. Parker and Mr. S. A. Bancroft. Parker and Lang played the “Overture” to Mendelssohn’s Hymn of Praise, Eichberg’s Religious Meditation was repeated and Mr. Bancroft was featured in one organ solo, the Grande Offertoire in F Major by Lefebure-Wely. Miss Houston sang three different selections spread throughout the program and Lang again opened and closed the concert. (BPL Lang Prog.)

The next month, March 1863, Lang was an assisting artist at the inaugural concert given on the “New Organ at the Church of the Immaculate Conception” where J. H. Willcox was the organist. The builders of the instrument, Messrs. Hook described the organ as “the most complete and effective Organ ever built in America…As a well balanced. full and admirably constructed organ it is without an equal among our largest and very best instruments.” Lang and Willcox played solos and the church choir and soloists completed the program. Bach’s Concerto No. 1 in G: Allegro, Grave, and Presto and Bird Song by Willmers, arranged for organ were B. J.’s contributions. (BMT (March 5, 1863): 38)

       On March 12, 1864, Lang was the soloist in Mendelssohn’s Concerto for Piano in D minor at the second and last of “Mr. Julius Eichberg’s Orchestral Soirees” which took place at Chickerings’Hall. “The audience was large and discriminating” for a program that began with Mozart”s “Overture” to Cosi fan tutte, continued with two movements from Mozart’s Symphony No. 4 (Jupiter), then the piano concerto, and ended with Beethoven’s Symphony No. 8.” There was no critical comment about the concert, only a final sentence: “Mr. Eichberg has commenced a good work, which we hope he may continue in future seasons.” (BMT (April 2, 1864): 3) As Eichberg left Boston for New York City two years later, things must not have continued successfully, but my appearing in concerts put on by other musicians, Lang was getting a good education in concert management.

       On the tercentennial of Shakespeare’s birthday, April 23, 1864, Lang conducted the first Boston performance of Mendelssohn’s complete music to A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Dwight announced the event as follows: “Next Saturday, the 23rd. of April, is the great Tricentennial, or Ter-centenary (as they call it in London-either name is awkward enough and well enough) anniversary of the birth of SHAKESPEARE (great type of all that there is genial in human life); and Mr. B. J. Lang announces a musical celebration thereof, to consist of the music to the “Mid-summer Night’s Dream,” to be followed by ”The First Walpurgis Night,” both by Mendelssohn. It will be given in the Music Hall, with the combined force of the best quartet choirs hereabouts, and four principal singers: Miss Houston, Mrs. J. S. Cary, Miss Annie L. Cary, probably Mr. Wm. Schraubstaedter (just returned from California) for tenor, Schraubstaedter frere, baritone, and Mr. Ryder, basso. Mr. Lang is bestowing careful pains on the rehearsals, and all musical lovers of Shakespeare and of Mendelssohn will look out in season to secure the privilege of listening.” (Dwight (April 16, 1864): 223). Dwight then reported: “It was fit that music should bear a part in the honor paid to Shakespeare in the worldwide observance of the three-hundredth anniversary of his birthday.” He then noted because of the effects of the Civil War, the observance was rather unorganized, but Lang’s concert was called “notable…Mr. Lang made the best choice possible in his selection of music. First, the Midsummer Night’s Dream” music entire…the choruses were sung by a large choir of the freshest and best voices in the city, and the Orchestra, under Carl Zerrahn, played with more than usual delicacy and spirit, to the credit of themselves and of Mr. Lang’s conductorship.” The second half of the concert was Mendelssohn’s First Walpurgis Night, “so admirably brought out by Mr. Lang two years ago…The audience was immense, and the enthusiasm great, and Mr. Lang”s good services will be remembered.” (Dwight (April 30, 1864): 23) The Boston Musical Times review began: “The Music Hall was filled on Saturday evening, April 23rd. by one of the most intelligent and appreciative audiences that Boston can assemble to listen to music…Mr. Lang deserves and certainly receives, the applause of everybody for the artistic and well-arranged entertainment which he conducted…Altogether the entertainment was a delightful one; one that is eminently in Mr. Lang’s sphere of musical thought and ability. No one understands or more thoroughly loves Mendelssohn than he, or is better to bring out his beauties.” (BMT (May 7, 1863): 68) Between the two Mendelssohn choral works, the orchestra played Beethoven’s Overture to Coriolanus. (BPL Lang Prog.)

       On December 10, 1864, Lang was an assisting artist at the “Third Piano-Forte Concert” given by Otto Dresel at Chickerings’ Rooms. In addition to Lang, Hugo Leonhard and J. C. D. Parker were assisting artists. The opening piece was Bach’s Concerto for Three Pianos in C Major in three movements with “The stringed Quartette Accompaniment arranged for a Fourth.” The program does not state who played the solo parts and who played the orchestral reduction. It also does not show who played the other pieces for multiple pianos. Tickets were $1.50, and at the bottom of the program was the notice: “To prevent annoyance to the listener, Mr. Dresel respectfully desires that persons will refrain, as far as possible, from entering or leaving the hall, during the performance of a piece” (HMA Program Collection). Johnson records that the Schumann Piano Concerto in A Minor, Op. 54 was also part of this concert-Dresel played the solo part and Lang played the orchestral reduction. Dressel would give the Boston premiere of the work two years later on November 23, 1866, with the Harvard Musical Association Orchestra conducted by Carl Zerrahn. But, between the 1864 and 1866 performances, Lang played “part of the work at a concert by Mme. Parepa on one evening and the other half the next evening in 1865.” (Johnson, First, 328)

       Lang also was active as an accompanist. Early in 1865, Dwight reported on various performances of the Messiah “in smaller cities…In Worcester, it was given on Tuesday evening by the ”Mozart Society” without orchestra, Mr. Lang accompanying on the great Worcester Organ, and Mr. B. D. Allen conducting.” (Dwight (January 7, 1865): 373) Two months later Lang was again in Worchester for a Friday evening concert on March 10, 1865, where he opened the Worchester Mozart Society concert with an “Organ Improvisation.” The rest of the program was the choral work The Transient and the Eternal by Romberg. Only a pianist and Lang were listed-probably they shared the accompaniment of the choral work. The tickets were 25 cents. (BPL Lang Prog., Vol. 1)

       In March of 1865 Lang was part of a “Boston Musicians’ Union” Concert played “by the united forces of the orchestras and bands…of from 90 to 95 musicians, many of them accomplished…The Boston Theatre was crowed to excess the first time, making the repetition on last Sunday evening imperative. The charitable, or, what is better, the fraternal object of the concerts must have been largely furthered, and a substantial nucleus formed for a mutual Benefit Fund for sick and needy musicians…Mr. Lang played the Andante and Capriccio Op. 22 of Mendelssohn very beautifully on a Chickering Grand Piano of remarkable power, as well as pure, sweet, musical quality, or the performance would have been lost in that place.” The musicians presented the conductor, Mr. Zerrahn in appreciation for his work in the concert.(Dwight (March 18, 1865): 414 and 415)

       On Saturday, March 24, 1866, Lang presented for the first time in Boston Haydn’s The Seasons at the Music Hall with Miss J. E. Houston, George Simpson (from New York), and J. Rudolphsen as the soloists and “a full orchestra.” (BPL Lang Prog., Vol. 1)Johnson describes this concert as “in part only. The Handel and Haydn Society did not sing this work entire until 28 March 1875.” (Johnson, First, 190)A full orchestra accompanied the “Select Chorus.” All tickets were $1 with all seats reserved. Dwight reported: “Mr. B. J. Lang deserves well of the republic for having given us, for the first time in Boston, a hearing of all four parts of Father Haydn’s genial and delightful Cantata, Pastoral, or whatever it may be called. He had gathered together a crowd of heartily interested singers, some 250 voices, fresh and telling, and drilled them well; a full orchestra for the rich and graphic instrumentation; and secured competent vocal artists for the three characters that individualize a large part of the poetry, which follows mainly in the beaten track of Thomson. The performance last Saturday evening was extremely interesting; the Music Hall almost crowed, in spite of the east Wind…On the whole, the work was very fairly rendered for a first time, considering too that the fear of its great length must have made the conductor somewhat nervous…Mr. Lang should feel rewarded for this brave effort, and we trust the ‘Seasons’ will come round again.” (Dwight (March 31, 1866): 215)

       Lang appeared in two concerts in May 1866-a handwritten notation records that his solos were encored. At the May 21, 1866 Concert at Chickering Hall given by Mrs. H. F. Dupree vocalist, Lang played the “Andante” from Rondo Capriccio in E Minor by Mendelssohn and Liszt’s transcription of Weber’s Polonaise in E major-both were encored, but nothing else in the program was encored. Earlier in the month at the Saturday evening May 5, 1866 Benefit Concert for Miss Annie Cary his Liszt/Weber performance was doubly encored!. (BPL Lang Prog., Vol 1)

       Lang continued to appear with the Mendelssohn Quintette Club. At a concert presented in Providence during November 1866, the Providence Journal went “into ecstasies over Mr. Lang’s pianism, thusly: ”We have heretofore expressed our admiration of Mr. Lang’s piano-forte playing. There is something not only in his taste in selecting and his style of rendering music, but in his very looks and manner, as it seems to us, that indicates the presence of the truly conscientious and high-minded musician, who has a perfect sense of the dignity and worth of his art. Last evening he gave us some superb specimens of genuine piano-forte music and playing. The polonaise by Liszt was exceedingly rich, but what shall we say of the Mendelssohn trio?…To Mr. Lang must surely be accorded the honor of playing here the greatest and best piano-forte compositions to which our citizens have ever listened.”” (BMT (December 1, 1866): 5 and 6) Lang had appeared with the Club in Boston earlier in the year: “The last of the series of Chamber Concerts by the Mendelssohn Quintette Club, will be given at Chickerings’ Hall on Tuesday evening next, March 8th., when Mr. Lang will be the pianist. The programme is one of great merit, and we shall anticipate a large attendance.” (BMT (March 3, 1866): 37) The Times didn’t later print a review-during this period, 1865-66, the Boston Musical Times carried few detailed reviews.

       The Mendelssohn Piano Trio No. 1 was again played at the Club’s concert at Chickering’s’ Hall on Tuesday, January 8, 1867-it was the second concert in the series. “The Piano Trio, in D minor was wonderfully well played; each performer exerting himself to the utmost to do justice to his part in this most beautiful creation of the tone-poet, Mendelssohn. Mr. Lang’s interpretation of the piano part, in particular, was as chaste and finished a performance as we have ever had of this portion of the composition; we do not remember, ever, to have heard it better played than on this occasion.” Lang also played the first Boston performance of Dussek’s Sonata for Piano and Violin in B flat. The reviewer didn’t think this piece was at the same level as the rest of the program, but “the manner in which it was played” made amends “for whatever there was found wanting in the music.” (BMT (February 2, 1867): 14) By 1867 the Boston Musical Times was back to including full reviews of a number of concerts in each issue-however, only one piece of music was included per issue whereas in earlier years there had sometimes been three pieces in each musical supplement.

       Lang and the vocalist Miss Clara M Loring were the assisting artists at the “Fourth Schubert Matinee” presented by the pianist Mr. Perabo on January 31, 1867. The repertoire was all by Schubert. “The Rondo (in E minor) in which Mr. Lang played the Primo, and Mr. Perabo the Seconda part, was most brilliantly executed, and in exact time, there being no apparent unevenness in the tempi of the two performers. It is a charming composition and at once found favor with the audience. The Fantasia (in F minor) created a profound impression; it is one of those compositions of Schubert which the musician must ever delight to study. Greater interest seems to be attached to it than to many of the other works by the same composer. This time Mr. Perabo played the Primo and Mr. Lang the Seconda parts; the sight of two such artists, working together with but one object in view, and that was to do honor to the music of one of Germany’s greatest composers, was indeed gratifying…It certainly was one of the finest instances of piano duet playing that we have ever had…On the whole, it was as fine a concert as Mr. Perabo has yet offered. The hall was full and the audience of the most appreciative kind.” (BMT (March 2, 1867): 19)

       While Perabo was featuring Schubert, Carlyle Petersilia was presenting Schumann. The “Second Schumann Soiree” was performed “on Saturday evening, January 26, [1867 at] Chickerings’ Hall [which] was filled by an audience of music-lovers eager to hear the performance of a programme which, in point of magnitude, and contrast of subjects, is unequaled in our annals of piano concerts”. Lang took part in three of the four major pieces; a vocalist, Miss Edith Abel sang four songs scattered throughout the program. Petersilia performed the solo parts to the last two movements of Chopin’ Concerto in E minor and Schumann”s Piano Concerto in A minor with Lang providing the orchestral accompaniments at a second piano “with nicety of execution and truthful conception, thereby adding greatly to the performance.” The final number of the concert was Schumann’s Variations for Two Pianos where “Messrs. Lang and Petersilia completely electrified the audience.” (BMT (February 2, 1867): 15 and 16)

       Just over two weeks later, on Monday, February 18, 1867, the Harvard Musical Association arranged a benefit concert to aid “the exiled and starving women and children of the Cretan patriots, fighting for liberty against the Turks.”The Music Hall was sold out with many standing for the performance, and all the musicians donated their talents. Lang, together with Messrs. Dresel, Leonard, and Perabo performed the Duet for Two Pianos-Les Contrastes by Moscheles; Lang had included this same piece in his “Complimentary Concert” during the spring of 1860. The piece “was made very effective, however, in the execution; for four masters were united in it, and it was done with a power, a precision, a perfect unity and aplomb which could not fail to make an impression.” (Dwight (March 2, 1867): 407)

       Lang returned to his hometown of Salem and arranged a concert for Monday evening, March 4, 1867 at Lyceum Hall. He opened as the soloist in Mendelssohn’s Concerto No. 2 in D Minor, Opus 40 with his student, Alice Dutton playing the orchestral accompaniment. After a song by Miss Sarah W. Barton, Miss Dutton was the soloist in Mendelssohn’s Concerto No. 1 in G Minor, Opus 25 with Lang providing the orchestral accompaniment. Miss Barton sang two other solos, Lang played Liszt’s Transcription of Weber’s Polonaise in E, Opus 72 and the program ended with Lang and Dutton playing the Grand Duo on themes from Norma by Thalberg. (BPL Lang Prog.) The success of this concert may have led to the following orchestral concert.

       In an article headed “Salem, Mass,” Dwight noted that “Last Monday evening [May 20, 1867] this old town rejoiced in its first ‘Symphony Concert,’ given by Mr. M. S. Downs, with the aid of Miss Adelaide Phillipps and ‘the Boston Symphony Orchestra,’ under the direction of Mr. B. J. Lang. The object was to raise funds towards the erection of a new music hall, which Salem surely ought to have, for it is now a city, and has some very musical people, sending quite a delegation always to our Oratorios and Symphony Concerts in Boston. The occasion is said to have been in every sense most successful. This was the programme:

Symphony No. 5, Op. 57 Beethoven

“Oh mio Fernando” from Favorita Donizetti *

Overture to A Midsummer Night’s Dream Mendelssohn

Cuban Song Gradyer *

Concert Waltz The Village SwallowsJ. Strauss

Brindisi Galathes Masse *

Wedding March Mendelssohn

(Dwight, May 25, 1867, p. 39)

* = solos by Miss Phillipps (BPL Lang Prog.)

       On Saturday afternoon, October 26, 1867 Lang presented a lecture on the piano at Chickerings’ Hall primarily to pupils of the New England Conservatory, but other interested parties attended.“Mr. Lang spoke about three-quarters of an hour in an off-hand and rather pleasant manner. The merit of his lecture was in the practical suggestions he threw out, which were evolved from his own experience as a teacher. He promised at the state that he should be crude, and he was a little so, but the information imparted was more than an offset. Some of his anecdotes were a little musty and not always apropos, but he gave on the whole satisfaction to his hears. For a first attempt it was fair. But it is no injustice to Mr. Lang to say that he plays better than he preaches.”Among his comments: he preferred “Uprights” over “Squares;” there are too many that attempt to learn the piano-“Mere practice, however long continued, will not make a player unless there is an original capacity [talent] for it;” in his travel abroad, he found the best piano in Spain and the worst in Ireland; “A Boston piano, made by Boston mechanics, is good enough;” regular chairs were better than piano stools; “He thought ladies were naturally better players and teachers than men, as they have a power to easily acquire and impart.”The article had originally appeared in the Post. (Dwight (November 9, 1867): 136) The Boston Musical Times also used the Post article, noting, in addition to what Dwight reported, that “Mr. Lang’s views with regard to popular musical entertainments are exceedingly severe, and do not accord with those of a vast majority of the people, but he deserves credit for frankness…Mr. Lang gave much good and practical advice as to learning and teaching the piano. He uttered some pretty severer things against the music of the day, and regarded miscellaneous concerts as crude and unsatisfactory. Entertainments in which a whole symphony is given he regards as something worthwhile to listen to. In this connection, he commended the concerts of the Harvard Musical Association and Orchestral Union…Some of the English peculiarities of playing the piano were adverted to, and their absurdities pointed out. The English have their way in the matter of piano playing just as they do in some other things, and stick to it whether good or bad. As to the art of playing and the manner, he said he could not state it. It defied language to express. it was a thing to hear, not to describe…The merit of his lecture was in the practical suggestions he threw out, which were evolved from his own experience as a teacher. He promised at the start that he should be crude, and he was a little so, but the information imparted was more than an offset.” (BMT (November 2, 1867): 87)

       On February 5, 1868 Lang took part in a “Complimentary Concert, Given in Honor of the Members of the Commercial Convention” and sponsored by the “Boston Board of Trade.” Lang appeared three times in the first half of the concert. First, he played two organ solos, Fantasia in G by Bach and a “Chorus” from Elijah displaying the “Vox Humana stop,” and then he joined with the Julius Eichberg in Eichberg’s Religious Meditation for Violin and Organ, and the first half ended with the Bach/Gounod Ave Maria sung by Mrs. Smith with Eichberg on violin, Lang probably on piano, and Dr. J. H. Willcox on organ(HMA Program Collection). An interesting mix of classic and popular for this convention of tradesmen. Part two of the concert was presented by Gilmore’s Band!

        In March 1868 “Mr. B. J. Lang had ‘the pleasure’ he so courteously craved ‘of introducing to the musical public of Boston’ the Eight Book of Songs Without Words (first brought to light so recently) by his favorite composer. (Mendelssohn) He must have had that pleasure in a high degree, introducing them to an audience so select, so large, and so much gratified as that assembled in Chickering Hall on the afternoon of March 18.” The concert opened with Beethoven’s Sonata Op. 22 and ended with Mendelssohn’s Sonata Op. 58 for Cello and Piano. “ We did not think Mr. Lang quite so happy in his interpretation of the Beethoven Sonata as he is with Mendelssohn; but the Sonata Duo, with Wulf Fries, went splendidly and was worth the whole.” (Dwight (March 28, 1868): 215) In Langs announcement of this concert he mentioned that these Mendelssohn pieces had been “published for the first time last month and just received from Europe.” It would seem that this was another Boston or American first performance by Lang. The tickets were $1. (BPL Lang Prog.)

       John S. Dwight-“He had found in Dwight’s Journal of Music an ideal medium through which to propagate his vision of music. The extent of Dwight’s influence, however, is unclear. The precise circulation of the journal has never been ascertained. And Dwight himself was becoming isolated. His purist, Germanic view of music never really reflected the tastes of the Boston public. As his views hardened, he became increasingly distanced from the reality of Boston concert life.

Dwight nevertheless remained a powerful figure in Boston’s musical circles. His power base came from his connection to elite society, which was centered in two organizations: the Saturday Club and the Harvard Musical Association. As a member of the Saturday Club Dwight was admitted into the inner sanctum of the elite. The club joined literature and power; its membership included some of the richest, most prominent men in Boston, such as Thomas G. Appleton, Charles Francis Adams, and James Elliot Cabot, as well as some of the age’s, most important literary figures, such as Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry W. Longfellow, and Nathaniel Hawthorne…

His (Dwight’s) friendship with Emerson and Parker, his principal entrée into intellectual society, had been forged when his work in German literature far outweighed his musical accomplishments. No other musician was a member of the Saturday Club, although by the 1880s there were other potential candidates in Boston, such as William Mason and B. J. Lang. No painter, sculptor, or other visual artist was a member.” (Broyles, 306 and 307)

Dwight’s support of Lang as a new member of the Boston musical community is shown through his printing of Lang’s program for a solo piano concert given at the Town Hall in Milton even though “other engagements, we are sorry to say, prevented us from hearing it.

Benediction de Dieu Dans la Solitude:    Liszt

Rondo Cappriccioso [sic] in E minor. Op. 12:    Mendelssohn

Etude in D flat major-Cradle Song:    Heller

Caprice in C major:    Lang

Caprice in A flat major:    Lang

Fantasie in A minor:    Mendelssohn

Fantasie in E minor:    Mendelssohn

Scherzo in B flat minor, Op. 31:    Chopin

Transcription of Themes from a Polonaise by Weber:   Liszt.”

(Dwight (October 10, 1868): 326)

       The programs for the 1869 “Mr. B. J. Lang’s Symphony Concerts at Mercantile Hall” were:

       Tuesday, April 6, 1869  3:30 PM

Overture to Prometheus:    Beethoven

Symphony # 3 in E Flat:    Mozart

Serenade and Allegro in B Minor:    Mendelssohn

                    Miss Alice Dutton

Symphony # 4 (Italian):    Mendelssohn

 

       Tuesday, April 13

Symphony # 8:    Beethoven

Overture: Calm Sea…:   Mendelssohn

Piano Concerto # 4:    Beethoven

                       Mr. Hugo Leonard

Overture: The Naiads Sterndale Bennett

 

       Tuesday, April 20

Symphony # 6:    Beethoven

Overture: The Hebrides:    Mendelssohn

Violin Concerto:    Beethoven

                        Mr. Bernhard Listemann

Symphony # 7 in G Major:   Haydn (BPL Lang Prog.)

The brochure announcing the series had a slightly different order of pieces, and the location was listed as Chickering Hall. A second brochure reflects the program as listed above and the location to be the Mercantile Hall (both in the HMA Program Collection). Dwight referred to them as a “short after-summer [season]” following “The close of the great season, with the last Symphony Concert and the Easter Oratorios…Mr. Lang’s very successful experiment is over for the present. Mercantile Hall has been crowded each time, and with the best kind of audience…The only drawback to the full enjoyment of those orchestral performances was in the character of the hall, which neither has a musical and cheerful aspect, nor very good acoustic qualities. To all but the remotest listeners the sounds were hard and dry, the fortissimos more striking than inspiring; the timpani, for instance, in the storm part of the Pastoral Symphony, dealt something more like blows than sounds upon our tympanum…Mr. Lang is rapidly making himself at home in his new function as Conductor, and he does wisely to take a small and modest house at first,-a picked orchestra of a few more than thirty instruments (six first violins); capable and faithful with a few, he may yet be ruler over many…Mr. Lang has made many thankful for this fine little after-season of symphonic life and sunshine” (Dwight (April 24, 1869): 22 and 23)

        The fall of 1869 and winter/spring of 1869-70 saw Lang in Europe where he gave a number of solo piano recitals. At the Hotel de Rome in Berlin on December 28, 1869 he played Beethoven’s Sonata Opus 22, Chopin”s Scherzo Opus 31, two works by Bach, Mendelssohn’s Caprice in E Opus 16, and ended with Liszt’s arrangement of Weber’s Polonaise. (BPL Lang Prog.) On Friday, March 11, 1870 Lang played at the “Saale des Herrn Hof-Pianofortefabrikant Ronisch in Dresden.” The program was much the same as in Berlin, but he included Mendelssohn’s Concerto in G Opus 25 (no mention of who played the orchestral part) and two pieces, Phantasien in A dur and in C dur of his own composition. (BPL Lang Prog.) A concert in Vienna on Friday, May 13, 1870 at Bosendorfer’s Hall included the Mendelssohn Concerto, the Liszt/Weber and four songs by Lang sung by Carl Adams of the Opera House: their titles were Spring, Spinning, Love and Lied-Psalm 86. (BPL Lang Prog.)

       Lang continued to appear at the concerts promoted by others. On Saturday evening, December 3, 1870 Mr. J. W. Brackett invited listeners to the opening of “his new Music Hall, No. 409 Washington St.,” and the program included Lang playing Mendelssohn’s Piano Concerto in G Minor, Op. 25 with the orchestral accompaniment played art “a second Piano Forte by Mr. H. G. Tucker [his pupil]” (HMA Program Collection).

       Dwight announced that “Mr. B. J. Lang has made arrangements to give four concerts at the Globe Theatre on Thursday afternoons, beginning Jan. 19 [1871], and alternating with the Harvard Symphony concerts. There will be a piano trio, a piano concerto and a string quartet at each concert.” (Dwight (December 31, 1870): 375) “The Programmes [see next page] have been made up with special consideration for the younger class of Concertgoers.” The series cost $5, or single tickets were $1.50. (BPL Lang Prog.) The first was given on Thursday afternoon, January 19 and “drew a very choice and (for a chamber concert) a large audience. There were at least three hundred good listeners, seated mostly in the parquette of the handsome theatre, in comfortable seats with everything cozy and harmonious about them.” The Mendelssohn Quintette Club also participated in Mozart’s Quintett Opus 108, Beethoven’s Trio in C Minor Opus 1, No. 4, and formed the accompaniment, with the addition of a double bass, for the Mendelssohn Piano Concerto in G minor, Opus 25 for which “Mr. Lang’s was a very fervent, carefully studied, finished and intelligent performance.” As a solo, he played the Chopin Scherzo in B flat minor, Opus 31, “and conveyed it to his hearers so well that one scarcely thought of the masterly ease of execution it involved.” The end of the review listed the works for the second concert: Beethoven-String Quartet in A, Beethoven-Piano Concerto No. 1, Chopin-Ballade in A flat, and Mendelssohn- Trio in C minor. Dwight’s final comment was that “These concerts come in pleasant alternation with the Harvard Symphony Concerts.” (Dwight, January 28, 1871)

       In fact, this second concert on Thursday afternoon February 1, 1872 at 3:30 PM opened with Schubert’s String Quintet in C, Opus 163 in place of the advertised Beethoven Quartett in A Major Opus 18. Again using the Mendelssohn Quintette Club as the accompaniment for the Beethoven First Piano Concerto Opus 15, Dwight felt that “with only the shadow of an orchestra (string quartet with double-bass) it sounded to us more dry and tame than” when Lang had played it with full orchestra three years previously. However, he ended with: “We are thankful for the too-rare chance of hearing such a work.” The comment on B. J.’s contribution as a pianist was: “Mr. Lang had ample sphere for all his fine, clear, finished technique, and tasteful phrasing.” This probably referred to his performance of Chopin’s Ballade in A Flat major Opus 49. The concert ended with Mendelssohn’s Trio in C Minor Opus 66.

       This third concert of the series on Thursday afternoon February 16, 1872 again using the Mendelssohn Quintette Club as assisting artists presented the repertoire as previously advertised. It began with the Haydn-Quartet No. 67, continued with two piano solos: Capriccio, Opus 22 by Sterndale Bennett and Benediction de Dieu dans la Solitude by Liszt, and ended with“the great B-flat Trio [Opus 97] of Beethoven.” (Dwight, February 11, 1871) Dwight’s felt that the Liszt piece’s “inspiration had all faded out before the end,” but that “Mr. Lang played it, however, con amore and devoutly, with much expression, and had the close (no doubt with many the sympathetic) attention of the audience throughout.” (Dwight (February 25, 1871): 406 and 407)

        The fourth and last concert of this chamber music series was given Tuesday afternoon, March 2 to “an uncommonly large and cultivated audience.” The program was:

Quintet in B Flat major, Op. 87 Mendelssohn

Concerto in C Major for Three Pianofortes Bach

Pianoforte Pieces Lang

Pianoforte Concerto in D Minor, Op. 40 Mendelssohn

Messrs. Lang, Leonhard, and Parker played the Bach with an accompaniment of string quartet plus double bass. Dwight commented on Lang’s pieces: “For piano solos, Mr. Lang played a couple of very graceful, airy, finished little fancies of his own, which were much enjoyed, and, in answer to an encore, another, not (we should think) from the same source, which seemed a little tame.” Dwight continued: “The D-minor Concerto of Mendelssohn, was, if we remember rightly, first introduced to a Boston public by Mr. Lang, with orchestra, more than a dozen years ago. It is needless to say that he plays it very finely now, but the Quintet abridgment feebly supplied the place of the orchestra. And so the pleasant company dispersed, rather reluctantly at thinking that no more such feasts remained.”(Dwight (March 11, 1871): 415)

       Later, that same spring (1871) Lang presented a series of four piano concerts given on successive Monday afternoons during April in Bumstead Hall featuring his pupils.Mr. G. W. Sumner, Mr. W. F. Apthorp, Mr. G. A. Adams, and Mr. H. G. Tucker performed solo works, duets, and concertos “before large and cultivated audiences… The young knights summon witnesses to see that their spurs are well won, for they shrink not from the highest tasks. It must be acknowledged that so far they have acquitted themselves with honor…Mr. Lang himself (teacher and ”head centre” of the group) outlined the orchestral parts upon another piano.” (Dwight ( April 22, 1871): 14)

On Friday evening October 27, 1871 Lang was one of the assisting artists in “Mr. Peck’s Popular Concerts” at the Music Hall. He played the solo version of Liszt’s Grand Fantasie on Weber’s Polonaise in E Major. Among the other guest artists were Mrs. Frohock who opened the concert with an organ solo (un-named) and Miss Phillipps. General Admission was 25 cents with reserved tickets at 50 cents. (BPL Lang Prog., 6272) Lang played in another Peck concert on Thursday evening December 28, 1871. His solo was Liszt’s Fantasie on La Charitie. This concert opened with an organ introduction played by Mr. Eugene Thayer. Miss Adelaide Phillipps was also among the assisting artists for this event as she was for a similar concert advertised for Saturday afternoon December 30, 1871 and Sunday evening December 31, 1871. (BPL Lang Prog., 6273)

“Mr. B. J. Lang began his second series of four Concerts, at the Globe Theatre again, on Thursday, February 14, [1872] at 3 P.M.The attendance was flattering both in character and numbers; the social and artistic atmosphere and the surroundings very pleasant.” The Mendelssohn Quintette Club shared the program, and opened with Mozart’s String Quartet No. 8 in F major. Then Lang played two Chopin pieces-the Nocturne in C Minor, Opus 48, and then, “to eke out its brevity he also played one of the most admired of Chopin’s Ballades with rare grace and finesse.” The final piece was the Beethoven Piano Concerto No. 1 in B Flat, Opus 19 with the accompaniment played by a second piano (Mr. Sumner), string quintet and flute. The work had only been played in Boston once before: January 16, 1868 by the Harvard Musical Association with Lang as soloist. Dwight’s review of the first performance mentioned that “There is abundant opportunity for the player to show his good taste, ease, and reserve power, the subjection of deft, thoroughly practiced hands to expression, all of which Mr. Lang eminently did show. It was a most elegant and happy rendering of a charming composition with which all were glad to have made acquaintance.” (Johnson, 46) In an evaluation of this second performance, Dwight wrote: “It was an admirable rendering throughout.”The review ended with the program for the second concert to be held on Thursday, February 29-Beethoven String Quartet No. 7 in F Minor, four Nocturnes Opus 23 by Schumann, and the Mendelssohn Sonata for Cello and Piano, Opus 58. The review for this concert began: “The charming little theatre has been fuller each time…Instead of the four Nocturnes, however, Mr. Lang played only the first, -so interesting in itself, so well interpreted, that one could not be quite resigned to the withholding of its promised three companions.”The reason for this change was that the Beethoven Piano Concerto in B flat was repeated from the first concert. Also, the Beethoven Quartet was No. 11, rather than No. 7. The March 14 third concert included a Concerto by Bach for two violins; a four-hand composition by Mr. Bradlee, an accomplished amateur of our city; Chopin’s Etude in C sharp minor, Opus 25; and a Trio in B flat by Rubinstein. Lang and Mr. Perabo played the Bradlee work which led to an encore of the first movement of Rubinstein’s Ocean Symphony which prepared the audience for the Rubinstein Trio which was “played con amore and with great life and spirit, [and] charmed the audience, unfolding richer and richer as it went on.”Lang’s Chopin solo was mentioned: “As a technical etude it presents great difficulties, but these the hearer was not allowed to think of, so fully was he made to feel the charm and meaning of the piece.” The final concert on March 28 was advertised as having the Bach Concerto in D minor for Three Pianos, two movements of a Quintet in C by Lachner, and the Third Piano Concerto by Beethoven. (Dwight (March 23, 1872): 207)

Lang presented a series of four concerts on Monday afternoons at 3:30 PM beginning with April 10, 1871. These featured his pupils Mr. G. A. Adams, Mr. William F. Apthorp, Mr. G. W. Sumner, and Mr. Tucker. The first concert included:

          Prelude in C (Well-tempered Clavichord, No.1 – Bach (Adams)

          Fugue in E Minor, Fourth Suite – Handel (Adams)

          Three Diversions, Piano Four hands, Opus 17 – Sterndale Bennett

          Concerto in F Minor Opus 21 – Chopin (Sumner)

          “Festspiel und Brautlied” from Wagner’s Lohengrin – Liszt (Tucker)

The second concert on Monday, April 17 included:

           Concerto in E Flat Opus 73 – Beethoven (Adams)

           Fantasia Cromatica e Fuga in D Minor – Bach (Sumner)

           Concertstuck in F Opus 79 – Weber (6275) (Tucker)

The third concert on Monday, April 24 included:

           Ballade in A-Flat Opus 53 – Chopin (Sumner)

           Concerto in A Minor Opus 54 – Schumann (Tucker)

           “Arioso (Tristan’s Vision)” from Die Walkure – Wagner (Apthorp accompanist for Dr. Langmaid)

            Rondo in C for Two Pianos, Opus 73 – Chopin (Sumner & Adams)

The fourth and final concert on may 1 included:

            Andante, Spianato and Polonaise Brillante Opus 22 – Chopin (Adams)

            “Slow Movement” from Fantasia Opus 17 – Schumann (Sumner)

             Ballade in A-Flat Opus 20 – Reinecke (Tucker)

             Concerto in C Minor for thee pianosBach (6276)(Adams, Sumner,and Tucker with Apthorp playing the orchestral part)(Citations from                   BPL LangProg., 6293-4)

Lang gave another series of four Globe Theatre Concerts on Thursday afternoons at 3 PM in 1872. The program for the fourth concert included:

              String Quintette in B Flat – Mendelssohn

              Piano Concerto No. 3 – Beethoven

              Grand Trio in B Flat major – Rubinstein

              Concerto for Three Pianofortes – Bach

The second series of Thursday afternoon 3 PM orchestral concerts was performed April 11, 18, 25 and May 2, 1872 at Mechanics’ Hall, Bedford Street. Lang’s announcement stated: “Mr. Lang begs leave to remind his friends of the Symphony Concerts which he once gave at Mercantile Hall, of the Bumstead Hall Pianoforte Concerts of last Spring, and to announce that he now proposes to give a series of Symphony Concerts, at Mechanics Hall (Bedford St.) on Thursday Afternoons. ” (BPL Lang Prog.) Season tickets were $4, single tickets were $1.25. An appreciation of Lang’s concert giving activities is reflected in an announcement printed in the Folio: “The public will learn, with no small degrees of pleasure, that our talented pianists, Mr. B. J. Lang proposes to give a second series of Symphony Concerts, at Mechanic’s Hall, beginning on Thursday afternoon, April 11th, at three o’clock. There will be four concerts in the series. We need offer no remarks relative to the great worth and importance of these classical entertainments.” (Folio, May 1872) The critic William F. Apthorp was one of the soloists, and the announcement for the series reminded patrons of the Bumstead Hall Pianoforte Concerts held last spring. The first concert on April 11, 1872 featured Mr. G. A. Adams as the soloist in Schumann’s Concerto in A Minor Opus 51. (BPL Lang Prog.) Dwight reviewed the second and third of “these attractive ”Thursday Afternoons” (which) have shown improvement in the orchestral performance and increase of interest.”The second program included Beethoven’s, Symphony No. 7, Reinecke’s Concertstuck, Opus 33 played by B. J.’s pupil, Mr. R. C. Dixey, the “Aria and Gavotte” from Bach’s Suite in D Minor, the “Barcarole” from Sterndale Bennett’s Piano Concerto No. 4 played by Mr. William F. Apthorp, and the finale was the Overture to A Midsummer Night’s Dream. “Beethoven’s Seventh was rather a large Symphony for an orchestra of thirty, yet for the most part, it was remarkably well rendered and appreciated…Mr. Dixey was received with warm signs of favor…Mr. Apthorp’s selection was of a less pretentious and altogether graceful, pleasing character…Not demanding any high degree of execution, -except that it grows a little tasking toward the end, -it showed the taste and musical intelligence and feeling of the ardent young interpreter to good advantage.” The review for the third concert of April 25 praised the playing of B. J.’s young pupil, Mr. H. G. Tucker in Beethoven’s Fifth Piano Concerto.” (BPL Lang Prog.) These concerts at Mechanics Hall were seen to be “supplementing in some sense, in a smaller hall, the larger Symphony Season.Dwight ended his review by mentioning Lang’s fourth and final concert in the series which “passes fairly over into the domain of Chamber Music, dispensing with full orchestra and offering the flowing selections: Hummel’s Pianoforte Septet (played by Mr. G. W. Sumner); Beethoven’s Septet; Concerto for Three Pianofortes in C, Bach, (played by Mr. G. A. Adams, Mr. G. W. Sumner, and Mr. H. G. Tucker)” with presumably B. J. playing the orchestral part on a fourth piano. (Dwight (May 4, 1872): 230 and 231) Dwight’s review of the fourth concert was rather brief and ended with compliments to the three pianists: “It was a sweet and wholesome ending to a choice and enjoyable little after-series of concerts. With the accession of all these able young pianists Boston may feel rich indeed in that department.” (Dwight (May 18, 1872): 239)

The Great Boston Fire began on the evening of November 9, 1872, and it was not until the following Sunday at 2 PM that it was put under control. Sixty-five acres were destroyed which included 776 buildings. The total cost of personal property and merchandise lost was “estimated at close to $7 billion in today’s dollars.” (Puleo, 178) Lang’s former church, Old South was threatened but saved. “Flames licked at the venerable church’s door, even as crews poured streams of water on its walls and several brave firefighters climbed the roof to sweep away sparks. Even Burt [Postmaster General who had advocated blowing up buildings to stop the fire] resisted demands that Old South be blown up. The battle to save the church raged through the night, and when the steeple clock struck 6:00 AM, one bystander said, ”Dear old church, I’m afraid we shall never hear that bell again.” But at the last moment, a steam engine from Portsmouth, New Hampshire, arrived; it had been loaded on a flatbed train with the Portsmouth fire company and taken to Boston. Fresh firefighters and equipment turned the tide; the fire was stopped at Washington Street and Old South survived.” (Puleo, 181)

      In presenting concerts, Lang not only had the effects of the Great Boston Fire to contend with, but also the safety of his concert goers. The Boston musical paper published by Dexter Smith reported in December 1872: “Boston is now the most unsafe city in the Union, as regards life and property. Nearly every day brings its murder or robbery, and the victim is not allowed a choice between being shot down in his own doorway (like a dog), or cut up, packed in barrels and thrown into the river. A ”committee of safety” is being talked of by the citizens, and we hope it will result in something more than talk. A little old-fashioned hanging would be a good thing now.” (Dexter Smith‘s (December 1872): 284)

      Even in these difficult times, Lang was able to continue his career. Early in 1873 he conducted a performance of the “Boston Choral Union.” Held at Wait’s Hall on January 9, 1873, there were five assisting vocalists and Mr. G. W. Sumner as the accompanist. Tickets were 50 cents. Strangely the composers’ names were not listed after the choral selections-they only sang six pieces. (BPL Lang Prog.)

       In 1873 B. J. gave a series of four concerts at Mechanics’ Hall: March 6 and 20 and April 3 and 17 at three o’clock. No orchestra was mentioned. Season tickets were $4. (BPL Lang Prog. (The first concert, given to a completely filled hall, “a large and fashionable audience,” (Folio, April 1873): 104) included Beethoven’s First Piano Concerto, which “was rendered by Mr. Lang with delicacy and refinement,” (Ibid) (Mr. Sumner supplied the outline of the orchestral accompaniment effectively on a second grand piano), three songs by Mendelssohn sung by Mr. Charles R. Hayden, the Cello Sonata, Opus 69 by Beethoven, played by Mr. Wulf Fries who “sustained his usual good reputation,” (Ibid) Six Pieces for piano Opus 72 by Mendelssohn, and the Mozart Sonata for Two Pianos, Opus 53 “which was admirably rendered by Mr. J. C. D. Parker and B. J. Lang.” (Ibid) Dwight reported: “Mozart’s Sonata for two pianos was a most acceptable novelty, full of the truest Mozart life and charm throughout, and the performance by Mr. Parker and Mr. Lang was all that could be wished. The six little Kinderstucke by Mendelssohn were a pleasant offering gracefully presented.” (Dwight (March 22, 1873): 406 and 407) The second concert which “was even more interesting than the first,” featured Bach’s Concerto for Two Pianos in C major played by Lang and Mr. Otto Dresel with string quartet accompaniment-“Even more beautiful than that for three pianos.” Lang played two solo pieces by Bach and Chopin’s Nocturne in C minor, Op. 48, and the concert concluded with Schumann’s Quintet for Piano and Strings which “was given with great spirit and triumphant mastery, as if the whole thing were the inspiration of the moment.” (Dwight (April 5, 1873): 414)(BPL Lang Prog.) The third concert had the following program:
img_5602smallHMA Program Collection

The third concert included solo piano works, Schumann’s Sonata for Violin and Piano Op. 105, “and then, having forgotten to bring the notes of a Beethoven Rondo promised in the programme, he repeated, to the delight of all, the wonderful Nocturne in C Minor by Chopin, op. 48, in a masterly manner. Chopin’s Rondo in C, op. 73, for two pianos, very finely played by Mr. Hugo Leonhard and Mr. Lang, brought the concert grandly to a close.”The fourth and final concert, given on April 17 included two piano concertos (Beethoven Concerto in C Minor Opus 15 and Mendelssohn’s Concerto in D Minor Opus 40) played by B. J. with orchestral parts played by Mr. G. W. Sumner, songs by Beethoven and five of his piano Bagatelles, and Schumann’s Andante and Variations, op. 46 for two pianos with Mr. Ernst Perabo.(Dwight (May 3, 1873): 14)

      Lang conducted another concert by the “Boston Choral Union” on Thursday evening April 17, 1873 at Phillips Church, South Boston. The work was Mendelssohn’s Elijah and the accompaniment was by Mr. H. G. Tucker at the piano and Mr. G. W. Sumner at the organ. Among the soloists were Mrs. Julia Houston West, Mr. W. J. Winch and Mr. John F. Winch. The tickets were 50 cents. (BPL Lang Prog.)

      Lang continued to appear as a soloist in concerts of other organizations. The “First Grand Concert” by the “Boston Orchestral Club,” an orchestra of forty-five, presented a concert at the Music Hall on Sunday evening April 19, 1874 with Frederic F. Ford and Lang as soloist in the Second Part of the concert performing Capriccio in B Minor for Piano and Orchestra by Mendelssohn. Lang was only one of five other assisting artists plus a Horn Quartette! (HMA Program Collection)(BPL Lang Prog., Vol. 2) Tickets were fifty cents.

      From c. 1874 until 1884 Lang gave “a series of pianoforte concerts, the present season (1884) forming the only exception. He has given five different sets of symphony concerts, and in these has always followed the good German idea of a large orchestra in a small hall, so that no possible effect should be lost.” (Mus. Ob., 1884)

       The 1874 series of Thursday afternoon 3:30 to 5 PM Chamber Music Concerts at Mechanics’ Hall began on February 19, 1874 with a program opening with Beethoven’s Sonata in C minor, Op. 30 for Violin and Piano and closing with the Fantasie in form of a Sonata, Op. 5 by Saran which “Mr. Lang played with unflagging spirit and great brilliancy…to the delight of the whole company” except for Dwight who felt that there was just too much expression even though he did have to admit that the title did allow “more or less of moody freedom in this regard.” (Dwight (March 7, 1874): 190)A review by Dwight did not always guarantee a positive evaluation of Lang. The second concert “offered to a crowded audience” included Mendelssohn’s youthful Piano and String Quartet in B minor, Op. 5 with three members of the Mendelssohn Quintette Club “which he composed over two years before the Midsummer Night’s Dream Overture…Mr. Lang showed an easy mastery of its great difficulties, and the work went well as a whole.” Songs by Schubert and Beethoven were sung by Mr. George L. Osgood, and Lang played Chopin’s Fantasie in F minor, Op. 49, but not to the best review: “We have had [it] better played in concerts of Mr. Dresel and, more recently, of Rubenstein.Mr. Lang was not at his best in it, -at least not so happy as in his rendering of some other not less trying works of Chopin.”The concert ended with Schumann’s Piano Quintet in E flat major, Op. 44-no critical comment was made. (Dwight (March 21, 1874): 178 and 179) On March 12, which was the third in the series, Mendelssohn’s Trio in C Minor was played by Lang and the brothers August and Wulf Fries.” Mr. Lang repeated the Fantasie Sonata by Saran, with the same brilliancy and clearness as before, and, to our feeling, much more satisfactorily with regard to evenness of tempo and chaste simplicity of expression.The concert closed with an admirable performance, by himself and Wulf Fries, of the Introduction and Polonaise, Op. 3 for piano and cello, by Chopin.”A tenor, Mr. Charles R. Hayden also took part. (Dwight (April 4, 1874): 206 and 207) The final concert in that year’s series was given on March 26: it “was a remarkably attractive one, -at all events Mechanics’ Hall was thronged. The great feature was the Trio in B flat, Opus 52, [for piano, violin and cello] by Rubinstein, a fiery, strange, effective work, bristling with difficulties from which many a deft and staunch pianist might well shrink; but Mr. Lang seemed in his element while resolutely, gracefully surmounting them, and came out loudly cheered…Mr. Lang’s piano solos came all together in a series of six pieces in the middle of the concert…finally, again by Chopin, that ever welcome great Nocturne in C minor (Opus 48), for which we have several times expressed our indebtedness to Mr. Lang, who played it con amore.” (Dwight (April 18, 1874): 214) The vocalist Clara Doria also took part. Wiliam F. Apthrop gave a very favorable review of the series; “Mr. Lang’s series of concerts at Mechanic’s Hall closed March 26. They have been decided favorites with the lovers of classical music, every concert being largely attended. With able assistants, Mr. Lang presented on each occasion good selections, and rendered them in a manner worthy of his high reputation as a musical artist.” (Brian, 59: original in Folio (May 1874): 148) Of course this was written by a former pupil of Lang’s.

       In addition to promoting his own concerts, B. J. appeared in those organized by others. After the headline “Boston Philharmonic Club” Dwight wrote: “The first Classical Matinee of Mr. Bernard Listemann and his accomplished associates, took place Nov. 30th., in Mechanics Hall, before a very appreciative audience. And it was one of the finest chamber concerts we have heard for many a day.” After the String Quartet in D minor, Opus 77 by Raff, and a French Horn solo, “The piano selections were interpreted by Mr. Lang; that happy little, bright Allegro from Handel, with which he pleased so much last year, was played more exquisitely than ever; and that almost impossible Etude of Chopin, with the wide arpeggio chords, kept up unflaggingly, all came out clearly and effectively.” The concert ended with Beethoven’s Trio Opus 87 for Piano, Violin, and Cello. (Dwight (December 12, 1874) “The Boston Philharmonic Club” was organized much like the Mendelssohn Quintette Club in that it was a combination of string and wind players. The players in 1874 were: Bernard Listemann, violin; Fritz Listemann, violin; Emil Gramm, viola and violin; Adolph Hartdegen, cello; Eugene Weiner, flute, and Adolph Belz, horn and viola. The piano accompanists listed were E. Gramm. A. Belz, and F. Listemann (HMA Program Collection).

       “Mr. B. J. Lang gave the first of two concerts, at Mechanics’ Hall, last Thursday afternoon (April 22, 1875), which drew the large audience which his concerts always command; and it was a concert full of interest.” Two artists assisted: Miss Grace Sampson, one of his pupils, played Mozart’s Sonata in D for Two Pianos” with her teacher; the two giving us a very finished and artistic rendering…Miss Sampson’s touch is nice, her execution clean and even, and her whole performance had not a little of the fineness as well as the vigor of her master’s.” Miss Ita Welsh, not in the best of voice, sang four songs to Lang’s accompaniment, and his solos included Chopin’s Impromptu in F Sharp Minor, Handel’s Bourree in G, and the concert ended with Schumann’s Concertstuck in G, Op. 92 with Lang as soloist and his pupil playing the orchestral accompaniment. Dwight mentioned that Lang had played this work twice before with orchestra. (Dwight (May 1, 1875): 15) The second concert on April 29 used the same three performers and the same program arrangement. At this concert Miss Ita Welsh was in fine voice earning and encore, “and in all her songs she succeeded admirably.” (Dwight (May 29, 1875): 30)

       The two 3 PM chamber music concerts held in the spring of 1876 were given on Thursday afternoons March 23 and 30, again at Mechanics’ Hall. “His programmes were unique, the distinctive feature being the great prominence given to the French composer who has excited so much interest here of late, Camille Saint-Saens…On his visit to Europe last summer Mr. Lang was commissioned by the Harvard Musical Association to procure, for its Library and its Concerts, some of the principal compositions of Saint-Saens.” For the March 23 concert, Lang and Arthur Foote opened with the American premier [Foote, Auto., 44] of Saint-Saens’ Variations for Two Pianofortes on a Theme by Beethoven, Opus 35 which had just been composed and published only two years before in 1874. “These were the days when St. Saens” music came to us as a stunning novelty.” (Ibid) About twenty-five years later the Bostonian Mabel Daniels, who was a music student in Munich at that time (1902) recorded that she played this piece with her teacher. “I think it is great, especially the big fugue at the end.” (Daniels, Am. Girl, 258) It would be interesting to know if she had previously heard the work in Boston. In the same concert Miss Ita Welsh sang two songs, Lang played four short Bach pieces as transcribed by Saint-Saens and the concert ended with Lang as the soloist and Foote providing the orchestra parts in Saint-Saens’ Concerto No. 2 in G Minor.Lang had played the American premiere of this work two months before with Carl Zerrahn conducting the Harvard Musical Association at the Music Hall. Lang was able to play the work with an orchestra again at the end of the year. He performed with The New York Philharmonic Society led by Leopold Damrosch on December 9, 1876, but the New York premiere of the work had been done only one day before with the Thomas Orchestra at Steinway Hall with Annette Essipoff, piano! The program of the second chamber music concert again followed

 

the outline of the first. The Trio in F Major for Piano, Violin, and Cello by St. Saens played by Lang and the two Wulf brothers opened the concert, followed by two songs, this time sung by Miss Lillian Bailey were separated by four Bach/Saint-Saens transcriptions, and the concert ended with Lang as the soloist in the Tschaikowsky (sic) Piano Concerto in B Flat Minor and the orchestral part played by Arthur Foote. (BPL Lang Prog., Vol. 2) This was Miss Bailey’s debut: ” She is a bright, enthusiastic maiden of sixteen, with a soprano voice of singular purity and sweetness, and of a sympathetic quality. For one so young she seems to have made careful studies, as well as to possess intelligence beyond her years.” Dwight did not enjoy the Tchaikovsky: “The Russian Concerto suffered peculiarly by being deprived of its orchestral background; for it is a work conceived in the extreme modern style, dependent upon brilliant accessories and color contrast for its full effect…Mr. Lang had mastered its immense technical difficulties surprisingly well; but it did seem as if, in putting off the gala dress, the soul had also faded from the features. How much of the pretentious music of today can bear this test? But Beethoven is Beethoven if you only feel his shadow pass you in the twilight!” (Dwight (April 15, 1876): 213 and 214) Lang had been the conductor of the world premiere of the Tchaikovsky concerto with Hans von Bulow as soloist only six months before (October 25, 1875). The opera singer Clara Rogers was also present at Bailey’s debut, and she noted: “Her singing at that time was almost amusingly unbridled, but her fresh, young voice and musical instinct had a charm of their own. She had not then the remotest idea how to adapt the spoken sentence to the musical phrase; good diction was an unknown quantity to her! I mention this because it was precisely the timely acquisition of good diction in her studies abroad that made her a finished artist; the distinguishing feature of her delightful singing being her faultlessly clear enunciation of every word.” (Rogers, Two Lives, 70 and 71)

       Lang presented two concerts at Mechanics Hall late in March 1876. Dwight noted that the “distinctive feature” was the preponderance of music by Saint-Saens, “organist at the Madeline in Paris, a musician thoroughly trained in the best classical school, at home in Bach [important to Dwight], and with a streak of genius in him…On his visit to Europe last summer Mr. Lang was commissioned by the Harvard Musical Association to procure, for its Library and its Concerts, some of the principal compositions of Saint-Saens.” HMA performed the Second Piano Concerto with Lang as the soloist, the Concerto for Cello with Mr. Wulf Fries and the symphonic poem, Phaeton. For Lang’s first concert on March 23rd. he and Arthur Foote opened with the Variations for Two Pianos on a Theme by Beethoven, Op 35 and the concert ended with Concerto No. 2 in G Minor, Op. 22 by Saint-Saens with Lang as soloist and Foote providing the orchestral reduction. Lang also included four Bach transcriptions for solo piano as arranged by Saint-Saens. The second concert on March 30 opened with Trio in F Major, Op. 18 by Saint-Saens, included four more Saint-Saens solo piano transcriptions from Bach, then the Andante from the First Piano Concerto, Op. 17 by Saint-Saens, and ended with the Tschaikowsky First Piano Concerto in B Flat Minor, Op. 23. “The Russian Concerto suffered peculiarly by being deprived of its orchestral background; for it is a work conceived in the extreme modern style, dependent upon brilliant accessories and color contrasts for its effect.” Then Dwight weighed in with his critical comment on the work. “Without these, what intrinsically remains, with all its ingenuity and brilliancy, seems poor and uninspired and dull. Mr. Lang had mastered its immense technical difficulties surprisingly well…How much of the pretentious music of today can bear this test? But Beethoven is Beethoven if you only feel his shadow pass you in the twilight.” Dwight also remarked on the vocalist: “A fresh and interesting feature of this concert was the singing of Miss Lillian Bailey,-her first public effort, we believe. She is a bright, enthusiastic maiden of sixteen, with a soprano voice of singular purity and sweetness. For one so young she seems to have made careful studies, as well as to possess intelligence beyond her years, and we should say a decidedly musical nature.” Lang seems to have found and helped yet another young talent. (Dwight (April 15, 1876): 213 and 214)

      On Friday evening, April 7, 1876 Lang was one of the assisting artists at a concert given by Miss Lillian Bailey at the Revere House. Early in the program, Lang made his only appearance, playing three solos: Allegro in C Major by Handel, his own Spinning Song in A Major, and the Caprice in E Minor by Mendelssohn. The concert ended with Mendelssohn’s Trio in D Minor Op. 49, a work often played by Lang, but in this case, the piano part was taken by his pupil G. W. Sumner (HMA Program Collection). Foote described Bailey as having “a lovely voice and most beautiful singing-one of the finest artists I have known. She, her mother, brother, and uncle (Charles R. Hayden), lived at the top of Hotel Pelham (where the Little Building noiw stands).” (Foote, Auto., 44)

       In May of 1876 Lang presented the operetta Son and Stranger (Heimkehr aus der fremde) by Mendelssohn at the new hall of the Young Men’s Christian Union on Boylston Street “before a very large and cultivated audience who had purchased tickets privately under the double inducement of artistic pleasure and of sympathy for want.”…The performers were amateurs and volunteering artists, Mr. Lang conducting, under whose direction the performance had been most carefully prepared, so that the representation of the work, both musically and scenically, was complete.” The overture was arranged for two pianos, eight hands and played by Lang, Mr. Parker, Mr. Leonard, and Mr. Sumner.The critic, Mr. Wm. F. Apthorp “was capitally made up for the respectable old German Mayor, and sang his one note in the Trio doubtless quite as well as the composer’s brother-in-law, the painter Hensel, for whom the part was written… Altogether the performance was a great success…The accompaniments were beautifully played by Mr. Lang, Mr. Leonhard assisting him again in the interlude (“Night and Morning’).” (Dwight (May 13, 1876): 231) Mendelssohn had written this work in 1829 for the silver wedding anniversary of his parents. (BPL Lang Prog., Vol. 2) Clara Rogers (Clara Doria) wrote: “A group of my friends, in which Mrs. James Lodge, Mrs. George Howe [Mrs. Lodge and Mrs. Howe were sisters], Mrs. [Leslie] Codman, the [Ellerton] Pratts, and Mr. Richard S. Fay were prominent, got it up to raise a goodly sum for a deserving benevolence. It was in the character of an amateur performance, though some professional musicians took part in it, the direction of the music being in charge of B. J. Lang…The cast was as follows: Lisbeth-Clara Doria; Ursula-Ita Welsh; the Mayor-William Apthorp; Hermann-Nat Childs; Hans-Doctor C. E. Bullard; Martin-A. S. Dabney…The rehearsals took place for the most part in my music room…It was a great success, a large proportion of Boston Brahmins turning out for the occasion, and a handsome sum being raised for the charity.” (Rogers, Memories, 448)

       On Saturday evening, November 4, 1876 Lang was one of five assisting artists in a concert given by Miss Ita Welsh, soprano, at Mechanics Hall. Lang accompanied August Fries in Grieg’s Sonata in F Major Op. 3 for violin and piano, and near the end of the program played three solos, Prelude by Bach, Caprice by Widor, and Gavotte by Bach as arranged by Saint-Saens (HMA Program Collection).

       Lang was part of another Complimentary Concert on Saturday evening, April 28, 1877 at Union Hall, 18 Boylston Street. Given for Miss Louie A. Homer, Lang and Wulf Fries opened the program with the “Allegro” from Mendelssohn”s Sonata in D Major for Cello and Piano. They also played a Polonaise for Cello and Piano by Chopin, and Lang presented three solos: Nocturne in C Minor by Chopin, his own Spinning Song in A Major, and Caprice in E Minor by Mendelssohn-these last two pieces being the same repertoire as he had presented on April 7, 1876 (HMA Program Collection).

       “Mr. B. J. Lang’s two concerts at Mechanics’ Hall, on Thursday afternoons, March 6 and 20, were choice and somewhat unique in character. Both were very fully attended, especially the last, and by the most refined, appreciative sort of audience.” (Dwight (March 29, 1879): 54) The first concert opened with Beethoven’s Piano Sonata, Opus 81 played by Miss Jessie Cochrane, continued with eight songs sung by Mr. W. J. Winch including B. J.’s The Two Roses, and finished with Rubinstein’s Concerto No. 3, Opus 45 with B. J. as the soloist. Miss Cochrane was a pupil of Lang’s and she had also studied in Europe with von Bulow. Lang had played the Rubinstein with orchestra seven years ago-this time the accompaniment was at a second piano played by Mr. W. S. Fenollosa. “It gave full scope for all the vigor, fire, and finished, brilliant virtuosity of Mr. Lang, who, we are sure, brought out all the soul and all the interesting detail of it…Mr. Lang’s mastery of its exacting difficulties was supreme.” (Ibid) Lang’s own song was “a graceful, dainty fancy, [and] was heartily appreciated.” (Ibid)  The second concert opened with the first Boston performance of a Trio in G Minor with piano by Hans von Bronsart, then active in Leipzig. “Mr. Lang was at his best in it.” (Ibid) Mr. Winch offered another set of songs including Lang’s Absence and Her I Love, but neither was mentioned in Dwight’s review. Beethoven’s Grand Trio, Opus 97 completed the concert.

       Early in 1879, Lang was involved in the founding of a new performing group-Euterpe. For each concert, a different four-person committee chose the music. For the first concert held on Wednesday evening January 15, 1879 the committee included Charles C. Perkins, J. C. D. Parker, George L. Osgood and Jules Eichberg. The committee for the Second Concert included B/ J. Lang, John Orth, J. K. Paine and W. S. Fenollosa while the third group included W. F. Apthorp and H. G. Tucker (both Lang pupils), and Lang was again part of the fourth committee. The season was one concert per month; January through April 1879. For the Second Season, five concerts were schedules running December 1879 through April 1880. Committees were not named, but instead, F. H. Jenks was listed as the Secretary on the Season Announcement. The Third season 1880-81 also included five concerts on Wednesday nights at 7:45 PM performed at the Meionaon (part of Tremont Temple), and the repertoire was mainly string quartets. The Fourth Season of four concerts, November 9, 1881 through February 1, 1882 were all performed by the Beethoven Quartet, and the first two concerts used Camilla Urso as the First Violin player. In June 1882 the officers were: President, Charles C. Perkins; Vice-President, B. J. Lang; Secretay, F. H. Jenks; Treasurer, Wm. F. Apthorp; Directors, Julius Eichberg, A. A. Brown, John Orth, W. Burr Jr., Hamilton Osgood, S. B. Whitney, J. C. D. Parker, and H. G. Tucker. “It is an understood thing that all of the money collected shall be expended on concerts-or as nearly as practical-allowing for outside expenses.” (Elson, Musical Boston, p. 4) For the Sixth Season of four concerts, December 12, 1883 until March 12, 1884 performed at Apollo Hall, 151 Tremont Street, two were played by the Campanari Quartet and the other two by the Beethoven Club. The Seventh Season of four concerts was also performed at the Apollo Hall and ran from January 7, 1885 until March 25, 1885. For the Eight Season 1885-86, a subscription was sold for $7 which gave you three tickets for each concert. For this season B. J. Lang was listed as Vice-President, W. F. Apthorp as Treasurer, and F. H. Jenks continued as Secretary. (HMA Program Collection)

In April 1880 Lang presented another group of two performances at Mechanics’ Hall at 3 PM. On Thursday, April 1, 1880, at the first of two concerts. Lang included the premier of Saint-Saens Sonata Opus 32 for cello and piano played by lang and Mr. Wulf Fries. Dwight didn’t find the Saint-Saens exciting.”But what woke us all up to new life, dispelling all possibility of doubt about its genial excellence and beauty, was the Concerto for Four Pianofortes [by Bach] with string accompaniment,[eight additional players were listed on the program] given for the first time in America. It consists of three short movements: Moderato, Largo, and Allegro. The four pianos were played by Mr. And Mrs. Sherwood, Mr. J. C. D. Parker, and Mr. Lang; and they did it con amore. Dwight enthused: “It is wonderfully interesting, not merely for its contrapuntal skill and learning, but for its fresh ideal beauty.” (Dwight (May 8, 1880): 79) The concert opened with “a repetition of the Trio in G minor by Hans von Bronsart, which excited so much interest last year…The interpretation lacked nothing of spirit or discrimination, and the impression which the work before made of nerve, originality and power was confirmed.” (Ibid) George L. Osgood performed ten songs as part of this program. The second programme, on Thursday afternoon April 29 at 3 PM, opened with a Quartet by Raff, followed by ten songs sung by Mr. William J. Winch who was “in excellent voice and sang with fervor, with artistic finish, and with fine expression.” (Ibid) The concert ended with the Boston premiere of Goldmark’s Pianoforte and String Quintet in B Flat, Opus 30. (Ibid)(BPL Lang Prog., Vol. 3) Lang discovered this work very quickly as it had only been published in Europe the year before, 1879. (Program notes, CPO recording) Dwight wanted to hear this piece again before recording his impressions. Tickets for the season were three dollars available from Chickering”s Pianoforte Warerooms. (BPL Lang Prog.)

       Fox writes, “Support for French music did come from other corners, however [in addition to that supplied by Loeffler]. Benjamin Johnson Lang, for example, gave the American premieres of the Saint-Saens Piano Concerto No. 2 with the Harvard Musical Association on 3 February 1876, the Saint-Saens Rhapsodie d’Auverge, op. 13 (1 January 1886), and Massenet’s Eve (27 March 1890), as well as the Boston premiere of the Berlioz Requiem (12 February 1882).” (Fox, Rebellious Tradition, 240) She does not mention the next, very important work.

       On Friday evening, May 14, 1880 at the Music Hall, Lang presented, as his own private undertaking, the first Boston performance of La Damnation de Faust by Berlioz. (BPL Lang Prog., Vol. 6) Early in May, Dwight reported that this first performance had been postponed from a previous date, “and after fresh rehearsal, it cannot fail to be a success.” (Dwight (May 8, 1880):  79) Dwight praised Lang’s “great zeal and energy in bringing out” this work, and reported that the evening was “crowned with success.The means employed were adequate: an excellent orchestra of sixty (Mr. Listemann at their head), a select, well-trained, efficient chorus, of two hundred and twenty mixed voices, and four good solo singers. The rehearsals had been through, the reports from New York had excited eager interest in advance, and the Music Hall was crowded with the best kind of an audience. The result was in the main most satisfactory. Hundreds came away convinced of the inventive genius and originality, the many-sided power, the rare musicianship and learning, the consummate savoir-faire of Berlioz…Mr. Lang had orchestra and chorus well in hand, and all was complete except that the two harps were replaced by two pianos. The only drawback of importance was, that the orchestra too frequently covered up the voices.” [well that is a change] (Dwight (May 22, 1880): 87 and 88) The importance that Lang attached to this event is reflected in the chorus announcement of March 4th. which stressed that every singer “must have attended every rehearsal of his or her part. This condition will be secured by the distribution at each rehearsal of a new entrance ticket, good only for the following rehearsal.” There were four male sectional rehearsals and three female women’s rehearsals followed by three combined rehearsals. The choral announcement ended with” N.B.-Persons who are not quite sure of being able to attend every rehearsal, will do Mr. Lang a favor by declining this invitation.” (BPL Lang Prog.) The sectional rehearsals were held in March at the “Apollo Rooms,” and the combined rehearsals were scheduled for April 5, 7, and 13 at Bumstead Hall for a performance date originally advertised as Thursday, April 15. Apthorp gave further details: “Since his performance of Haydn’s Seasons in 1864, he had mounted no large choral work on his own account, his conducting having been confined to his own occasional courses of orchestral concerts and to those of the Cecilia and the Apollo Club. The time was singularly propitious: he was at the height of his popularity with the Boston public and still continually before the public. But the task was an arduous one. None of the singers available for choral productions in Boston had ever grappled with an important work of the advanced French school; they had never sung anything bristling with such trying rhythmic complications as this work of Berlioz’s, and were moreover unaccustomed to the peculiar distribution of the voices in his choruses. Instead of the familiar soprano, alto, tenor and bass of the German choral writers, the choruses in Berlioz’s Faust are for the most part written, for male chorus with first and second soprani ripieni, the female voice seldom having independent parts to sing…But in spite of the unusual difficulties of the music, the Damnation of Faust was triumphantly brought out with Mrs. E. Humphrey-Allen, Mr. William J. Winch, Mr. Clarence E. Hay, and Mr. Sebastian B. Schlesinger in the solo parts. The performance was one of the most brilliant successes Lang had ever had, and the work was repeated several times, later with the Henschels and others, and afterward by the Cecilia.” (Apthorp, 358 and 359)

      concerning the second performance of the Berlioz on Friday, November 12, 1880 at the Music Hall, Dwight recorded that “we can only say, at present, that it was a great improvement on the first presentation here last spring, both as regards choruses, male and female, orchestra, and solo singers, and that the interest and fascination of the strange, weird, in parts extremely beautiful music grow upon one as he becomes more familiar with it…The chorus of 200 male and 100 female voices had the charm of careful, critical selection, beautiful ensemble of tone quality, as well as of precise, well-shaded, and finely effective execution.”(Dwight (November 20, 1880):  191) An additional attraction in this performance was the appearance of George Henschel as Mephistopheles, “in which he has made [a] very great success in Europe.” (BPL Lang Prog.) The other soloists were Lillian Bailey, William J. Winch and Mr. C. E. Hay. (BPL Lang Prog.)

       On November 30, 1880 “Lang gave his third presentation of the Damnation of Faust, this time at the Tremont Temple; and it must be admitted that all the details of the music, all its greatest and its least effects, came out with a remarkable distinctness, and with satisfactory intensity of sound. It was an even better rendering, under, in some sense, better acoustical conditions, than the two before…The orchestra was remarkably complete and satisfactory, from violins, oboes and bassoons, to cymbals, gong, and all the kitchen utensils. The Racockzky March created a furore.” (Dwight (December 18, 1880): 207) The soloists were the same except that Mr. Jules Jordan replaced William J. Winch. Margaret lists other performances of this piece on May 14, 1885, May 25, 1887, March 15, 1899, December 2, 1903, July of 1903 for a Teachers’ convention, and finally on December 13, 1904. (“Facts In the Life of B. J. Lang” by Margaret-Scrapbooks) Obviously this was a work that B. J. believed in deeply. He also presented the work with the Cecilia in 1894. The singer Clara Kathleen Rogers (Clara Doria) also mentioned the Cecila performance, but gave the date as 1885 “on which occasion Mrs. Humphrey Allen was the Margherite.” She then mentions further performances by Lang “in 1887, 1888, and 1889, when Melba sang the Margherite music.” (Rogers, Two Lives, 147)

       These performances may have inspired Theodore Thomas to do the same!. Just two months after Lang’s third performance, “Theodore Thomas” Unrivalled Orchestra” and “The Thomas Choral Society,” J. B. Sharland Chorus-Master presented two performances at the Music Hall on Friday evening, January 28 and Saturday afternoon, January 29, 1881 using a “Complete and Newly Revised Translation.” Thomas used some of Lang’s soloists: Georg Henschel sang Mephistopheles and Clarence E. Hay sang Brander. The other soloists were Miss Fanny Kellogg as Marguerite and W. C. Tower as Faust. (Program advertised on E-Bay, November 2010)

       Lang was one of thirty-five Boston musicians who volunteered their talents for a “Complimentary Concert for Mr. John S. Dwight” held on Thursday afternoon, December 9, 1880 at 2:30 PM. “The Boston Music Hall Association has given the use of the Music Hall for this occasion, without charge, and Mr. Peck, the Superintendent, his assistant, the ticket sellers, doorkeepers and ushers also contribute their services.” The orchestra was “of the Harvard Symphony Concerts,” Mr. Berhard Listermann, leader and Mr. Carl Zerrahn, conductor. (BPL Lang Prog.)

       Not all criticism was positive.”A letter printed in the Philharmonic Journal sometime during the winter of 1880-1881 identifies ”the powers” controlling music in Boston. Named were Dwight, the ”educated music critic,” Otto Dresel, B. J. Lang, J. C. D. Parker, Chickering, and institutions like the Handel and Haydn Society, the Apollo Club, and the Cecilia Club.It declares Lang to be the head of ”this clique.”Benjamin Edward Woolf, an English-born and exceedingly right-wing musician who wrote mainly for the Saturday Evening Gazette, launched constant attacks on Lang. Woolf found Lang’s musical tastes too radical and his dominance too insidious.” (Tara, 42)

       Lang promoted two chamber music concerts on Thursday afternoons at 3 PM, February 24 and March 10, 1881 at the Tremont Temple; it was announced that only the floor and first balcony of the hall would be used. Dwight’s announcement also mentioned that “Mr. Lang will have the assistance of the Philharmonic and Beethoven clubs, and of Messrs. G. W. Sumner, A. W. Foote and J. A. Preston, pianists; as well as of Mrs. Humphrey Allen and Mr. F. Korbay of New York, vocalists.” (Dwight (February 12, 1881): 28) The February 24th. concert featured woodwinds, opening with Rubinstein’s Quintet in F major, Opus 55 for piano and four winds, and concluding with Raff’s Sinfonietta, Opus 188 for ten winds. “The Rubinstein Quintet alone brought Mr. Lang’s excellent pianoforte-playing into requisition, but all the instruments seemed to be equal in importance.” (Dwight (March 26, 1881): 52) Between these works, five songs were sung by Mr. Korbay who performed his own accompaniments. The March 10th. concert included vocal solos and an Octet in D Minor, Opus 60 by Rubinstein for piano, strings, and winds-“It can hardly be called an octet in the strictest sense of the word, as it partakes more of the character of a pianoforte concerto with a septet accompaniment.” (Dwight (March 26, 1881): 52) The announcement had originally listed Rubinstein’s Quintette, Opus 53 for piano and four winds instead of his Octet (BPL Lang Prog.) Also performed were Mendelssohn’s Octet and Bach’s Concerto for Four Pianos with G. W. Summer, Arthur Foote, J. A. Preston, and B. J. as the soloists with an accompaniment of an octet of strings. The eight strings were from the Philharmonic Club-B. Listermann, F. Listermann, J. C. Mullaly and H. Heindl and from the Beethoven Club- C. N. Allen, G. Dannreuther, J. Ackroyd and Wulf Fries. (Ibid) Mr. Lang is to be thanked for these two instructive concerts, and for the opportunities he afforded for hearing new works of such importance as the quintet and octet of Rubinstein, and the sinfonietta of Raff.” (Dwight (March 26, 1881): 52)

       For 1881 Lang moved concert locations for his orchestral concerts and presented them on the two Sunday evenings after Easter-April 24 and May 1. One unannotated report mentioned that “An orchestra that has been formed on a basis of fifteen first violins-nearly double our usual number of strings…The acoustic properties of the church are particularly favorable for music,” and the church was chosen “For the purpose of reproducing, so far as possible, the effect of a very large orchestra in a small place, as in the Gewandhaus at Leipzig and at the Conservatoire in Paris…As the expenses must [not] exceed the receipts, there can be no complimentary tickets.” The series of two concerts cost $4. (BPL Lang Prog.) Dwight, in his April 23, 1881 issue gave good advance publicity for this new series. “Mr. Lang’s first concert at the new Brattle Square Church, which seats about six hundred, with a grand orchestra of seventy-five, will take place tomorrow Sunday (evening). He will give the Overture to St. Paul, the Pastoral Symphony of Beethoven, and the first movement of Rubinstein’s Ocean Symphony. Mrs. Allen will sing ”Angels ever bright and fair,” and Mendelssohn’s ”Jerusalem.” The occasion is one of novel and especial interest. —On Sunday evening, May 1, Mr. Lang’s orchestra will play the great Schubert Symphony, Mendelssohn’s Overture: Becalmed at Sea, and Prosperous Voyage, and Beethoven’s Coriolanus Overture. Mr. Henschel and Mr. John F. Winch will sing.” (Dwight (April 23, 1881): 69) Dwight also in the same issue reprinted a notice about the concerts that had appeared in the Advertiser which included additional information that he had not mentioned.Mr. Lang will give two remarkable orchestral concerts in the church formerly occupied by Dr. Lothrop’s parish on the evenings of the first and second Sundays after Easter. The orchestra will number about seventy-five performers, including fifteen first violins, as many second violins, eight violoncellos, and eight double basses. The programmes will be of the noblest character, that of the first concert opening with the overture to Mendelssohn”s St. Paul, including selections of sacred vocal music, sung by Mr. Henschel, and ending with Schubert’ ‘s great symphony in C. The programme of the second concert will be of the same sort and will include one of the great Beethoven symphonies, probably the fifth. There will be thorough and numerous rehearsals in advance. Two-thirds of the tickets have already been taken; the remainder may be subscribed for at Chickering’s, the price being $4 for both concerts. –Advertiser.” (Dwight (April 23, 1881): 62) Dwight further supported these concerts by reviewing them two weeks later. “Mr. B. J. Lang’s concerts of orchestral music in the new ”Brattle Square” Church (Commonwealth Avenue) on the last two Sunday evenings, were of exceptional interest, not only as good renderings of good programmes, but also as illustrations of his special object, which was to show the superior sonority, intensity of tone, and more effective ensemble of music given by a large orchestra in a comparatively small hall. For this end he prepared two capital selections, good intrinsically, well contrasted, and almost more than reasonably short, neither concert lasting over one hour and a half.” The church sat about six hundred people and had a Gothic ceiling like the Music Hall. “It was found a bad place for the speaking voice, and hence abandoned as a church. For music, at all events for an orchestra, it seems very good.” Dwight noted that the ensemble consisted of a total of seventy-five instrumentalists-fifty-four strings to the usual twenty winds; “and it is not yet proved that such an orchestra would not sound as well or better in the great Music Hall.” (Dwight (May 7, 1881): 77)

       Another special event during the spring of 1881 was Lang’s conducting of Mendelssohn’s youthful operetta, The Son and Stranger (Heimkehr aus der Fremde) at the Boston Museum. This performance was to benefit the proposed “Hospital for Convalescents” [as part of the Mass. General Hospital-Boston Herald] and it attracted a full house. “A notable company of soloists, a large chorus and an orchestra of from 30 to 40 musicians” performed. (Herald, (May 13, 1881): 4)

       In 1882 an article written by Louis Elson summed up B. J.’s position in Musical Boston. “B. J. Lang has been mentioned before in this short [short!-six pages, three columns per page, very fine print] chronicle, in connection with the Handel and Haydn Society. His influence at their concerts for the last twenty-two years has been an important and influential one. His power in Boston’s music has always been exerted for good, and even in the days of Dresel, Kreissmann and Leonhard was felt in the counsels which preceded every important movement. It was he who first suggested the great series of Harvard Symphony Concerts, which we have alluded to above; it was he who more than any other held the programs up to their first high level; he has also been one of the leading subscribers since the beginning of the series. it was his influence which brought out in Boston for the first time the great pianoforte concertos of Bach, and most of those of Schumann, Mendelssohn, and Beethoven, as well as the works of the newer school, the concertos of Rubinstein, St. Saens, Bronsart, etc. For the past ten years, he has been in the habit of giving a series of pianoforte concerts, the present season forming the only exception. He has given five different sets of symphony concerts, and in these has always followed the good German idea of a large orchestra in a small hall, so that no possible effect should be lost. he is one of the very few American musicians who have given concerts abroad with success. he has appeared as a pianist in Berlin, Dresden and Vienna. His interest in the Bayreuth Festival, the Franz benefit concert. the Dwight testimonial, the Liszt celebration, in short, in every memorable musical occasion has been earnest, thorough, and, above all, practical. he has been honored with the personal friendship of the greatest composers of Europe, and his studies of the works of Wagner have been made with the assistance of the great composer himself. He has, like every earnest, original and competent worker, formed for himself a set of followers. pupils and disciples. It is impossible to enumerate these since the number of his pupils who have become concert soloists is over sixty. The work of the Cecilia Club is wholly due to Mr. Lang; that of the Apollo and Euterpe societies largely so. therefore, in the articles on these subjects, the reader will find a continuation of his too-brief personal sketch. Mr. Lang, although he has composed some very fine works, has, as yet, published nothing. As a musician he is armed at all points; he is one of the very surest of ensemble players and never loses his head. We can personally recall many instances where his calmness has saved careless or nervous players from disaster. He is a good organizer and a very efficient leader. At a time when no one else dared undertake playing with or directing for, the belligerent Von Bulow or the meteoric Joseffy, he did both-and well. He is one of the surest of score-readers and, though not a virtuoso, is one of the best types of true musician. He has long been the organist of a leading Unitarian church. Of his Boston pupils, we may mention Mr. Arthur Foote…Mr. W. F. Apthorp is another of Mr. Lang’s eminent pupils.” (Elson, Musical Boston, 3)

       On Wednesday evening, March 28, 1882 at 7:45 PM Lang presented a concert performance of Beethoven’s Fidelio with full chorus and orchestra. Among the six soloists, the most notable was Georg Henschel although Miss Dora Henninger was brought from Cincinnati to make her first Boston appearance. (Concert ad, Herald (March 25, 1882): 3) There was also a “Public Rehearsal” the afternoon before at 2:30 with admission for 50 cents; Lang, the businessman was making as much money from this event as he could! (Ibid) The Herald reviewer felt  that Miss Henninger should continue her vocal studies, but change teachers, as she had abilities but not learned to breathe properly, phrase correctly, “and her execution is amateurish in every way.” (Ibid) She had been strongly endorsed by the officials of the Cincinnati College of Music as one of their most successful pupils. Mr. Henschel had the greatest success of the evening with the Pizarro aria. “The rarely beautiful instrumental work of of the orchestral score was admirably well played throughout, especially the overture, No. 1, and the “Leonore, ” No. 2.  A very large audience attended, and much enthusiasm was manifested over the more successful numbers of the performance.” (Ibid)(BPL Lang Prog.)

       In 1883 Lang announced a series of three lectures “upon pianoforte playing” for May 1, 5 and 8 at Chickering Hall at 2:30 PM. The three lecture titles were: “Teaching the Art of Playing the Pianoforte,” “Mr. Lang”s System of Modern Piano-forte Technics,” and “The higher development of the Musical Senses.” Tickets were Three Dollars for the series and individual lectures could be bought at for $1.50 if seats were available. (BPL Lang Prog.) This announcement inspired a lengthy article “Mr. Lang’s Lectures” in support of this presentation. “Mr. B. J. Lang is one of those artists whose personality and whose work are best enjoyed when one can come close to them. Thoughtful, delicate and sensitive, his temperament is inclined to shrink from those larger and more public tests of professional accomplishment…when he has to stand out alone before a great public, something of the freedom is at times lost, and those who have only heard and known him on such occasions, have not fully heard him and known him…He has studied and taught the pianoforte for many years, to many pupils of various minds and dispositions. Such experience brings much to a man who thinks, and we were glad when Mr. Lang began modestly to tell something of his experiences and his thoughts a few months ago. Since that time he has arranged what he wants to say into three lectures upon pianoforte playing as he understands and teaches it, and upon that awakening and development of the artistic sense, which are as essential in music as in painting. If we may judge the future by the past, these conferences (for they will be more such than mere bald lectures) will have interest for many other persons than students of the pianoforte, and will hope that Chickering Hall will be filled with an audience so interested and sympathetic that Mr. Lang will speak as brightly and suggestively as he often does to a single friend.” (Courtesy of the Boston Symphony Orchestra Archives) Another article, unsigned and without title also referred to Lang’s series of lectures. “It was a characteristic idea of Mr. Lang to set an unusual hour for his lectures on pianoforte playing and to ask so high price for the tickets, and then to follow it up by his subsequent action. When the audience has assembled for the first lecture, he confessed that he had felt a great curiosity to know if anyone in town cared enough for the matter to pay a big price and submit to an inconvenient hour, for the sake of what he might have to say. His ruse had proved successful, and he should therefore make the audience his guests, and their ticket money should be returned to them the day of the second lecture.” (Courtesy of the Boston Symphony Orchestra Archives)

        1883 saw yet another presentation of Berlioz’s Damnation of Faust, this time “for the benefit of the Associated Charities of Boston.” Held on Monday evening March 24th at the Music Hall, the soloists were “Mrs. Henschel, Mr. Charles R. Adams, Mr. Henschel and Mr. Sebastian Schlesinger” and “an orchestral of unusual size.” There were fewer sectional rehearsals for the chorus this time: only one for the ladies (March 19th.) and three for the men (Monday the 17th., Tuesday the 18th., and Wednesday the 19th.) with two full orchestral/choir/soloists rehearsals. “It is thought that with the rehearsals so near together, an exceptionally good performance could be given by singers who already know the music.” (BPL Lang Prog. )

       In 1883 B. J. presented a series of five recitals playing the complete piano works of Robert Schumann. Presented on March 1, 8, 15, 22, and 29 on Thursday afternoons at 2:30 PM at the Bijou Theater, each recital was advertised to be about two hours in length. “For these recitals, Mr. Lang has chosen the Bijou Theatre on account of its fine acoustics, which must be conspicuous on these occasions when audiences of but three or four hundred are assembled.” (BPL Lang Prog.) Mr. Lang begs his audience to assemble promptly at half-past two o’clock”. Each piece had a short explanation printed in the program. Other pianists and vocalists also took part: Madame Schiller, H. G. Tucker, George L. Osgood, John A. Preston, W. F. Fenollosa, Joshua Phippen, Arthur Foote and G. W. Sumner were the assisting keyboards artists-“The names of the singers will be announced later.” Single tickets were $1.50 and season tickets, $5 from A. P. Schmidt’s Music Store. (BPL Lang Prog.) For the first program Mrs. J. E. Tippett was the vocalist; for the third, Mr. George L. Osgood; and for the fourth, Mrs. Georg Henschel.

       “The 1885 concert mounted by B. J. Lang for the celebration of J. S. Bach’s 200th. birthday was ‘almost certainly the first time in sixty years or more that a harpsichord had been heard in public concert in Boston.’” (Fox, Rebellious Tradition, 244 quoting from Larry Palmer, The Harpsichord In America. 172, n. 5) “It appears, from research by the writer,[William Lyman Johnson] that there was only one harpsichord in Boston in 1885 in playable condition. It was the property of Mr. Morris Steinert, founder of the house of M. Steinert and Sons. Mr. B. J. Lang, who did much for enlarging the horizon of music in Boston, organized a festival for the celebration of the two hundredth anniversary of the birth of Bach, born March 21, 1685. In Bach’s Coffee Cantata there is the need for a harpsichord, and Mr. Steinert’s instrument was played by Mr. Lang. This was probably the first time for a period of sixty years that a harpsichord had been used in a public concert in Boston.” (HMA Bulletin No. 14) Other reports mention that the harpsichord used was built by Chickering, but as Arthur Dolmetsch did not come to America until 1899, this is probably incorrect. (Ibid) The concert on Saturday afternoon, March 21, 1885 at 2:30 PM was held at Chickering Hall. The first piece was the Concerto in C Minor for Two Pianofortes with Arthur Foote and Lang as soloists; next was the Concerto in A Major for One Harpsichord “played upon a harpsichord like those of Bach”s time;” then the Concerto in C Major for Three Pianofortes with Arthur Foote, H. G. Tucker and Lang as soloists; then the Coffee Cantata with Miss Louise Gage, Mr. W. J. Winch and Mr. J. F. Winch as the soloists; and finally the Concerto in A Minor for Four Pianofortes with W. S. Fenollosa, G. W. Sumner, H. G. Tucker and Lang as soloists. One part of the announcement noted:”the original instrumental accompaniments will be played throughout this programme.” (BPL Lang Prog.)

       In addition to producing his own concerts, Lang continued to be an assisting artist with other groups. On Monday, February 1, 1886 Lang and Mr. Fritz Giese, cellist were presented as the 7th. Monday Afternoon Chamber Concert at Bumstead Hall. Lang played the solo part in Edward Napravnik’s Pianoforte Concerto Symphonique with the orchestral part played by G. W.Sumner. Then came three piano solos including Lang’s own Spinning Song in A Major, and the concert ended with Mendelssohn’s Sonata for Pianoforte and Violoncello in D Major, Opus 58. The Kneisel Quartette was advertised for the next concert in the series, two weeks later. In the 1886-87 season of six concerts given at Chickering Hall by the Kneisel Quartet, he played the first Boston performance of the Brahms Trio Opus 40. (Lang had given the Boston premiere of the Brahms cantata for male voices Rinaldo with the Apollo Club on December 15, 1883; then been a soloist in the Piano Concerto No. 2 with the Boston Symphony under George Henschel on March 15, 1884. He also was to give the Boston premiers of the Brahms German Requiem with the Cecilia Society in December 1888 and Nanie on May 22, 1890).

       On March 1, 1887 Lang presented the first of four “Pianoforte-Concerto Concerts” at Chickering Hall. For these 2:30 PM afternoon concerts B. J. conducted and featured a variety of vocal and instrumental soloists. For the first concert, four soloists were used; at the second concert on March 8 Ethelbert Nevin was the soloist in Liszt’s Piano Concerto no. 1, and the final two concerts on March 22 and 29 both used four soloists each.

       George Whitefield Chadwick noted in his Diary that during the 1887-88 season “B. J. Lang gave four concerts of concertos which his pupils played. He made them sell (and buy) the tickets too!”

       Chadwick made an interesting observation about the 1888-89 musical scene in Boston. After listing the great variety of concerts presented, he noted: “Does not this show that Boston was a more musical place in 1889 than at the present time? Most of these concerts were homemade and as a rule, well supported. Nowadays we depend almost entirely, with the exception of a few young pianists and singers, on artists and companies from N. Y. or Europe and they take the money away with them. Choral societies cannot pay their way. We have no chamber music + no opera,. But a star even of the 2nd. or 3rd. magnitude can fill Symphony Hall on Sunday afternoon, especially if he or she is a Jew.”

       In March 1890 Lang presented his advanced pupils in two “Concerto Concerts” which used orchestral accompaniment. Early in the month, Mr. Tucker played the Concerto in G Minor Opus 15 by Sgambati; Mrs. March played Mendelssohn’s Capriccio Brilliant Opus 22; Mr. Phippen played Chopin”s Concerto No. 2 in F Minor. For the second concert late in the month Mr. Whelply played Dvorak’s Concerto No. 2 in B Minor; Mr. Foote p[layed Mozart’s Piano Concerto No. 3 in D Minor, and Miss Louise May played Beethoven’s Concerto No. 3 in G Minor Opus 37. (Hale Crit., Vol. 1)

       On Monday evening March 16, 1891 8 PM at the Music Hall was given a “Concert under the Direction of Mr. B. J. Lang, for the benefit of the AURAL DEPARTMENT OF THE MASSACHUSETTS CHARITABLE EYE AND EAR INFIRMARY.” Members of the BSO generously gave their services, and Arthur Nikisch conducted the opening Overture to Leonore No. 3 by Beethoven, Mrs. Nikisch sang three songs in German, and the major work was Massenet’s Eve with the Cecilia Society and orchestra conducted by Lang. The full English text of this work was printed in the program book. (BPL Lang Prog., Vol. 6)

       On December 1, 1898 and January 12, 1899 Lang arranged two Bach Concerto Concerts performing on an Erard harpsichord imported from Paris (Grove-American-Ledbetter-p.10) This was done “by the kindness of Messrs. Chickering and Sons,’ who had brought the instrument “from Paris for these occasions.” (BPL Lang Prog.) The purpose of these concerts which were held at the Association Hall at three o’clock was the “enlarging of the Ruth Burrage Library by the addition of full orchestral scores for the home use of Musicians.” (Ibid) At the first concert Lang and Madame Hopekirk played the Concerto in C Major for two keyboards, Lang played the Concerto in D Minor on the harpsichord, and Lang, Mr. Foote, and Mr. Proctor played the Concerto in C major for three keyboards. At the second concert Lang and Madame Szumowska played the Concerto in C Minor for two keyboards, Lang played the Concerto in F Major on the harpsichord, and the concert ended with Lang, Mr. Baermann, and the BSO conductor, Mr. Gericke performing the Concerto in D Minor for three keyboards. The accompaniment for all the concerti was provided by an orchestra under Mr. Kneisel. (Ibid)

       These early music performances were not the first for B. J. At a concert at Bumstead Hall on Sunday April 12, 1896 he included the Bach Concerto in C Major for Three Pianos which he followed with the Prelude in C Major by Bach and the Allegro in C Major by Handel which were performed on a harpsichord built by the Boston keyboard maker, Chickering. The concert finished with Bach’s Coffee Cantata using members of the Handel and Haydn Society. A note at the end of the program stated “except in some portions of the cantata, for which Mr. Lang will play accompaniments from Bach’s figured bass, the original instruments will be used.”

       Parsifal was again presented by Lang in a “Private Performance” on Tuesday, January 6, 1903, this time at the new Symphony Hall on Huntington Avenue. The principal soloists were:

Mme. Kirkby Lunn- Kundry

Herr Gerhauser- Parsifal

Herr Van Rooy -Amfortas

Herr Blass -Gurnemanz

Herr Muhlmann- Klingsor and Titurel

Mr. Wilhelm Heinrich- Esquire

       “The best possible soloists have been engaged for the six flower-maidens, knights, and unseen chorus; there will also be male and female choruses and an orchestra of seventy players. Owing to the restrictions on the production of Parsifal, there can be neither public sale nor an advertisement for the tickets. Those who wish to hear this performance should fill out and send the enclosed blank to Mr. Byrne, 100 Chestnut Street, receiving, in return, directions for the selection and payments of seats…The tickets are five dollars each.” (Lang Prog.) Mr. and Mrs. J. Montgomery Sears held a lavish reception after the performance for which “Society Turn[ed] Out in Force.” This took the place of their regular Tuesday musicales.

       Lang’s continued prominent place within the Boston musical community is reflected in his role as a featured performer in the Tuesday evening, April 14, 1903 Concert commemorating the founding of the House of Chickering & Sons eighty years before in 1823.“On opposite sides of the stage…were placed the first piano made by Jonas Chickering and a modern Concert Grand.” (Commemoration, 14). The concert consisted of five songs sung by Miss Mary Ogilvie accompanied by Mrs. S. B. Field which included Margaret’s My True Love Lies Asleep followed by an address by Dr. Edward Everett Hale with a conclusion of two pieces played by B. J.First he played The Battle of Prague by Kotzwara that was “a piece of music greatly in favor about 1823,” and then a portion of La benediction de Dieu dans la Solitude by Liszt, “a composition in vogue at the present time.” (Commemoration, 14 and 15)

       Lang produced La Damnation de Faust by Berlioz again on Tuesday and Thursday evenings, July 7 and 9, 1903 at Symphony Hall for the “National Educational Association Convention at Boston.” the soloists were:

Madame Louise Homer-Marguerite

Mr. Joseph Sheehan-Faust

Mr. Gwilym Miles-Mephistopheles

Mr. Leverett B. Merrill-Brander

Mrs/ Bertha Cushing Child-Heavenly Voice.

       About 2/3rds of the chorus was from the Cecilia Society, with another 42 members, mainly men from the Handel and Haydn Society, an additional 24 male voices from the Apollo Club, ten more male voices from the Amphion Club, and a final 61 voices “From other organizations of Boston and Vicinity.” (Lang Prog.) Lang was the Chairman of the “Music Committee” for the event which included among its 12 other members – Allen A. Brown, G. W. Chadwick, Carl Faelten, Arthur Foote, Wilhelm Gericke, Henry L. Higginson and John K. Paine. Certainly a very impressive group! (Ibid)

       B. J.’s interests of orchestral conducting and introducing new music continued even late in life. The Chickering Piano Company asked Frederick S. Converse, Arthur Foote, Charles M. Loeffler and B. J. as Chairman to form a committee to “arrange a series of concerts in Chickering Hall…February 10, 24 and March 9 and 22, 1904…The purpose of these concerts is to give the public an opportunity to hear new and interesting compositions in a hall of moderate size…the orchestra will number between fifty and sixty.” B. J. was to be the conductor. G. W. Chadwick’s name was also listed as a committee member on the “Chickering Orchestral Concerts” stationary, but his name was crossed off on letters sent from Lang to Chadwick. At the first concert the American premiere of Debussy’s Three Nocturnes (with female choir) was given as the second item of the concert and also repeated as the final number-the same procedure that he had followed forty years earlier in introducing new works. The concert opened with the Overture to La vie pour le Czar by Glinka and also included a scene from L’Enfante du Christ (Le Repos de la Saint Familie) by Berlioz.

The program of the second concert included:

Overture to Iphigenia in Aulis – Gluck (arr. Wagner)

Concerto in D Minor for Three Pianos – Bach with George Proctor, Heinrich Gebhardt and Felix Fox as soloists

L”Apres d un Faune – Debussey

Les Djinns for Piano and Orchestra – Franck (Boston premier)

Four Songs – Faure sung by Mrs. Jessie Downey Eaton

Overture-Joyeuse – David Stanley Smith (conducted by the composer)

The Third Concert on March 9, 1904 included:

Prelude from the Birds of Aristophanes – John K. Paine (world premiere, conducted by the composer)

Concerto for Piano – Ernest Hutcheson (world premiere, the composer as soloist)

Two Fragments: The Saracens and The Beautiful Alda – E. A. MacDowell

Rhapsody for Baritone and Orchestra: Cahal Mor of the Wine Red Hand – Horatio Parker with Stephen Townsend as the soloist

Suite Algerienne – St. Saens

The Fourth Concert on March 23, 1904 included:

Suite from Castor and Pollux – Rameau (arr. Gevaert)

Symphonic Sketches – Chadwick (conducted by the composer) (In a letter dated ??? 16th to Chadwick asking him to conduct these pieces, Lang referred to them as “three pieces of yours that Mollenhauer once played on a tour.” (NEC Collection)

Aria for Mezzo-Soprano – Strube with Miss Josephine Knight

Concerto for Violin and Orchestra Op. 26 – Bruch with Miss Nina Fletcher

Poem Symphonique Op. 13 – Glasounow

The Second Season (1905-06) was very different; there were at least twelve concerts, but they were all of chamber groups, and the Artistic Director was H. G. Tucker (who was one of Lang’s piano pupils). Mr. A. de Voto was the pianist in the seventh concert – December 17, 1905.

During the Third Season (1906-07) two songs by Margaret were performed – The Sea Sobs Low [never published ?]and Spring sung by Bertha Cushing Child, contralto accompanied by Arthur Colburn. During the next season Summer Noon was sung on January 6, 1907 by Miss Mary Desmond, “the English Contralto” with Mr. A. de Voto as accompanist. At the January 10, 1909 concert Arnold Dolmetsch used a harpsichord and Clavichord built by Chickering

Mathews, One Hundred, 427 (Probably about 1889)

at the time of this photo (circa 1889), Lang was described as “hale and hearty, a young man, (though he was then in his early fifties) albeit somewhat thinly thatched with white and gray upon the top of his well-rounded skull…He is happily married and lives in elegance.”(Howe-One Hundred, 429)

 

COMPOSER-BJL. SC(G). WC.

 COMPOSER-BJL. SC(G). WC.

Word Count- 5,836.  9/28/2020.

Although Lang composed in many forms, he destroyed all of his manuscripts. Mathews writes: “Mr. Lang’s compositions are mostly in manuscript. His chief work is an oratorio of David. It is of decided interest. The form is essentially original. The story of David is told mainly in recitative, with accompanying orchestral description, and the psalms or parts of them supposed to have been written at the time are then treated as choruses, quartette, or in other appropriate lyric forms. The events thus go on in chronological order, the first part ending with the chant of the old-time church, and the second or last part, with a great chorus set to one of the Messianic psalms. It is not altogether to the credit of Boston that a work of this magnitude, by a local composer, should have been left so long unheard, (this was written in 1889) but this very likely may be due to the composer’s modesty.” (Mathews, 429) B. J.’s wife noted in her Diary in 1871, “Lel has been working on his Oratorio.” (Diary-2, 1871)

In 1904 Louis Elson wrote: “As a composer, we cannot speak of this remarkable musician, for although he has written much, he has not printed anything, and very seldom allows any of his works to be heard. The present writer has, long since, had a few auditions of some of the smaller compositions of Mr. Lang, and they were fluent, graceful, and musicianly. But it is evident that this veteran conductor does not wish to be considered as a composer. Both he and Mr. Thomas have, in letters, declined the composer’s title, yet their work for music in America has gone far beyond the creation of a symphony or an opera, for they have taught the public how to appreciate the best music, and have made it familiar with the modern masterpieces.” (Elson, 261)

       The 1921 Groves article stated that B.J. also wrote “symphonies, overtures, chamber music, pieces for the pianoforte, church music, and many songs.” (Grove, 632) This was probably based on an 1889 music dictionary entry: “His works, which are as yet are in MS., comprise an Oratorio, David; several symphonies and overtures for orchestra; and a large number of compositions in almost every form of church, chamber, and pianoforte music, besides many songs. Of these about one hundred and fifty works of church music (Te Deum, Anthems, etc), and a few songs and fugitive pieces have been performed.” (Chaplin/Apthorp, 420 and 421) The list below gives a detailed record of performances-there are no David performances, although Frances made reference to it; no symphonic works at all, and with the various symphonic concerts that Lang organized throughout his career, he certainly the opportunity to program such works if they existed; no chamber works, and again in his chamber music concerts such works could have appeared; and, the number of church works does not relate to reality. Lang’s pupil and friend, William Foster Apthorp was the “Critical Editor” of this musical cyclopedia; it is strange that he allowed so much false information to appear, some of which continues to reappear today. In a letter to Upton dated April 10, 1925, Margaret wrote, “He was never willing to publish anything! So it is now impossible to lay hold upon any of his music whatever.”

      Margaret was not quite correct in that last statement. Before he went to study in Europe, Lang “harmonized” a book of Bible Songs written by Marion Dix Sullivan. It was published in Boston with a date of 1856, and Lang is listed as “Mr. J. B. [sic] Lang, Organist, Salem, Mass.” Then, after he had returned from Europe, he again worked with Ms. Sullivan on a new, larger collection of “Hymns and Tunes” called Youthful Voices. This was also published in Boston, but by a larger publishing house, Oliver Ditson & Co. in 1862. One of his male partsongs, HI-FI-LIN-KE-LE was published by the Apollo Club; separate choral scores for T I and II and Bass I and II are in the Boston Public Library Music Division Collection, but the piano accompaniment is missing. Arthur Foote said that “The only thing in his musical career to regret is his steady refusal to bring his compositions before the public; there is no doubt that a genuine loss to American composition was the result.” (Foote quoted in Grove-American-Ledbetter, 10-11)

       In 1854, when he was 16, B. J. mentions in his Diary for September 23, 1854: “Wrote more on a piece I am composing.” Thirteen days later: “Finished a Fantasia which I shall play at Adam’s concert.” The next day: “Father and I copied some of my Fantasia.” (Diary 1 entries, September 10, 1854, September 23, 1854 and September 24, 1854) A week later he “saw Hill at 12 and we went to Lange’s [who would this be?] to show him my first composition; he said it was quite good.” (Diary 1, October 4, 1854)

An ad in the Traveler of March 21, 1856, p. 3 showed him as an assisting artist for a performance of “Dramatic Recitations” by William Hawes. This concert, at the Hall of the Mercantile Library Association on Summer Street, had Lang performing solos and duets with the violinist W. H. Schultze. One of Lang’s solos was an original piece, “Fantastic Original.”

      The first mention of a mature Lang composition probably is the performance of his song Breath of Spring which was sung by Mrs. J. H. Long at a Mendelssohn Quintette Club concert on Friday, January 28, 1859 where Lang served only as accompanist for two songs. This was Lang’s fourth appearance with the club-his first had been less than a year before, on February 2, 1858. (Dowell, 363 and 371) Dwight devoted about one-quarter of his review to Lang’s song. “Mr. Lang’s setting of the little ”Spring” song which we translated from the German in one of our numbers of last April:

                             O’er the garden hear the voices!

                                Birds of passage on their flight!

                             Spring is coming, earth rejoices,

                                Grass is springing all the night, etc.,

struck us as very felicitous. Truly a charming song and true to the spirit of the lines; a clear, simple, natural melody, if not marked by any rare individuality. The figures of the accompaniment, lying so natural to the easy play of the pianist composer’s figures [fingers?], were quite suggestive.” (Dwight (February 5, 1850): 358)

       In Worcester, on February 7, 1861 he played his own Impromptu at a concert where he acted as accompanist for Giorgio Stignelli. (Program, GB)

      At an 1862 concert “In Aid of Sick and Wounded Soldiers” B. J. accompanied, played the works of other composers, and included his own Impromptu–he also played “Concert Variations on America,” and as no composer was listed, one would assume that he was the composer, or he improvised the piece; this piece was also included in his August 29, 1869 concert at Hancock Hall in Ellsworth Maine. 1862 also saw the inclusion of his Impromptu in A Flat in a recital in New Bedford, MA.

      In addition to the improvisations that he included in most of his Boston Music Hall organ recitals, on August 13, 1864, he played his own Berceuse. Dwight’s review said that it was “but a breath, fine-drawn and delicate, truly melodious.Such breezy pine-tree murmurs are surpassingly rendered by the Dolce in the Swell of this instrument.” (Dwight (August 20, 1864): 295)

      For a concert at South Church, Salem on February 19, 1866, the quartet choir opened the second half with Lang’s Te Deum Laudamus #2 in E flat. He probably accompanied as he played other pieces in this concert. Also in 1866 at an appearance at the New Bedford Lyceum, he played his arrangement of the Slumber Song by Weber and his own Fantasie in A flat, while at performances in Providence and Salem he repeated the Weber and performed his own Fantasie in E flat. At a “Grand organ Concert” at North Church, Haverhill on Friday evening December 14, 1866, Lang played Eichberg’s Romance in F for violin and organ with Mr. Suck, and as a solo, his own Fantasia Upon Danish and Holland Airs. (BPL Lang Prog., Vol 1)

      A February 14, 1868 concert at the South Congregational Church, Union Park Street included the Lang song Bow Down Thine Ear sung by Mr. James Whitney. Programs played at Hingham and Milton MA in 1868 included Caprices in C Major and A Flat Major. Three Caprices are listed in a January 1869 New England Conservatory concert held at Chickering Hall, and the Caprices in C and A Flat were repeated at another New England Conservatory Concert in May of the same year. A review of January 30 mentions these three Caprices. “Instead of three as the programme indicated, one caprice of his own [was played]. If the suppressed two are as attractive as the one performed, it was a pity the audience should have been deprived of them.” (Boston Daily Advertiser (Saturday morning, January 30, 1869): 1) At a concert at the Church of the Good Samaritan, Gloucester Place, on Wednesday evening, December 30, 1868, Lang played Chopin’s’ Scherzo in B Flat Opus 31 and Fantasia on Themes by Weber arranged by Liszt. In the same program Lang’s song The Violet was sung by Miss Rametti for whom it was composed. G. W. Sumner was the accompanist for this concert. (BPL Lang Prog., Vol. 1)

      The third Caprice would seem to be one in C Minor that was part of a concert given in March 1869. A June 12, 1869 recital by B. J. at the South Congregational Church, Union Park Street included his song Have Mercy, O Lord. European concerts dating from December 1869 through May of 1870 show an extended period spent abroad. A December 28, 1869 solo piano concert was given at the Hotel de Rome in Berlin with pieces by Beethoven, Chopin, Bach (2), Mendelssohn, and Liszt’s transcription of a work by Weber. Almost the same program was given on March 11, 1870, in Dresden, but also included were the Phantasien in A dur and C dur. A review from a Dresden paper described these works as “cleverly invented and particularly distinguished by enchaining modulation.” (Dwight (April 8. 1870): 224) At the May 13, 1870 concert in Vienna, B. J. had a guest artist [Adams, Diary Excerpts, 5] from the Vienna Opera who sang his Spring, Spinning Song, Love, and The 86th Psalm. A January 1869 New England Conservatory concert program listed that B. J. would play three of his own Caprices; he only played one. “If the suppressed two are as attractive as the one performed, it was a pity the audience should have been deprived of them. (Advertiser (January 30, 1969): 1) On December 9, 1870, Lang included his Christmas Song at another New England Conservatory concert.

      The Thursday evening, April 4, 1871 concert at Mechanics Hall, corner of Bedford and Chancey Streets which was in aid of the “Horticultural School for Women” included his Spinning Song in A Major and Caprice in C Major for piano and his vocal solos Christmas Song, The Two Roses, and Her I Love. (BPL Lang Programs, Vol. 1) At a concert to benefit “Robert Collyer and Family” given by the quartet-choir of South Congregational Church on Saturday, October 21, 1871, B. J. improvised and his songs Mary Stood the Cross Beside and Bow Down Thine Ear; the quartet included Mrs. Julia Houston-West-soprano, Mrs. John F. Winch-contralto, Mr. William J. Winch-tenor, and Mr. John F. Winch-bass (William and John Winch were to appear often as soloists with the Handel and Haydn Society).

        Among the pieces for the Easter service at South Congregational Church in 1873 were these by Lang: The World Itself Keeps Easter Day, Gloria, Hymn, Easter Carol and Te Deum in E flat.

      At an organ concert at the Chapel of the Second Church on February 7, 1874, B. J. included his Spinning Song and Caprice in A Major. The Spinning Song in A Major was repeated at the April 16, 1874 recital at the Essex Institute Hall in Salem, MA together with the Caprice in C Major. The Apollo Club program of March 3, 1874 included two of his solo songs: The Two Roses and Her I Love sung by W. J. Winch and these were repeated at a private concert at the home of Charles Wood of Commonwealth Avenue three days later. During the mid-1870s Lang would often include in his solo recitals two or three of his own compositions spread throughout the program. (BPL Lang Programs, Vol. 2)

      The Apollo Club presented his setting of The Sea King (“Come sing, come sing, of the great Sea-King, And the fame that now hang’s o’er him” etc.)  at their March 9, 1880 concert; it had also been sung previously at their June 1, 1874 concert. There it was listed as a duet for baritones, and in 1874 it was performed as a duet by the brothers Winch, and Dwight’s review described the piece as “in rather an old English bravura style, full of roulades, which showed their voices and their execution to advantage.” (Dwight (June 13, 1874): 247) Dwight’s review of 1880 commented: “Mr. Lang’s Sea King duet is in the rollicking old English bravura style, with plenty of ”go” in it, and made a lively effect as sung by the two basses [Dr. Bullard and Mr. J. F. Winch].” (Dwight (April 10, 1880): 62) Another part song, Who Comes So Gracefully (“Who comes so gracefully, gliding along, While the blue rivulet sleeps to her song” etc.) was sung by the Apollo Club on June 1, 1874 and again on March 9, 1875. Dwight called it “a romantic, graceful partsong.” (Dwight, Op. cit., 247)

      At his self-promoted concerts at Mechanic’s Hall on March 6 and 20, 1879, B. J. included his songs The Two Roses (March 6), Absence, and Here I Love (March 20). Dwight mentioned that “Mr. Lang’s Two Roses, a graceful, dainty fancy, was heartily appreciated.” (Dwight (March ??, 1879): 54) no mention was made of the two songs in the March 20 concert. Mr. J. F. Winch performed Ho! Pretty Page at the May 15, 1879 concert, and the Courier of May 15, 1879 reported: “Mr. Lang’s song created the only genuine enthusiasm of the evening. It fully deserved the heartiness of its reception, being an expressive piece of vocal writing with a stirring accompaniment, the effect of which, however, would be lost if instructed to less skillful hands than Mr. Lang’s. Mr. Winch sang it with evident appreciation of its beauties, but not without his accustomed distinctness of enunciation.” The Transcript said: “A charming new composition by Mr. B. J. Lang was sung by Mr. Winch and warmly encored.” It was the only encore of the evening. (Scrapbook) Dwight’s Journal noted: “Mr. Lang’s setting of Thackeray’s ”Ho, pretty page,” catches and reproduces the fine pathetic humor of the verses, and is a fresh, genial, fascinating bit of music. As sung by Mr. Winch it took the audience almost off their feet, and had to be repeated.” (Dwight (May 24, 1879): 86)

      The Sea King, a duet for baritones was included in the March 9, 1880 performance. The Advertiser reported: “Mr. Lang’s The Sea King, a superb song, in which musical form and poetic thought are welded together with intense imaginative heat, was sung by Dr. Ballard and Mr. John F. Winch in an interesting way, though the difficulties of the number demanded the first freshness of their voices and not that modicum which remained after an evening of hard vocal work.” (Scrapbook) At an 1880 concert at the Town Hall in Groton, MA Spinning Song in A Major and Diversion in C Major were included. At the May 1890 concert by the Cecilia, three songs by Lang were performed by Mr. W. J. Winch, tenor to “loud applause.” However, Philip Hale felt that “the first two of which perhaps suffer from exuberant piano accompaniments, though in the setting of Lowell the richness of the piano part seems not out of place.” (BPL, Hale Crit, Vol. 1)

       For “An Evening With Prof. Longfellow” in 1881, Lang composed The Hymn of the Moravian Nuns. The Cecilia gave premiere performances of B.J.’s The Chase (Apr. 12, 1882), Sing Maiden, Sing (Feb. 4, 1886), and the first Boston performance of his The King Is Dead. (Hill, 22) John F. Winch sang The Chase, with a two stanza poem by C. Kingsley, and the Sixth Annual Report by the President of Cecilia said that the song “achieved a remarkable success for the brilliancy of the composition, the spirited rendering by Mr. John Winch, and the effective accompaniment by the composer.” “The only encore of the concert was gained by Mr. J. F. Winch in a hunting song by Mr. Lang. It is bright, dashing composition, with the usual empty fifths, etc. Mr. Winch sang it with spirit, but without any especial shading.” Another reviewer noted that “Mr. Lang’s original compositions are so rarely heard, but invariably with such pleasure, that his new song, The Chase, was awaited with an interest that was much more than curiosity. His setting of Kingsley’s exhilarating lines, by its hearty directness of utterance and spontaneity, as well as by the delicate suggestion of its melody, is full of the oxygen of out-door life as intensified and concentrated by exciting sport. The piano accompaniment (played by Mr. Lang) pictures brilliantly the dash and the impetuous rush of the riders to be ”in at the death.” Mr. Winch’s singing of the song was most effective, and he was compelled by the applause to repeat the closing lines.” The Courier reviewer felt that “The chief fault of his work was that there was no lightness in the repetition of the opening phrase.” (Cecilia Program Clippings) It must also be noted that this reviewer found something negative in most everything that was presented. Mr. Winch repeated The Chase during a February 27, 1884 concert given for the Boston Art Club.

 The Apollo concerts of February 20 and 25, 1884 included Lang’s setting of the Swedish folk-song, Hi-fe-lin-ke-le. At Miss Elene Buffington Kebow’s Concert at Chickering Hall on May 28, 1885, B. J. included his Nocturne. At the February 4, 1886 concert of the Cecilia, Miss Bockus (a member of the Club) sang Sing, Maiden, Sing. (Yearbook, Vol. 3, p. 52) On May 12 and 17, 1886, the Apollo premiered B. J’s My True Love Hath My Heart (poem by Sir Philip Sidney, 1580)(on May  17 “Supported by violins”- Wilson Yearbook, 1885-86, 51) and repeated his Hi-fe-lin-ke-le; both pieces had been written for the group. Lang composed two solo songs for the Apollo concerts of April 29/May 4, 1885 which included only works of Boston composers. The first was entitled Nocturne (poem by T. B. Aldrich) for tenor, which was premiered by Mr. George J. Parker. This piece was also programmed at the Apollo Club concerts of April 27 and May 2, 1887, and again on April 29 and May 4, 1891. The second solo song was The Lass of Carlisle which was sung by Mr. C. E. Hay. Both of these soloists were members of the Apollo Club, and both appeared as soloist with the Handel and Haydn Society during this period. (Boston Musical Year Book, Vol. 2 1884-85, 45)

               From Knickerbocker Magazine, 1851. Researched by Herb Zeller, Historian of the Apollo Club.

At a December 2, 1887 concert, Lang was still playing his Spinning Song and Diversion in C Major, pieces written twenty years earlier. Indeed, the Diversion in C Major was played at a Wheaton Seminary concert on December 14, 1892 and for the Boston Tea Party Chapter of the DAR in late 1895.

      For the Cecilia concert on May 22, 1890, Mr. W. J. Winch sang songs by Handel and Raff and three songs by B. J. Lang. Aladdin’s Lamp, Sing, Maiden Sing and Cradle Song were performed to Lang’s accompaniment. (Yearbook, Vol. 8, p. 16)

        Aladdin’s Lamp.  James Russell Lowell.

       When I was a beggarly boy, And lived in a cellar damp, I had not a friend or a toy, But I had Aladdin’s lamp.

       When I could not sleep for cold, I had fire enough in my brain; And builded with roof of gold My beautiful castles in Spain.

       Since then I have toiled day and night, I have money and power good store, But I’d give all my lamps silver bright For the one that is mine no more.

       Take, Fortune, whatever you choose; You gave, and may snatch again; I’ve nothing ‘twould pain me to lose, For I’ve no more castles in Spain.

       Sing, Maiden, Sing.  Barry Cornwall.

       Sing, maiden, sing; mouths were made for singing. Listen! Songs thou’lt hear through the wide world ringing; songs from the birds; songs from seas and streams; even from sweet flowers.

       Hearest thou the rain, how it gently falleth? Hearest thou the bird, who from forest calleth? Hearest thou the bee o’er the sunflower ringing? Tell us, maiden, now shouldst thou not be singing?

       Hearest thou the breeze round the rose-bud sighing? And the small sweet rose love to love replying? So shouldst thou reply to the prayer we’re bringing: so that bud, thy mouth, should burst forth in singing.

       Cradle Song.  Words from the German by Charles T. Brooks.

       Evening is balmy and cool in the west, lulling the golden bright meadows to rest. Twinkle like silver stars in the skies, greeting the two slumbering eyes. Now all the flowers are gone to repose, all the sweet odor-cups peacefully close. Blossoms rock’d lightly on evening’s mild breeze, drowsily, dreamily swing the trees. Sweetly sleep! Sweetly sleep! Thy watch the good angels in Paradise keep. Sweetly sleep.

       Wise little elves by the light of the moon, sing to my darling a lullaby soon. Rise from your cells in the cups of the flowers, weave him a golden dream all the night hours. Sleep till the flowers are opening once more, sleep till the lark in the morning shall soar, sleep till the golden bells” heavenly chime festively welcomes the morning’s prime, Sweetly sleep! Sweetly sleep! Thy watch the good angels in Paradise keep. Sweetly sleep!

      A Te Deum Laudamus in F was performed as part of the 165th. Anniversary of the birth of George Washington that was held in King’s Chapel in 1893. A Grand March from David ended his organ recital at Second Church, Copley Square on January 31, 1894, and a Caprice in C Major for piano that he played as early as February 1874 (at six concerts that year) he was still playing on December 9, 1895. Pieces entitled Spinning Song in A Major and Diversion in C Major often appear. The use of generic titles and the extensive use of C Major point to improvisations as the original source of these compositions. That this was also among his talents is reflected in his organ programs where “Improvisation” is often found. In the many concerts that he gave at the Boston Music Hall for the few years after it’s opening, “Improvisation” was included on almost every program and this was notably missing from the other performers’ programs.

      Before the Te Deum noted above, Lang wrote another setting in D flat major for the 1896 Easter Service at King’s Chapel. (Herald (April4, 1896): 7, GB) Frances wrote in her Diary for the summer of 1902: “Lel spends the P.M.s mostly at the Crows Nest [at the Farm].” He was possibly composing there, as the second entry later is: “Lel has written 2 Te Deums.” (Diary 2, Summer 1902)

      At the April 5, 1897 concert of the Apollo Club B. J. again included his Nocturne. At an April 3, 1899, Chickering Hall recital B. J.’s Easter Carol-The World Itself Keeps Easter Day for contralto and chorus was performed while just a few days later on April 10. 1899 at the first American Guild of Organists Public Service in Boston at the Central Church, corner of Berkeley and Newbury Streets, B. J.’s Prelude was included. At the May 1, 1901 concert of the Apollo Club B. J.’s The Lass of Carlisle and The Chase were programmed.

       Lang wrote a hymn for the funeral of ex-Governor Wolcott in December of 1900. The text was: “With Silence as Their Only Benediction.” (Herald (December 23, 1900): 9, GB)

Mr. George Edmund Dwight gave a song recital on April 22, 1903, at 3 PM at “small”(?) Chickering Hall. His program included a new cycle by Atkinson, and new songs by Mr. Foote, Mrs. Beach, Mr. Henschel and Mr. Lang. MISTER Lang! If the song(s) were by Margaret, how did “Miss” get changed into “Mr.”? They got “Mrs.” for Amy Beach correct. As B. J. was no longer doing the Apollo Club, did he now have time to do some composing? (Herald (April 12, 1903): 31, GB)

      Only one published work is found, and it is really only a fragment. George Chadwick, in his “Drei Walzer fur das Pianoforte” in f minor, E major, and A flat major, where the Third Waltz has the heading “Motive by B. J. L.” which Hughes described as a “dreamy, tender work on a theme, by ‘B.J.L.’, which refers, I presume to Mr. B. J. Lang.” (Hughes: Contemporary American Composers,  212) Schmidt published this in 1890 and the holograph is at the Library of Congress. Hughes thought well enough of this piece to include it as one of only two examples in his article on Chadwick in the February 1896 issue of Godey’s’ Magazine-he reproduced the full first page of the work. The pianist, Peter Kairoff, who recorded a complete CD of Chadwick’s piano works describes this work as “serenely joyful.” The third also has a fascinating hemiola in the right hand, which much of the time plays in a different meter than the left.” (CD “American Character”-Albany Troy 745 program notes.)

COMPOSITIONS IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER.

ABSENCE. Self-promoted concert at Mechanics Hall on March 20, 1879.

AGATHA AT THE GATE. November 20, 1873, Boston.

ALADDIN’S LAMP. Cecilia concert, May 22, 1890 sung by W. J. Winch. (Yearbook, Vol. 8, 16)

AMERICA-CONCERT VARIATIONS-1862. “Concert In Aid of Sick and Wounded Soldiers.” Also August 29, 1869 at Hancock Hall, Ellsworth, Maine.

BERCEUSE (for organ). Music Hall: August 13, 1864.

BIBLE SONGS, harmonized by “Mr. J. B.[sic] Lang, Organist. Salem, Mass.” Published by Nathan Richardson, at the Musical Exchange, 282 Washington Street, Boston, 1856. The composer of the songs was Marion Dix Sullivan. Copy at the Library of Congress. M 2117. S94B4.

BOW DOWN THINE EAR. Song sung at South Congregational Church, February 14, 1868 and October 21, 1871.

BREATH OF SPRING. Sung on Friday, January 28, 1859 by Mrs. J. H. Long as part of a Mendelssohn Quintette Club concert.

CAPRICES IN C MAJOR AND A FLAT MAJOR. Hingham and Milton, 1868; also at NEC concert January 1869; February 11, 1874, Worcester County Music School (C Major only); February 21, 1874; January 18, 1876 in New Bedford; August 29, 1879 in Hingham.

CAPRICES, THREE. New England Conservatory concert, January 1869-the third one was probably in C Minor which was given at a concert in March 1869.

CAPRICE IN A MAJOR. Organ concert at the Chapel of Second Church, February 7, 1874.

CAPRICE IN C MAJOR. August 24, 1872, Westerly, R. I.; played at six concerts in 1874; April 16, 1874 Salem where it was listed in the program as Opus 46; May 24, 1878 Andover; August 29, 1879 Hingham; November 5, 1879 Newburyport; June 20, 1879 at Springfield, MA; and he was still playing the piece December 9, 1895.

THE CHASE. Solo song, Cecilia concerts April 12, 1882 and February 27, 1884 at the Boston Art Club; Lang’s last concert with the Apollo Club concert May 1, 1901, Mr. Clarence E. Hay, soloist. (Herb Zeller e-mail, October 15, 2012)

CHRISTMAS SONG. Song sung at the New England Conservatory concert on December 9, 1870; April 4, 1871 at Mechanics Hall, corner Bedford and Chancey Streets. Also King’s Chapel,  Christmas day 1890 (Advertiser (December 26, 1890): 2, GB)

CHRISTMAS CAROL. Christmas day at King’s Chapel, 1895. (Herald (December 26, 1895) 6, GB)

CRADLE SONG. Cecilia concert May 22, 1890 sung by W. J. Winch. (Yearbook, Vol. 8,  16)

DAVID. An oratorio mentioned by Mathews. B. J. ended his January 31, 1894 concert at Second Church, Copley Square with A GRAND MARCH FROM DAVID. Frances mentioned in a September 1871 entry in her Diary: “Lel has been working on his oratorio.” (Diary 2-Rosamond)

DIVERSION IN C MAJOR. August 7, 1873, Swampscott; April 16, 1874 Salem; October 1874 Lawrence; January 30, 1875 NEC recital; May 17, 1875 at Madame Bishop’s concert; March 4, 1877 Wellesley College; May 31, 1876; December 2, 1887 Boston Art Club; June 25, 1888 Groton; Groton 1880; December 2, 1887; Wheaton Seminary December 14, 1892; DAR 1895.

EASTER CAROL. Easter 1873 at South Congregational Church. Easter Sunday, April 14, 1895, King’s Chapel. (Herald (April 12, 1895): 7, GB) Again on April 5, 1896, King’s Chapel. (Herald (April 4, 1896): 7, GB)

EASTER HYMN. “People who were lucky enough on Easter Sundays in King’s’ Chapel to hear the beauty of his Easter Hymn, never forgot it.” (Robbins, p. 70) A different or earlier version of this Hymn was performed on Easter Sunday, 1873 at South Congregational Church. (Dwight (April 19, 1873): 7 and 8)

              FANTASIA. (Called Fantasie in October 9, 1854 Diary entry. The piece may have been a duet as he wrote in this entry: “Played duets with Breed; my Fantasie) Written in 1854 for a concert given by Mr. Adams, a  leader of singing classes in the Salem area, for whom B. J. was sometimes the accompanist. There are many entries in B. J.’s Diary about singing classes given by Mr. Adams and also by B. J.’s father.

FANTASIA UPON DANISH AND HOLLAND AIRS. December 14, 1866.

FANTASIE IN A FLAT. New Bedford Lyceum, 1866; Thursday evening January 1, 1866 at Mechanic Hall, Salem.

FANTASIE IN E FLAT. Salem and Providence, 1866. These two were performed by Lang in his German concerts in the spring of 1870.

             FANTASTIC ORIGINAL. One of Lang’s solo pieces that was part of a      concert of “Dramatic Recitations” given by William Hawes on March 21,   1856. Lang also acted as accompanist for the violinist W. H. Schultze who was also featured at this concert.

            FOUR PSALMS. “Lel showed us his music for 4 Psalms.” (June 1870,    Diary-2) The Lang’s were in Switzerland.

GLORIA. Easter 1873 at South Congregational Church. (see Easter Hymn)

HAVE MERCY, O LORD. Song sung at South Congregational Church, June 12, 1869.

HER I LOVE. Sung at an 1871 concert; also at Apollo Club concerts on February 21 and March 3, 1874 sung by William J. Winch, tenor; also at self-promoted concert at Mechanics Hall on March 20, 1879, also sung by Winch.

HIFI-LIN-KE-LE. Choral piece. Apollo concerts in February 1884, May 1886 and May 1897 (Herald (May 16, 1897): 13, GB) with description of the piece. The text is a translation of “a little Swedish song” which appeared in the New York monthly magazine, The Knickerbocker, February 1851. A comment in the magazine said: “It would be a pleasant thing to hear JENNY LIND warble it in some of her forthcoming concerts.”

HO! PRETTY PAGE. Sung by Mr. J. F. Winch May 15, 1879. Program-Johnston Collection.

HYMN. Easter 1873 at South Congregational Church.

HYMN OF THE MORAVIAN NUNS, THE. 1881 concert-“An Evening with Prof. Longfellow.”

            HYMNS OF WHITTIER. For the funeral of Ruth Burrage, B. J. “played    music he had written to Hymns of Whittier.” (Diary 2, Spring 1872)

             HYMN, HALLELUJAH. Easter 1896-King’s Chapel. Choir: Misses Torrey and Little and Messrs. Winch and Heinrich. (Herald (April 4, 1896): 7, GB)

THE KING IS DEAD. Cecilia February 4, 1886.

IMPROMPTU. Concert in Worcester, February 7, 1861.

IMPROMPTU. 1862 “Concert in Aid of Sick and Wounded Soldiers;” also Ellsworth Maine August 29, 1869.

IMPROMPTU IN C MAJOR. August 24, 1872 Westerly, R. I.

IMPROMPTU IN A FLAT. New Bedford piano recital, 1862

IMPROVISATION. B. J. included an improvisation in almost every organ recital that he gave at the Boston Music Hall.

THE LASS OF CARLISLE. Baritone solo. Sung at Apollo concerts on April 29 and May 4, 1885 by Mr.Clarence E. Hay; and at Lang’s last concert with the Apollo Club on May 1, 1901 [also by Mr. Hay. Herb Zeller, e-mail October 15, 2012]

LIED-PSALM 86. Sung Vienna May 13, 1870. Frances wrote in her Diary the reaction of the Vienna audience to this piece: “which everyone was wild over.” Had been sung by Adams. (Diary Excerpts, 5)

A LITTLE CHILD DWELT BY THE FLOWING SEA. November 20, 1873 Boston. Frances mentions in her Diary for 1866 that B. J. had written “a lovely song to the words…..A Little Child.” (Diary 2-Rosamond)

LOVE. Sung at Vienna May 13, 1870.

MARY STOOD THE CROSS BESIDE. Song sung at South Congregational Church October 21, 1871.

MY TRUE LOVE HAS MY HEART. Apollo concerts in May 1886.

NOCTURNE. Solo for tenor. Premiered at the Apollo concerts April 27 and May 4, 1885. Programmed again April 27 and May 2, 1887; April 29 and May 4, 1891; also at Miss Buffington Kebow’s concert on May 28, 1885; Apollo Club April 5, 1897. Text by Aldrich-“Up to her Chamber Window.” “The song is a gem. Its graceful contrasts of major and minor, and its dainty figure treatment, are very effective.” Louis C. Elson-(Advertiser (May 5, 1891): 4, GB)

             O MOTHERLAND. Composed by Lang for the “exercises” for the unveiling of the bust of the poet, John Boyle O’Reilly. Lang, then conductor of the Handel and Haydn Society,  conducted a full orchestra and a large choir in Mendelssohn’s O Sons of Art and his original piece using words from the dead poet, “O Motherland, there is no cause to doubt thee.”

PRELUDE. AGO service April 10, 1899

PSALM 86. See LIED-PSALM 86.

THE SEA KING. Sung by the Apollo Club June 1, 1874 and again on March 9, 1880. Listed as a duet for baritones, it was sung by the two Winch brothers in 1874. At the Apollo Club March 9, 1880 performance of this piece, it was sung by Dr. Ballard and Mr. John F. Winch.

SING MAIDEN SING. Cecilia February 4, 1886 (Miss Bockus, a member of the Club)(Yearbook, Vol. 3, 52) and May 22, 1890 (Mr. W. J. Winch).

            SONG(S)-1903. Recital of George Edmund Dwight on April 22, 1903 at        “small” Chickering Hall.

SPINNING SONG. Sung at Vienna May 13, 1870.

SPINNING SONG IN A MAJOR for piano. 1871 concert; August 24, 1872 Westerly, R. I.; April 7, 1873 Swampscott; also at an organ concert at the Chapel of the Second Church on February 7, 1874; April 16, 1874 in Salem, MA; October 1874 Lawrence; NEC January 8, 1876 and April 7, 1876; March 31, 1876 Wellesley College; April 16, 1877 Chickering Hall; January 23, 1878 Bradford; May 24, 1878 Andover; November 5, 1879 Newburyport; NEC July 30, 1879; June 20, 1879 in Springfield, MA; June 25, 1880 Groton; December 17, 1883 Boston; February 1, 1886 Bumstead Hall; December 2, 1887 Boston Art Club.

SPRING. Sung at Vienna May 13, 1870.

TE DEUM LAUDAMUS #2 IN E FLAT. South Church, Salem, February 19, 1866. Miss Houston, Miss Cary, Mr. Rudolphsen and Mr. Downs. Te Deum in E flat with no number was part of the Easter services in 1873 at South Congregational Church.

TE DEUM LAUDAMUS IN F. King’s Chapel, Christmas day, 1890 (Advertiser (December 26, 1890): 2, GB) and 1893 at a service for the 165th. Anniversary of the Birth of George Washington.

TE DEUM IN G FLAT MAJOR. King’s Chapel Easter Service, April 14, 1895. The choir was listed as: Mrs. Josslyn, Miss Lena Little, Mr. W. J. Winch, Mr. Max Heinrich. While “G FLAT MAJOR” is certainly possible, since the “G” key is just above the “B” key, this might be a mis-print. (Herald (April 12, 1895) 7, GB)

TE DEUM IN D MAJOR. King’s Chapel, December 25, 1895. (Herald (December 26, 1895): 6, GB)

             TE DEUM IN D FLAT MAJOR. King’s Chapel, Easter 1896.   Choir:            Misses Torrey and Little and Messrs. Winch and Heinrich. (Herald (April 4, 1896): 7, GB)

             TE DEUMS (2). “Lel has written 2 Te Deums.” (Diary 2, Summer 1902)

TEACH ME THY WAYS. Song sung by W. J. Winch, tenor, on October 5, 1890 as part of an organ recital.

THE 86th. PSALM-sung at Vienna May 13, 1870.

THE TWO ROSES. Sung at an 1871 concert; also at an Apollo Club concerts on February 21 and March 3, 1874 by the tenor William J. Winch; also at a self-promoted concert at Mechanic Hall on March 6, 1879, also sung by Winch. Sung at a Lang Concert at Gill’s Hall in Springfield, MA by Miss Louise Homer on Friday, June 20, 1879. She had just returned from Paris where she had studied with Mme. Garcia. (Springfield Republican (June 20, 1879): 6, GB)

THE VIOLET. December 30, 1868.

WHO COMES SO GRACEFULLY (Partsong). Apollo Club on June 1, 1874 and again on March 9, 1875.

WITH SILENCE AS THEIR ONLY BENEDICTION. A hymn sung at Ex. Governor Wolcott’s funeral at King’s Chapel late in December 1900. Words by Whittier. (Herald (December 23, 1900): 9, GB) In 1872 Frances recorded that B. J. had written music for the funeral of Ruth Burrage to “Hymns of Whittier.” (Diary 2-Rosamond) might they be the same piece?

THE WORLD ITSELF KEEPS EASTER DAY for contralto and chorus. April 3, 1899, sung by Miss Lena Little-also on April 27, 1904. Also listed earlier for the Easter services in 1873 at the South Congregational Church.

There also exist compositions by B. J.’s father,  “B. Lang.” A Harvest Waltz is in the collection of the Library of Congress. It was “Composed and dedicated to his PUPILS.” It was published by Oliver Ditson in Boston sometime in the 1850s. [Have a copy of the front page only as LC would not allow the music to be opened] The University of California, Berkley also has a copy-a microfilm of its five pages would cost $40 (2010) Another piece, a strophic song with chorus entitled Merry Sailor Boy with words by E. Jocelyn Esq. and music by Benjamin Lang was published by Oliver Ditson in 1852. [Have a copy from “The Lester S. Levy Collection of Sheet Music” at John Hopkins University].

CHAPTER 14. TOPIC INDEX SC (G) WC-1530.

  • CHAPTER 14: TOPIC INDEX. (2) SC (G). WC- 1530
  • 5/2. This means Chapter 5, Section 2. Then there will be a list of Topics within that Section.
  • 1883 World Columbian Exposition.  9/1
  • 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago.  5/1
  • 6 NEWBURY STREET STUDIOS.  6/2
  • 70TH. BIRTHDAY FOR B. J. 6/2
  • ACCOMPANIST.
  • American Guild of Organists.   5/2
  • AMERICAN MUSIC EDUCATION.   6/2
  • APOLLO: TENTH ANNIVERSARY. 3/4
  • APOLLO CLUB: FORMATION.   3/1
  • Apollo Club-B. J.  Resigns. 5/4
  • APOLLO CLUB PUBLIC REHEARSALS.  3/3
  • APOLLO CLUB SEASON 1872-1873.   3/1                                                                 APOLLO CLUB SEASON 1873-1874.   3/1                                                                 APOLLO CLUB SEASON 1874-1875.  3/2
  • APOLLO CLUB SEASON 1875-1876.  3/2
  • APOLLO CLUB SEASON 1876-1877.   3/3
  • APOLLO CLUB SEASON 1877-1878.   3/3
  • APOLLO CLUB SEASON 1878-1879. 3/4
  • APOLLO CLUB SEASON 1879-1880.  3/4
  • APOLLO CLUB SEASON 1880-1881. 3/4
  • Apollo Club Season 1881-1882. 11th.  4/1
  • Apollo Club Season 1882-1883.  12th. 4/1
  • Apollo Club Season 1883-1884.  13th. 4/2
  • Apollo Club Season 1884-1885.  14th. 4/2
  • Apollo Club Season 1885-1886.  15th. 4/2
  • Apollo Club Season 1886-1887.  16th. 4/3
  • Apollo Club Season 1887-1888.  17th. 4/3
  • Apollo Club Season 1888-1889.  18th. 4/3
  • Apollo Club Season 1889-1890.  19th. 4/4
  • Apollo Club Season 1890-1891.  20th. 4/4
  • Apollo Club Season 1891-1892.  21st.  5/1
  • Apollo Club Season 1892-1893.  22nd. 5/1
  • Apollo Club Season 1893-1894.  23rd. 5/2
  • Apollo Club Season 1894-1895. 24th.  5/2
  • Apollo Club Season 1895-1896. 25th.  5/2
  • Apollo Club Season 1896-1897.  26th. 5/3
  • Apollo Club Season 1897-1898.  27th. 5/3
  • Apollo Club Season 1898-1899. 28th.  5/4
  • Apollo Club Season 1899-1900.  29th. 5/4
  • Apollo Club Season 1900-1901. 30th.  5/4
  • Apollo Sings for the Funeral of John H. Stickney.  5/1
  • APOLLO-SPRING 1881.   3/43
  • Apthorp, William Foster. 2/3
  • Apthorp Lecture.   5/3
  • ARLINGTON CLUB. 3/4
  • Artistic Growth-1860’s
  • Attacks on Lang Through Tucker and Foote.  4/2
  • AVERAGE WEEK.   3/3
  • B. J.’S SISTER-MARIETTA (ETTA) AND FAMILY MUSICALES.  3/1
  • B. J. as a Piano Salesman.   2/1
  • Bach Birthday Concert.   4/2
  • Bach Concerts.   5/3
  • Bayreuth. 5/3
  • Beethoven Piano Concerto No. 1-Boston Premier.   2/3
  • BERLIOZ: DAMNATION OF FAUST.   6/1
  • BERLIOZ: DAMNATION OF FAUST-THREE TIMES!  3/4
  • “Best concert in its history.”  5/2
  • Bible Songs and Youthful Voices.   1/1
  • Birthday Wishes from the Family for MRL.   10/1
  • BIRTH OF MALCOLM LANG. 3/4
  • BIRTH OF ROSAMOND.   3/3
  • Boston: 1850. 1/1
  • BOSTON CHURCH CHOIRS.   3/3
  • BOSTON ORCHESTRAL CLUB. 3/1
  • BOSTON PHILHARMONIC CLUB.  3/2
  • BOSTON PHILHARMONIC SOCIETY.  3/4
  • Boston Singers (Replaced Boylston Club)  4/4
  • Boston Symphony Orchestra and Lang.  4/1
  • BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA. LANG SOLOS. WITH. OTHERS SOLO.
  • Boston Symphony Orchestra Chorus.  5/1
  • BOYLSTON CLUB.   3/1
  • Brimmer Street House Described.  9/1
  • Brown, Allen A.   4/2
  • BSO 100th. Birthday Celebration.    10/1
  • BSO 1966 Honor.    10/1
  • BSO Subscriber Since 1881, First Concert, to the Present: MRL.   10/1
  • von BULOW. 3/2
  • BUNKER HILL-100TH ANNIVERSARY.  3/2
  • Burrage Room-see Ruth Burrage Room.
  • Carreno, Teresa.   2/2
  • CECILIA AFTER LANG. 6/2
  • CECILIA-BEGINNINGS.   3/2
  • CECILIA CONTINUED.   3/3
  • CECILIA DETRACTOR. 3/4
  • CECILIA SEASON 1876-1877.  1st. Indep. 3/3
  • CECILIA SEASON 1877-1878.  2nd. Indep. 3/3
  • CECILIA SEASON 1878-1879.  3rd. Indep. 3/3
  • CECILIA SEASON 1879-1880.  4th. Indep. 3/4
  • CECILIA SEASON 1880-1881.  5th. Indep. 3/4
  • CECILIA SEASON 1880-1881 CONCLUDED. 3/4
  • Cecilia Season 1881-1882. 6th.  4/1
  • Cecilia Season 1882-1883. 7th.  4/1
  • Cecilia Season 1883-1884. 8th.  4/2
  • Cecilia Season 1884-1885.  9th.  4/2
  • Cecilia Season 1885-1886. 10th. 4/2
  • Cecilia Season 1886-1887. 11th.  4/3
  • Cecilia Season 1887-1888. 12th. 4/3
  • Cecilia Season 1889-1890. 14th. 4/4
  • Cecilia Season 1890-1891. 15th.  4/4
  • Cecilia Season 1891-1892.  16th. 5/1
  • Cecilia Season 1892-1893. 17th.  5/1
  • Cecilia Season 1893-1894.  18th. 5/1
  • Cecilia Season 1894-1895.  19th. 5/2
  • Cecilia Season 1895-1896.  12th. 5/2
  • Cecilia Season 1896-1897.  21st. 5/3
  • Cecilia Season 1897-1898.  22nd. 5/3
  • Cecilia Season 1898-1899.  23rd. 5/3
  • Cecilia Season 1899-1900.  24th. 5/4
  • Cecilia Season 1900-1901.  25th. 5/4
  • CECILIA SEASON 1901-1902.  26th. 6/1
  • CECILIA SEASON 1902-1903.  27th. 6/1. HAVERHILL.
  • CECILIA SEASON 1903-1904.  28th. 6/1
  • CECILIA SEASON 1904-1905.  29th. 6/2
  • CECILIA SEASON 1905-1906.  30th. 6/ 2
  • CECILIA SEASON 1906-1907.  31st. 6/2
  • CECILIA SINGS GOV. WOLCOTT FUNERAL.  6/1
  • CENSUS-1880. 3/4
  • CHADWICK PREMIER WITH APOLLO CLUB.   3/4
  • Chadwick-Support by Lang.    4/3
  • CHAMBER MUSIC: SPRING SERIES 1876.  3/2
  • Chaminade of America.  9/1
  • Chickering Agent.   1/1
  • CHICKERING ANNIVERSARY CONCERT.  6/1
  • Chickering Hall Dedication.
  • CHICKERING ORCHESTRAL CONCERTS.  6/1
  • Chickering piano for Master Lang.   1/1
  • Choral Premiers of Margaret’s.   8/1
  • Choral Training Techniques of Lang. 4/2
  • Christmas Season-1864.   2/2
  • CLIQUE IN BOSTON.  3/4
  • Complimentary Concert for B. J., March 1860.   2/1
  • Concert Arias, Three.   9/1
  • Concerto (Piano) Performances Through 1900.  5/4
  • Concert to Help the Patriots of Crete.  2/3
  • Costume Ball.  4/3
  • CRAMER PIANOFORTE STUDIES.   3/3
  • Critics of Lang.   5/1
  • Damnation of Faust.    4/1
  • DEATH.  Benjamin Johnson Lang.   6/2
  • Death.  Margaret Ruthven Lang.  10/1
  • DEATH OF FRANCES’ MOTHER.  6/1
  • Debut as Pianist in Boston.   2/1
  • Diphtheria.   4/1
  • DITSON FUND MEETING.  6/1
  • Dixey, R. C.   2/3
  • Dixey, Richard C.   2/2
  • Dramatic Overture and Witichis. 9/1
  • Dramatic Overture and Witichis Reviews. 9/1
  • Dutton, Alice-Early Lang Piano Pupil.   2/2
  • Dvorak Composition Lesson(s).
  • Dwight, John S. 2/1
  • DWIGHT COMPLIMENTARY CONCERT. 3/4
  • EARLY CHORAL GROUPS;    3/1
  • Early Piano Teachers of B. J.’s. 1/1
  • Etude Interview with Lang About his Teaching. 5/3
  • EULOGIES.   6/2
  • European Study for B. J.  Three Years or Not.   1/1
  • EUTERPE.   3/4
  • Ex-Governor Wolcott’s funeral.  5/4
  • Fall of 1870.   2/3
  • Family Portraits.  5/3
  • Farm: Second Summer Season-1896.   5/2
  • Farm: Summer Seasons 1897-1901.  5/4
  • Farm: Third Summer Season: 1897.  5/3
  • Father B. and B. J. Music Rooms in Salem.   2/1
  • Father Benjamin and B. J. in a joint concert.   1/1
  • Father Benjamin’s Businesses.   1/1
  • Fidelio.    4/1
  • FINAL CONDUCTING APPEARANCE. 6/2
  • FINANCIAL WORTH.   6/2
  • First Child.   2/2
  • First Lectures.   2/3
  • First Symphony Series.   2/3
  • First Walpurgis Night.   2/1
  • FOOTE, ARTHUR.   3/2
  • Frances’ Singing Lessons.   2/3
  • Frances’ Stand. “Opposing Electrocution.”   9/1
  • Frances Morse Lang-Death 10/1
  • Franz Liszt Dinner.   4/1
  • FUNERAL.   6/2
  • “Genius.” Musical America Article about Margaret.    8/1
  • Gericke, Wilhelm.   4/2
  • Gilmore’s Jubilee.   4/3
  • Gilmore Concert.   2/3
  • Globe Theatre Concerts. 2/3
  • Gottschalk and Lang.   2/1
  • Gottschalk and Lang. II.   2/2
  • GREAT BOSTON FIRE.  3/1
  • HALL OF FAME.   6/2
  • Handel and Haydn 50th. Anniversary.   2/2
  • Handel and Haydn Accompanist-October 1859.  2/1
  • Handel and Haydn-First Triennial Festival.  2/3
  • Handel and Haydn Salary.   4/4
  • Handel and Haydn Society.   2/1
  • HANDEL AND HAYDN SOCIETY.   3/2
  • HANDEL AND HAYDN SOCIETY-LANG CONDUCTS.  3/3
  • Handel and Haydn Society-Lang conducts.  “Was the best concert ever.”
  • Hannah Lang letter-1864.  2/2
  • HARVARD-MASTER OF ARTS DEGREE.   6/2
  • Harvard Musical Association New Home.  5/1
  • Harvard Musical Association Orchestral Concerts. 2/2
  • HAVERHILL CHORAL SOCIETY. 6/1
  • Haydn’s-The Seasons.   2/2
  • Heavenly Noel, The.   9/1
  • Henschel and the B.S.O.  4/1
  • HENSCHEL, HELEN,  BOSTON CONCERT.   6/1
  • Henschel: Miss Helen’s Boston Debut Recital.  5/4
  • HENSCHEL, LILLIAN JUNE BAILEY. b. 1860, d. 1901.  3/3
  • HENSCHEL MARRIAGE.   3/4
  • Hill Burlingame, Edward.   5/2
  • Hood, Helen  4/1
  • Hook and Hastings Studio Organ.  5/2
  • HOUSE AT 8 OTIS PLACE.   3/1
  • House Warming: Harvard Musical Association    9/1
  • Hymn of Praise for Charity.   4/4
  • Hymn of Praise Premier.   2/1
  • Immaculate Conception Church.   4/2
  • INCHES, MRS. LOUISE PAINTED BY SARGENT.  4/3
  • Irish Love Song.  9/1
  • Irish Love Song Lives On.   10/1
  • ISABELLA (MRS. JACK GARDNER) PAINTED BY SARGEANT.  4/3
  • Jaell, Alfred.   1/1
  • JOSEFFY AND LANG. 3/4
  • Joy, Clara F. Early Lang pupil.   2/3
  • King’s Chapel: Easter and Christmas 1895.  5/2
  • King’s Chapel: Elijah.   5/4
  • King’s Chapel: Vespers. Lang’s Magic as an Organist.  4/4
  • King’s Chapel-Christmas 1890.   4/4
  • KING’S CHAPEL-CHRISTMAS 1902.   6/1
  • KING’S CHAPEL-CHRISTMAS 1903.  6/1
  • KING’S CHAPEL-VESPER SERVICES 1907. 6/2
  • Lang’s Home: 1864. With Burrages.  2/2
  • LANG’S INFLUENCE LIVES ON.   6/2
  • Lang’s Circle Performs with the BSO. Boston Symphony Orchestra.
  • LANG’S MOTHER DIED.   3/2
  • Lang’s Musical Position in Boston. 4/1
  • Lang’s Musical Talks.   5/2
  • Lang’s Works Premiered by the Apollo Club.   4/2
  • LANG AS ASSISTING ARTIST.  3/3
  • Lang as B.S.O. Conductor?
  • LANG AS HANDEL AND HAYDN ORGANIST: Third Triennial Festival.  3/2
  • Lang Assists.   4/3
  • Lang, Benjamin Johnson.  1/1
  • Lang, Margaret Ruthven.  2/3
  • Lang- Musical Dictator of Boston.  5/3
  • Lang on Piano Playing.   5/1
  • LAST CECILIA CONCERT. 6/2
  • Lecture Business-Lang, Chadwick, Paine and Elson.  4/2
  • Lectures on Piano Technique.  4/2
  • Lincoln’s Funeral.   2/2
  • Lincoln Emancipation Proclamation Concert.   2/1
  • Liszt and Lang.  4/3
  • MacDowell, Edward Alexander.  4/3
  • MacDowell, Mrs.   10/1
  • Margaret’s First Performances.   8/1
  • Margaret’s Musical Style.  8/1
  • Margaret Aged 101.  10/1
  • Marriage to Frances Morse Burrage.   2/1
  • MECHANICS’ HALL CONCERTS: 1873 MARCH.  3/1
  • MECHANICS’ HALL CONCERTS: 1874 FEBRUARY-MARCH.   3/2
  • MECHANICS’ HALL CONCERTS: 1875 APRIL.  3/2
  • MECHANICS’ HALL CONCERTS: 1876 MARCH.   3/3
  • MECHANICS’ HALL CONCERTS: 1880.  3/4
  • MEMORIAL CONCERTS FOR B. J.  6/2
  • Mendelssohn: Son and Stranger.   4/1
  • Mendelssohn-Eighth Book of Songs Without Words.  2/3
  • MENDELSSOHN QUINTETTE CLUB & THE CATHOLIC CHORAL SOCIETY. 3/1
  • Mendelssohn Quintette Club Performances-1860 to 1869.   2/3
  • Mercantile Hall Concerts.   2/3
  • Messages From God. 1927-1939. 10/1
  • Missa Solemnis-Beethoven. Cecilia Sings at Symphony Hall Dedication. 5/4  Popular
  • Missing Pieces: MRL.  9/1
  • Missing Symphony: MRL.  9/1
  • MISS ROBBINS AND THE ACTRESS, MISS MAUDE ADAMS. 6/1
  • Monster Organ.  2/2
  • More B. J. Solo Appearances.   2/2
  • More MRL Song Performances. 8/1
  • MRL’s Biographies of Early Life. 8/1
  • MRS. GARDNER’S NEW MUSIC ROOM. 6/1
  • Munich Conservatory Instructors.    8/1
  • Munich: Margaret begins her studies.  4/2
  • Munich Study-1885.    8/1
  • Murder.   5/4
  • Music Hall Organ Concerts.   2/3
  • Music Hall Organ Dedication.   2/2
  • Music Hall Organ: 1865-66 Season.  2/2
  • Musicians’ Aid Concert.  5/4
  • NATIONAL COLLEGE OF MUSIC.  3/1
  • Nevin, Ethelbert.   4/1
  • New Boston Farm: First Summer Season-1895.   5/2
  • New England Conservatory.   2/2
  • Nikisch, Arthur. 4/4
  • Nikisch, BSO, Play for Margaret’s Instruction.   8/1
  • Ninth Cecilia Season. 1884-1885.   4/2
  • Ojala-1889 Paris World’s Fair.   8/1
  • Ojala-Washington, D. C. Performance.   8/1
  • Old South Organist-1859.   2/1
  • ORCHESTRAL CONCERTS OF LANG.  3/4
  • Organ Positions: Early. 1/1
  • Organ Positions: Old South Church. 1859-1864. South Congregational Church. 1864-1888. King’s Chapel. 1888-1909. B. J.’s Studio Organs. 1/1
  • OTHER CHARITABLE EVENTS (1) (2) (3).  6/1
  • Other Concert Groups.   2/2
  • Other Concerts.  2/3
  • PAINE- AZARA.  6/1
  • Parsifal: Second Time.   5/1
  • Parsifal.  4/4
  • PARSIFAL. 6/1
  • Peace Jubilee: 1869. 2/3
  • Peace Jubilee, World:  1872. See World Peace Jubilee.
  • Performances c. 1899.  9/1
  • Personality.  5/3
  • Petersilia, Carlyle and Lang.  2/3
  • Philharmonic Society Soloist. Lang plays Tchaikovsky.  4/1
  • Pianoforte Concerto Concerts-First Series-1887.  4/3
  • Pianoforte Concerto Concerts-Second Series-1888.   4/3
  • Pianoforte Concerto Concerts-Third Series-1890.   4/3
  • Piano Instructor-Lang’s methods.  4/4. See also: Teacher of Piano.  2/3
  • PIANO RECITALS.  3/4
  • Pianos: Special Double Piano and Silent Practice Piano.
  • Piano Technique Lectures-1867 and 1883.  2/3
  • Portraits of Lang Family-see Family Portraits
  • Premiers of Beethoven and Liszt/Schubert.  2/3
  • PRESIDENT HAYES VISIT. 3/3
  • RAISED $1,000,000+ FOR THE  ENDOWMENT. 6/2
  • RESIGNS FROM THE CECILIA.   6/2
  • Return to Boston-1888.   8/1
  • RETURN TO HARNESS.   3/1
  • Rival Pianists of Lang-Perabo and Petersilia.   2/2
  • Royalties: Margaret Contacts Her Publisher.   9/1
  • RUBINSTEIN PIANO CONCERTO IN G-BOSTON PREMIER.   3/1
  • RUDERSDORF, MADAME ERMINA.  3/1
  • Ruth Burrage Library of Orchestral Scores.  5/4
  • RUTH BURRAGE ROOM-MOVED.   6/2
  • RUTH BURRAGE ROOM  SUMMER 1872. 3/1
  • Salem Academy of Music and Salem Choral Society.   1/1
  • Salem-Amphions.   2/1
  • SALEM CONCERT.   3/2
  • Salem Concert. B. J. as Pianist. 1863.  2/2
  • Salem Concerts. 3: 1866-67. B. J. conducts a “BSO.”   2/3
  • Salem Oratorio Society.   2/3
  • SALEM ORATORIO SOCIETY.  3/1
  • Salem Oratorio Society. 4/4
  • Sargent’s painting of Mrs. Jack Gardner.  4/3
  • Sargent’s painting of Mrs. Louise Inches.  4/3
  • Satter and Lang.   2/1
  • Schumann Piano Works.   4/2
  • Season 1888-1889. 13th.  4/4
  • SECOND SERIES OF CONCERTS AT THE GLOBE THEATRE.   3/1
  • Shakespeare Birthday Concert.   2/2
  • Ship-Typical Journey.   5/2
  • Singing with the Boston Symphony.   4/4
  • Social Events.   5/1
  • SON AND STRANGER-MENDELSSOHN.   3/3
  • Song Performances.  9/1
  • SOUTH BOSTON CHORAL UNION,  CHELSEA CHORAL SOCIETY. 3/1
  • South Congregational Church-Lang leaves.  4/3
  • South Congregational Church Organist.   2/2
  • St. Botolph Club. Chadwick Describes.  4/2
  • ST. BOTOLPH CLUB. HISTORY.  3/4
  • ST. SAENS: NOEL-CHRISTMAS ORATORIO.  3/4
  • ST. SAENS-CONCERTO NO. 2. 3/3
  • ST. SAENS PIANO CONCERTO NO. 2 IN NEW YORK CITY.  3/3
  • STRAUSS: ENOCH ARDEN. 6/1
  • STRAUSS, RICHARD IN BOSTON.  6/2
  • Student Apes the Master.   5/4
  • Student Concerto Concerts.   2/3
  • STUDENT CONCERTO CONCERTS II.   3/1
  • Summer 1860-Europe.  2/1
  • Summer 1866-Europe.   2/2
  • Summer-1867.  2/3
  • Summer- 1871. Europe.  2/3
  • SUMMER-1875.   3/2
  • Summer-1885.   4/2
  • Summer-1888. Europe.  4/3
  • Summer-1897. Europe.  5/3
  • Summer- 1871. Europe.  2/3
  • Summer-1888. Europe.  4/3
  • Summer-1897. Europe.  5/3
  • Summer-1900.   5/4
  • SUMMER-1904. 6/2
  • TABLE GOSSIP.   6/1
  • Taste in Music: How Can it be Cultivated and Refined?  5/4
  • Tchaikovsky.   4/1
  • TCHAIKOVSKY PIANO CONCERTO NO. 1 WORLD PREMIER.  3/2
  • Teacher and Pupil. The Early 1860s.  2/2
  • Teacher of Piano.  2/3 see also: Piano Instructor-Lang’s Methods. 4/4
  • The Ditson Fund. 5/3
  • THE SINGING CLUB.   6/1
  • THOMAS CHORAL SOCIETY.   3/2
  • TOPICS AND PREMIERS.  6/1
  • TREMONT TEMPLE CHAMBER MUSIC CONCERTS OF LANG.  3/4
  • TREMONT TEMPLE NEW ORGAN. 3/4
  • TREMONT TEMPLE REOPENING.  3/1
  • TRIPS BACK TO EUROPE.  3/4
  • Trip to Europe. 1891.  4/4
  • Tucker, Hiram G.   2/3
  • Tucker, Hiram G., Concert.   5/4
  • VON BULOW. 3/2
  • Wagner: A French Life  of-Lang, Preface. 5/1
  • WAGNER AND LANG.   3/3
  • Will-Margaret’s. 10/1
  • WINCH, MR. JOHN F.   3/2
  • Woolf Edward, Benjamin.  2/3
  • WOOLF EDWARD, BENJAMIN-CRITIC.   3/4
  • WORCESTER RECITAL.  3/1
  • WORLD PEACE JUBILEE; 1873.  3/1
  • YALE DEGREE.   6/1
  • Year In Europe-1869 to 70: Berlin Concert. Rome and Liszt. April. Vienna Concert. June. July. August 12th.  2/3
  • Yet More MRL Song Performances.    9/1
  • Youthful Voices.   2/1
  •  Zerrahn, Carl.   2/1

CHAPTER 12. MARGARET RUTHVEN LANG: SONGS AND ANAGRAMS. SC(G). WC.

 SONGS AND ANAGRAMS. SC(G).

Word Count-5,000.   09/30/2020.

SONGS: In spite of her successes in the orchestral field, Miss Lang is best remembered for piano pieces, choral pieces, and over 130 plus songs. “Lang was a discerning critic of literature and made, for the most part, good choices in the poetry she chose to set. She chose the work of a number of women poets, including the poems of Lizette Woodsworth Reese, an important transitional poet between the 19th. and 20th. Centuries. Lang also set three poems of George Eliot, a. k. a. Mary Ann Evans. John Vance Cheney and John Addington Symonds are also favorites in Lang’s songs.” (Cline, 29) A 1915 article on the “Boston Classicists” said, “Although not attaining to such a mastery of the more amplified forms as does Mrs. Beach, Margaret Ruthven Lang has made several successful essays in the form of orchestral overtures, which have been played. Miss Lang’s best-known works, however, are her songs, the widespread popularity of certain ones of which has given her a real and lasting fame as a songwriter.” (Farwell, 343) As early as 1896 Rupert Hughes called Miss Lang “a genius” when he wrote: “While I must confess my blindness to the existence of any downright and exalted genius among women who write music-unless Mlle. Chaminade and Miss Lang are to be excepted-a few of them are doing so much better than the great majority of men, and most of them are so near average, that it is simply old-fashioned bigotry and empty nonsense to deny the sex musical recognition.” Hughes, Godey’s Mag., Jan. 1896, p. 30) Writing in 1993 Victoria Villamil wrote: “The consummately crafted, comelt songs of Margaret Ruthven Lang are happy reminders of an innocent age…Unlike the sentimental parlor songs we generally associate with the period, Lang’s many songs are intelligent and sophisticated settings of tasteful poetry. Lang had imagination and a remarkable melodic gift. Never at a loss for ideas, her songs often develop in unexpected ways, rarely following the usual repetitious strophic patterns and often employing unusual harmonies. What”s more, they are eminently singable.” She then mentions that Recital Publications had reprinted three sets of Lang’s songs, “though 5 Songs, Op. 15 (to the inconsequential poetry of Lizzette Woodworth Reese) is less successful. Nonsense Rhymes and Pictures (Edward Lear) and 10 Songs (for medium voice) make an excellent introduction to Lang’s work.” (Villamil, p. 257) Villamil then makes specific comments about six songs and the Nonsense set. These comments reflect an intimate, personal knowledge of these pieces.

Mathews. 100 Years, 215.

 

Myron Whitney gave the first public performances of Margaret’s songs in December 1887-she was just twenty years of age and recently returned from her European studies. In January 1888, at the first meeting of the Boston Manuscript Club five of her songs were sung. Among the five was Ghosts, which was published the following year. (Fuller, Pandora Guide,  171) Soon after her songs were heard outside of Boston. In 1889 Ojala, words by George Eliot was performed at a concert of American music that was part of the Paris Exposition; the same song was sung as part of the March 26, 1890 concert for the inauguration of the Lincoln Concert Hall in Washington, D.C. A total of eight solo songs have the copyright of 1889, and all were published by Arthur P. Schmidt. The following year, 1890, Schmidt published an additional Four Songs, by Margaret, none with opus number, and the price was 25 cents each. The first songs published with an opus number were the three songs of Opus 6, published in 1891. The great success of these early songs is reflected in the fact that Schmidt issued a collection of songs in 1893 which included some of the songs without opus number and also selected songs from Opus 6, 7, 8, and 9; the cost was one dollar-this only after publishing her first song just four years before. This was quite an achievement for a woman composer aged 26! Clara Rogers had already published five sets of songs with Schmidt during the period 1882 to 1888, but her collection, Album of Fourteen Songs was not published until 1896. (Radell and Malitsky, Vocal, 303) Schmidt immediately started to publicize Lang’s collection (the price of $1); it is mentioned in the Schmidt ad for the 1892-93 The Musical Yearbook of the United States. together with her Five Songs Opus 15 (price of 75 cents) which had the note: “The melodies are many of them quaint and interesting; the accompaniments appropriate and clearly written. Teachers and singers should examine them.” (Yearbook, Vol. 10, ii) The famous singers of the day such as Ernestine Schumann-Heink, Alma Gluck, and John McCormack soon took up her works, and in 1892 Mrs. Gerrit Smith gave a song recital in New York City devoted completely to Margaret’s works. Mrs. Smith was herself the wife of “one of the best composers in the smaller forms of short songs,” Mr. Gerrit Smith (1859-1912) who “was one of the founders, and for some years the president, of the Manuscript Society.” (Hughes, Songs Am. Composers, xvi) Mr. Smith was also the “moving force behind the formation of the American Guild of organists” and its first Warden (later called President). He was also “known as a vigorous champion of American composers.” (Armstrong, 1) Margaret’s Irish Love Song was one of Ernestine Schumann-Heink’s favorites, and was often sung by this artist as an encore (See Discography). This became Margaret’s most popular song with a “total U. S. press run…both high and low voice of 121,100 copies.” (Cipolla 3/5/09 e-mail) Elson describes Irish Mother’s Lullaby, Lament, and Ghosts as “masterly.”She chose poems with great care for her texts and was careful to avoid the norm of her era which tended to “rate gush as feeling and gilt as gold.”Hughes described her harmonies as having “the appearance of spontaneous ease, and the elaborateness never obtrudes itself upon the coherence of the work.”He added that the songs are “singable to a degree unusual in scholarly compositions,” and he placed two or three of her songs “among the chief of their manner.” The continued popularity of Irish Mother’s Lullaby led the Irving Berlin Publishing Company in 1939 to ask for the renewal of its copyright if she possibly had “substantial objections” to its original publisher. If this were so, “then we are interested.” (Blunsom, 168) However, the Irish Mother’s Lullaby had a total U. S. press run with Schmidt of only 13,591 copies-just over 10 per cent of of the 121,100 copies of an Irish Love Song. (Cipolla 3/5/09 e-mail) Possibly Irving Berlin could have done better for Margaret! Arthur Foote also set George Eliot’s Ojala! Would She Carry Me! and it was published by Schmidt just a year after Margaret’s setting, in 1890. Foote’s setting is in 3/4 meter with a tempo of “Non troppo allegro” (quarter note = 96) and is in C Minor. Margaret’s setting is in 2/4, “Andantino-Con moto,” but without a specific speed indication and is in F Sharp Major throughout. With a simple choral accompaniment, her setting is complete in just two pages. Foote uses C Major for the second and third sections and then returns to C Minor for the final section. Foote seems to have set the complete poem-the phrase used by Lang “From the Spanish Gypsy” seems to reflect the fact that she eliminated phrases which resulted in a much shorter setting. Finally, Lang makes no musical reference to Spanish/Gypsy musical styles while Foote’s introduction and accompaniment style are guitar-like with rolled chords and arpeggiated figures. For Foote, this is almost a folk-like setting-for Lang, a much more introspective setting. Foote set An Irish Folk-Song which was published by Schmidt in 1894. The poem by Gilbert Parker sets two verses of text which are followed by ten-measure refrain”s set to “Ah.” Editions for High (Sop. or Ten. in G Minor, 50 cents) and Low Voice (Alto or Bar. in E Minor, 50 cents) were published along with additional editions with added Violin Obbligato (available in both High and Low versions, both 60 cents), and another version with Violin and Cello Obbligato parts for the E Minor, Low version, 60 cents. There was also a Piano Solo version available at 50 cents. The piano introduction sets the mood with dotted-eighth and sixteenth patterns and the text speaks of a child returning to the “glen…yu’ll be comin’ back, my darlin’!” Lang’s Irish Love Song was published a year later by Schmidt in 1895, also in two keys, and this then went on to be her best selling composition-it was even set in Braille. Without any overtly Scottish rhythms, her song was more a ballad in folk-style. As no author is mentioned, and because she always took great pains to acknowledge the text writer, one can assume that she wrote the text herself. For Amy Beach’s most successful song, Ecstasy, published in 1893, she also had written both the words and music. An indication of Margaret’s success as a songwriter is reflected in the publication of an album of her works, Songs of Margaret Ruthven Lang, in 1893. Ten songs were included which ranged from Ghosts of 1889, the first year in which any of her songs had been published, to Betrayed from Opus 9. Within only four years Margaret had achieved enough popularity that Schmidt would feel it a good business move to issue this collection. In comparison, Arthur Foote’s first songs were published in 1884, and he had to wait 23 years for his Album of Selected Songs to be published in 1907. Blumsom created a chart of the five Boston women composers active at the same time that Margaret was composing, and while Amy Beach led in total works published, Margaret Lang had the most songs published.                                                                                                                                                                                             Total Published Works                  Published Songs

Rogers, Clara                                            59                                                   48

Hopekirk, Helen                                      58                                                   37

Beach, Amy                                             243                                                 115

Lang, Margaret                                      149                                                 130

Daniels, Mabel                                         73                                                   34 (Blunsom,  36)

      Margaret’s style of writing for the voice was always very vocal-a gift not given to all who chose this medium. When Philip Hale reviewed the January 1892 first performance of Amy Beach’s Mass, he noted that “The voices are at times treated as orchestral instruments. This is particularly true of certain passages given to the solo voices.” (BPL Hale Crit., Vol. 1)

       Under the baton of her father, The Cecilia presented three world premiers of her works-In a Meadow (Feb. 1, 1889), Love Plumes His Wings for women’s voices (Jan. 25, 1893), and Bonnie Ran the Burnie Down (May 6, 1897).

       In his chapter “The Women Composers” in Contemporary American Composers Hughes stated: “When I find Miss Lang’s work supremely womanly, I would not deny that quality to the sex which Joan of Arc and Jael were not uncharacteristic members.” David Horn writes that Rupert Hughes, who, besides being a music critic, was also known as a novelist, was a great supporter of American contemporary composers. In the forward to Contemporary American Composers of 1900 he states that “lo, these many years! That some of the best music in the world is being written here at home, and that it only needs the light to win its meed of praise.” (Horn, 85) Horn mentions that this 1900 edition was the result of Hughes’ own research, which he gathered by contacting the composers involved, and of the author’s own analysis of published and unpublished scores. At this same period Hughes also wrote Love Affairs of Great Musicians (1903), Songs By Thirty Americans (1904) and a two-volume musical encyclopedia (1903) that was revised in 1939 by Deems Taylor and Russell Kerr as the Music Lovers’ Encyclopedia, a work that has been reprinted many times. His career then moved to Broadway and then Hollywood with nearly fifty movies being made from a Hughes story or novel, but he was also known for his three-volume life of George Washington. He is also credited with being a mentor to his nephew, the reclusive industrialist Howard Hughes.

      Hughes describes Margaret’s song The Maiden and the Butterfly as fragile and rich as a butterfly’s wing. My Lady Jacqueminot is exquisitely, delicately passionate. Eros is frail, rare, and ecstatic. Ghosts is elfin and dainty as snowflakes. The Spinning Song is inexpressibly sad, and such music as women best understand, and therefore ought to make best. But womanliness equally marks The Grief of Love, which is in every sense big in quality; marks the bitterness of Oh, What Comes over the Sea, the wailing Gaelic sweetness of the Irish Love Song, and the fiery passion of Betrayed, highly dramatic until its rather trite ending. Nameless Pain is superb. Her Lament I consider one of the greatest of songs, and proof positive of woman’s high capabilities for composition. Miss Lang has a harmonic individuality, too, and finds out new effects that are strange without strain.

      My Turtle Dove, among the Five Norman Songs, is fearlessness and harmonic exploration shows two of the strongest of Miss Lang’s traits. Her recherché harmonies are no pale lunar reflection of masculine work. Better yet, they have the appearance of spontaneous ease, and the elaborateness never obtrudes itself upon the coherence of the work, except in a few such rare cases as My Native Land, Christmas Lullaby, and Before My Lady’s Window. They are singable to a degree unusual in scholarly compositions. To perfect the result Miss Lang chooses her poems with great taste all too rare among musicians, who seem usually to rate gush as feeling and gilt as gold. Her Oriental Serenade is an example of weird and original intervals, and A Spring Song, by Charlotte Pendleton, a proof of her taste in choosing words.” (Hughes, Con. Am. Com., 433 plus) These previous two paragraphs are taken almost verbatim from the article by Hughes “The Women Composers” in the January 1896 issue of Godey’s Magazine. In this article Hughes took two pages to reprint Miss Lang’s song Ghosts complete, and he ended the article with a manuscript reproduction of the opening three measures of Miss Lang’s piano piece Rhapsody, Opus 21 published in 1895 followed by her full autograph-Amy Beach and Clara Rogers had each been allowed only a page and one-half each.

     Writing two years later for The Century Magazine, in an article that considers both American and also European women composers, Hughes covers many of the same pieces he had covered before, but uses somewhat different language. “The touch of the fantastic that makes her song Ghosts a thing so delicately eerie makes a success also of her setting of Edward Lear’s curious nonsense, The Jumblies, which is arranged for male chorus with the accompaniment of two pianos. Some of Miss Lang’s frailer songs show the qualities many people expect in womanliness more than the works of any of these other writers [Hughes has been writing for nine pages at this point]. The passionate delicacy of A Maiden and a Butterfly and Eros is such as none but a woman could achieve properly; but equally womanly are the pathos of the Spinning Song, the largeness of the Grief of Love, the dreaminess of Oh, What Comes Over the Sea? and the dramatic fire of Betrayed and Nameless Pain. Her Lament I consider one of the greatest of songs, and proof positive of woman’s high capabilities for composition. Miss Lang has a harmonic individuality, too, and finds out new effects that have little sense of effort after strangeness. Personally I see in Miss Lang’s compositions such a depth of psychology that I place the general quality of her work above that of any other woman composer. It is devoid of meretriciousness and of any suspicion of seeking after virility; it is so sincere, so true to the underlying thought, that it seems to me to have an unusual chance of interesting attention and stirring emotions increasingly with the years.” (Hughes, Cent. Mag., 778)

      In his 1900 book, Hughes continued: “Her Opus 32 is made up of two songs, both full of fire and originality. Opus 33 is a captivating Spring Idyll for the piano, for which she has also written a Revery, of which the exquisiteness of sleep is the theme. The music is delicious, and the ending is a rare proof of the beautiful possibilities of dissonance.

Personally, I see in Miss Lang’s compositions such a depth of psychology that I place the general quality of her work above that of any other woman composer. It is devoid of meretriciousness and of any suspicion of seeking after virility; it is so sincere, so true to the underlying thought, that it seems to me to have an unusual chance of interesting attention and stirring emotions increasingly with the years. (Hughes, Contem Am. Com., 433-438)

      Also in 1900 Mathews quote Karleton Hackett as saying: “To the songs of Margaret Ruthven Lang we turn with special pleasure, for in them we find that flowing melody and sympathetic harmonic development which a song demands. There is to be found no daintier bit than Ghosts, no lovelier song than Marvoureen. She catches the spirit of the poem and so infuses it into the music that we feel its beauties with redoubled force. Her songs have not as yet struck a deep note, but in their kind they are perfect and we promise ourselves a richer harvest in the future.” (Mathews, The Great in Music, 277)

      On Monday, November 27, 1911 Margaret was the “Guest of Honor” at the meeting of the National Arts Club, where, together with pieces by Lola Carrier Worrel of Denver and Gertrude Sans Souci of NYC, seven of her songs were sung-soprano Edith Watkins Griswold sang Song in the Songless, Day is Gone, and A Song of the Lilac, while contralto Adah Hussey performed A Garden is a Lovesome Thing (ms.), Summer Noon, A Song of the Spanish Gypsies (ms.), and An Even Psalm; Margaret was the accompanist for both sets of songs. On Friday, May 2, 1913, also for the National Arts Club, the soprano A. Angel Chopourian accompanied by F. W. Riesberg performed Spring, Snowflakes, Song in the Songless, and Day is Gone.

      In 1912 Ethel Syford evaluated Margaret’s gifts as a songwriter: “It would be useless to dwell here upon Miss Lang’s individual gift for melody or even upon the enormous popularity which her songs have for studio and concert use. Perhaps the most remarkable quality which we can note concerning her is the way she insists upon striding on beyond her former self, the unfailing growth which she constantly works for and demands for herself. With her it is a question of on and on, ever reaching for one more last word of light and truth. It is an attitude of high seriousness as regards her demands upon herself. She makes no effort to make an ‘effect’ to gain for herself quick, warm response. She has thrown that to the winds and follows the mood, the truth of the words; is faithful to the moods of the words and devoutly aims to make her music as beautifully a servant of the truth of those words as she can.”(Syford-article, 23)

List of Poets Set (excludes Unknown and translations): If the entry has no number after it, this means that only one text by that poet was set.

Anon, T. B. Aldrich, M. E. Blake, H. F. Blodgett, H. Bowman, T. E. Brown, J. V. Cheney (9)

A. W. Coulter,  Mdm. Darmesteter, G. Eliot (2), E. Field, Mrs. Fields, R. L. Gales (2)

S. Galler, J. Gautier, H. C. Green, L. I. Guiney (2), T. S. Jones, J. Keats

H. P. Kimball, C. Kingsley, E. Lear (one poem and two sets of limericks)

J. M. Lippincott, P. B. Marston (2), W. McLennan (2), G. Meredith, A. Meynell (2)

L. C. Moulton (2), R. K. Munlittrick (2), C. Pendleton, C. G. D. Roberts, C. Rossetti, L. W. Reese (9), J. V. von Scheffel, F. D. Sherman (2), A. C. Swinburne

J. A. Symonds, J. Tabb

       In 1912 Arthur P. Schmidt issued the first Volume of Lyric Fancies-A Selection of Songs by American Composers. This volume came in “High, Medium and Low Voice,” collections with 12 to 15 songs in each. Lang was represented in every volume: High Voice-Arcadie; Medium Voice-An Irish Love Song; Low Voice-An Irish Love Song. This volume had editions copyrighted in at least 1912, 1913 and 1919. Volume II also had the same three voicings: High, Medium and Low with Day is Gone being the Lang selection for all three.

        On February 17, 1913, Victor Harris, conductor of the New York women’s choir, the St. Cecilia Club, wrote Margaret: “The ladies of the Club are most enthusiastic about it [Song of the Three Sisters], and I personally cannot recall anything that we have ever put into rehearsal which has given me more pleasure in the conducting. It is a composition which any composer might be proud.” The club sang this work at the Waldorf-Astoria on March 25, 1913 with a choir of about 125 voices. The work was repeated again seven years later on March 23, 1920. Harris’s letter then asked for a new work for the club. (Scrapbook)

        By mid-1913 Margaret finished the requested new work [The] Wind, Victor Harris wrote on October 3, 1913: “The music is exquisitely conceived and worked out and I know that we will study and produce it this year with the greatest possible pleasure. You have not hesitated to male it difficult but that does not worry me in the slightest, and you may be quite sure that we will put our best efforts into it to such an extent that the performance will be worthy of you and the work.”

        1915 saw two newspaper interviews with Margaret. The February 11th. issue of the Lewiston Maine Journal asked about her life, and she responded that she had always lived in Boston “with the exception of a couple of years spent abroad, where I studied composition in music under Victor Gluth.” When asked about composition, she replied: “Perhaps the most fascinating thing in music is rhythm.” Asked about her teachers, her comment was that “I enjoyed studying orchestration with George W. Chadwick…and when Mr. MacFarell [MacDowell] was in Boston I used to go to him for criticism of my work. His musical judgment is extraordinary.” (Scrapbook) A month later the March 9, 1915 issue of the Boston Evening _____ contained an interview with Margaret with a fine photograph showing her seated in an ornate chair. The reporter asked where she got her inspiration-the reply was: “With me, I think the really good things come with the curious sense of being sent-as if I really had no responsibility in the matter. And this makes one slow to refuse these chance opportunities of action or expression.” (Scrapbook)“Lang’s lessons with Chadwick took place at her maternal grandmother’s home.” (Blunsom, 74 citing Lang Diaries, 1892)

         In an interview in the Boston Globe of——— entitled “Tuneful Minds-Clever Boston Women Who Compose-Miss Lang and Mrs. Beach on Songs and Symphonies-Methods of Fashioning Their Melodious Measures,” the writer began: “Miss Lang, I want you to tell me something of how composers work,’ said a reporter to Miss Margaret Ruthven Lang the accomplished daughter of Mr. B. J. Lang. ‘Do they, generally speaking, work much at the piano, depending upon improvising, for instance, to stumble upon some great motif?”

“I suppose,” said Miss Lang, “the methods of composers vary as much as those of other artists. I can only speak with certainty of my own. Little songs and smaller compositions generally take definite and permanent shape in my mind before I touch my pencil. In greater works, I often find it necessary to deviate somewhat from my original idea when I come to the actual scoring.”

“I think very few composers work at the piano, and often the idea is as spontaneous as a smile or a sigh. I remember once when McDowell was staying with us, he suddenly learned that it was the anniversary of my mother’s wedding day. He immediately turned to me and said: ‘Let us play them a triumphal march at dinner,’ and, seating himself at the desk, he wrote out in about 10 minutes a march that had all the fire, color, balance and poise of a work of art. We played it at dinner to the great delight of the family.”

“Do compositions suggest themselves as simple melodies for you to fill in the harmonies according to your knowledge of counterpoint and the rules of harmony, and do they make their appearance a phrase at a time?”

“Emphatically no. A melody, a simple tune never comes without its accompanying harmonies, and always in more complete form than by single phrases. You know I was really very old, compared with many, when I began to compose. I must have been 11 or 12. I had never given much attention to music, except to playing the violin. I began to fiddle with some other girls, and the idea came to me to compose some concerted music for our special use. I had never studied harmony at all, so I turned my composition over to my father, who walked over the incorrect scoring with his blue pencil, and it was decided that if I were going to compose I must immediately begin the study of harmony, counterpoint, and, finally of orchestration. It seems to me that only a very mathematical mind can enjoy study in harmony for its own sake. It is very difficult, and is interesting only as a means to an end, as an aid to composition.”

“Do you find it necessary to modify or alter your works after hearing an orchestra play them for the first time?”

“I sometimes find that certain effect overbalances the particular effort for which I had striven, but I have an absurd prejudice against working a composition over which I have once considered finished. I vastly prefer writing something quite new, trying to avoid the faults into which I may have previously fallen. After the Boston Orchestra rehearsed my symphony for the first time, the conductor requested me to make a considerable cut in one of the movements. Very much against my wishes I did so, and after the concert one of the first violins came to me and said: ‘O, Miss Lang, why did you make that cut? If you had a child with one leg longer than the other, you would not try to remedy the defect by cutting off the foot. The part cut may have been inadequate, your balance may not have been good, but it was the best you had, and by the cut you simply deprive the movement of any sense of balance whatever. It was exactly like taking off the child’s foot to make the legs of equal length.’I knew how true this was, and if I had been a little stronger, and perhaps a little older, I should have refused to submit to the cutting process, even if it meant the withdrawing of the symphony.” (Boston Globe, ????)

The continued popularity of her songs was shown as John McCormack included The Day is Done [Gone-Op. 40 of 1903] in his recitals at Carnegie Hall on Sunday, February 11, 1917 and at Boston’s Symphony Hall on February 20, 1917. (Scrapbook)

The 1919 Musical America short biography of Margaret lists that “She is a composing member of the New York Manuscript Society, an Honorary Member of the Musical Art Club of Boston, and Honorary Vice-President of the American Music Society.”(Etude, Aug. 2, 1919)“Her last published work appeared in 1919, but her songs and choral works continued to be appreciated for years afterward. Her harmonic language was not as complex as that of Beach, making her works more accessible to the average listener.” (Glickman, 184)”Appreciated for years afterward” continued to 1976 when I Knew the Flowers Had dreamed of You and On An April Bough were included with full annotations in the NATS publication ART-SONG IN THE UNITED STATES, 1801-1976, AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY. In an ad entitled “Songs From the Concert programs of Boston Singers” in the May 2/3, 1919 BSO program, Laura Comstock Littlefield is listed as having performed Day is Gone and Alice Bates Rice is listed as having performed the Nonsense Rhymes. (BSO Program, May 2/3. 1919, 1295) At the end of the program, Ms. Rice had an ad under “Musical Instruction” which listed her as: “Soprano Soloist, Teacher of Singing, Lang Studios, 6 Newbury Street.” (Op. Cit., 1352) Bertha Cushing Child, Contralto, also taught at the Lang Studios as did the pianist Miss Mary Ingraham. (Ibid)

The 1999 entry by Alan Levy for Margaret in the American National Biography outlines her compositional style. “Lang’s composition style was a mixture of German Romanticism and Impressionism, with relatively conservative use of harmonic dissonance and clear elements of Irish and Scottish folk melodies. Critics praised Lang’s music for its unobtrusive spontaneity. Her admirers found her music refreshingly distinct from that of many of the modernists of the early twentieth century whose music was often considered harsh. Champions of the modern styles considered Lang’s music old-fashioned, but traditionalists found its focus on pleasing sonorities rather than compositional techniques to be gratifying. Her conservative critics applauded especially.” (Levy, Am. Nat. Biog, Vol 13, 135)

Copyrighted in 1944 and available from the author at 112 Pinckney Street, Boston 14, Mass., Margaret published a 23-page book entitled “Anagrams In Rhyme” which included 78 examples where “The purpose of each verse is to find a word of the indicated number of letters, which may be altered a given number of times, using only those letters. Thus, a word of four letters, ‘Mite,’ may be changed into time, item, and emit.” She then gave an example:

Word of five letters:

This—–that—–from staid and classic rhyme

May, notwithstanding,—–to pass the time;

But, lest it—–friendship’s fragile tie,

Receive it tenderly, then do or die.

Answer:

(Keyword of this example is Verse.)

This VERSE that VEERS from staid and classic rhyme

May, notwithstanding, SERVE to pass the time;

But, lest it SEVER friendship’s fragile tie.

Receive it tenderly, then do or die.

 

One of the more challenging ones uses a word of five letters, five different ways.

The botanist, who—–among his books,

Seeking to find within their—–some clue

To source of new-found—–, (although he looks

Deeply, and knows the—– both old and new,)

May wrestle with a —–, ere he’s through.

Answer:

(Keyword is Pores)

The botanist, who PORES among his books,

Seeking to find within their PROSE some clue

To source of new-found SPORE, (although he looks

Deeply, and knows the ROPES both old and new,)

May wrestle with a POSER ere he’s through.

Obviously the development of these helped keep her brain at age 77 quite active!

Margaret was one of only two people who were in every edition of Who’s Who In America from Vol. 1 of 1899 through Vol. 35 of 1968. (Scrapbook)

 

CHAPTER 11. MARGARET RUTHVEN LANG CHRONOLOGY. SC(G). WC.

Word Count-372.   9/20/2020.

1867

1876

1881

1884

Born November 27 in Boston.

January 8-first music lesson with Miss Stone. Age 9. (Diary, January 8, 1876).

Age 14, hears the opening concert of the Boston Symphony Orchestra.

“Maidie’s 17th. Birthday.” (Diary 2, Fall 1884)

1886-87 Studies in Munich: violin with Dresser and Abel, and counterpoint and fugue with Gluth. (age 18-19)
1887 William Winch sings five of her songs on December 14 at Chickering Hall. (20) Winch filled in for Myron Whitney who was ill.
1888 Five songs are sung at the first meeting of the Manuscript Society, January 19 by William Winch, accompanied by B. J.
1889 Ojala sung July 12 at the Paris Exposition and at the inauguration of the Lincoln Concert Hall in Washington, D. C. on March 26, 1890. (22) First songs published by Arthur P. Schmidt. “Schmidt apparently made no distinction between women and men but rather gave to all the identical royalties of ten percent of the retail price.” (Block, Amy Beach, 41)

“There was also mention [in the newspapers] of Maidie’s Nunc Dimmittis [sic] being sung. It was ruined by the poor singing of Gertrude Franklin.” (Diary 2, Winter 1889) This song was never published with that title.

1890 The Jumblies premier: Apollo Club. “Went in a blizzard to the Apollo Club concert. Among the things performed was Maidie’s Jumblies.” (Diary 2, December 1890)

“Maidie is writing a Kyrie and Waltz.” (Diary 2, Winter 1890) More unpublished pieces.

1892 January 20, Mrs. Gerrit Smith gave the first of all-Lang concerts in New York City. Fourteen works performed. (24)
1893 BSO plays Dramatic Overture, April 7 (25) Witichis Overture at Chicago World’s Columbian Exposition, August 4th., conducted by Theodore Thomas.
1895 Totila Overture, Opus 23

She rents a room at 90 Pinckney Street (around the corner and three blocks away from the family home at 8 Brimmer Street) in which to compose. (Musical Courier, January 1895)

1896 Ghosts published in the January issue of Godley’s Magazine. Sappho’s Prayer to Aphrodite for mezzo-soprano and orchestra. Armida for soprano and orchestra.
1901 Phoebus’ Denunciation of the Furies for baritone and orchestra. Ballade for orchestra, Baltimore, March 14, 1901. (33)

1906 The Princess Far Away incidental music.

1917 Stops composing. (49/50)

1919 Last published work appears. (52)

1939 A letter dated May 26, 1939 is addressed to Margaret at the “Hotel Victoria” in Boston.

1942 Writes to her publisher (Schmidt) that from September 7 her address “until further notice” would be Brimmer Chambers, 112 Pinckney Street, Boston.

1970 Letter to “Darling Ange” shows her address as 2 Brimmer St., Boston. (Copy of letter provided by Fletcher DuBois)

1972 Dies May 29 in Boston. (104)

CHAPTER 07. BENJAMIN JOHNSON LANG CHRONOLOGY. SC(G) WC.

  CHAPTER SEVEN-BENJAMIN JOHNSON LANG CHRONOLOGY. SC(G) WORD COUNT-7,132. 9/30/2020.

1837 Born Dec. 28, Cambridgeport MA. Father-Benjamin Lang and mother, Hannah Breed Learock Lang (New Boston Questionaire)

Childhood homes. 1841 – 12 Liberty Street; 1844 – 34 Summer Street; 1851 – 49 Lafayette Street (fire, see below)

First organ lessons.

1850 First organ recital: Danvers, MA age 13.                                                      Harvard Musical Association (founded 1837) led by physician Dr. Jabez Baxter Upham (1820-1902) raised $100,000 in 60 days to build the Boston Music Hall. Other earlier groups had failed.

1851, February 10th. c. 2 PM. The  Fire destroys the inside of the house where the Lang’s were living: 49 Lafayette Street. Two valuable pianos were moved out of the house before the fire reached them.

1851 Organist Dr. Cook’s church in Lynn, MA age 14

June 20, 1852: Organist Crombie St. Church in Salem, MA  age 14 (B. J. Lang, Teenage Diary)November 20, 1852, Boston Music Hall opened. Seated 2,585; two tiers of balconies; built in the middle of a block with entrances off Tremont Street opposite Park Street Church and down Central Place off Winter Street.

1852 Dwight’s Journal of Music begins-last issue in 1881.

 

1855 Organist Dr. Neale’s First Baptist, Somerset St., Boston.  January 20, 1855: “played at the organ opening at Dr. Neale’s” church. (B. J. Lang Teenage Diary) Contained the largest organ in Boston at that time. On February 1 Lang wrote that his father heard from a First Baptist Music Committee member that they would meet that night and request the resignation of the current organist, Mr. Bradford. This happened and B. J. was appointed organist on February 9, 1855; he had just turned 17.

1855 Arranges accompaniments to Bible Songs by Marion Dix Sullivan. Actually published in 1856

1855  Listed in the 1855 Boston Directory: “B. J. Lang music teacher, 20 Somerset.”

 

1855 October-receipt for music bought by Frances Burrage shows that B. J. taught through the fall quarter, October, November and December of 1855.

1855 December 24-was accompanist for this Music Hall concert-also on the program was one of B. J.’s teachers, the “celebrated pianist” Gustave Satter. (Broadside, American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, MA)

1856 March 21-was part of a performance of Dramatic Recitations. He played his own piece, Fantastic Original, and was an accompanist.

1856 In mid-June B. J. joined three other musicians for a three-week tour of the Canadian Maritimes

1856 July (?) leaves for Europe.

1855-1858 Three years study in Germany: meets Wagner in Berlin (1857) age 17-20. No listing has been found (Summer of 1856) for this crossing; he probably went steerage, and thus his name did not appear on any ship passenger list. He would have had to return to Boston in the late fall of 1857  to arrange for the concert appearances that began early in 1858. Thus his time in Europe was more likely to be just half of three years quoted in many sources (one being a Lang interview).

1858 First concert appearance in Boston (Tuesday, February 2, 1858 at Mendelssohn Quintet Club concert: first Boston performance of Beethoven’s Trio In C Minor, Opus 1, No. 3. However, Ryan wrote: “He made his debut at fifteen years of age in one of the Mendelssohn Quintette Club’s concerts.”(Ryan, 84)-that would have been between December 1852 to December 1853. However, Dowell does not list Lang as an assisting artist for a Boston concert during that period, nor in any of the non-Boston concerts. Age 20.

1859 His first composition performed publicly: Mendelssohn Quintette Club concert of Friday, January 29 included Mrs. J. H. Long singing Lang’s Breath of Spring with the composer as accompanist.

1859 Soloist in American premiere (February 29, 1859) of Mozart’s Concerto in E-Flat, K. 482 age 21.

1859 October 1, aged nineteen (Brainard’s, July 1881, p. 98) appointed organist of Handel and Haydn: serves as accompanist for 37 years (1859-1896) and as conductor for two years (1896-1898). Brainard was wrong–in October of 1859, Lang was three months short of 22.

1859-1864: Organist, Old South Church.

1859. Teaching studio listed as 18 Tremont Street. Boards Salem [probably at home]. (1859 Boston Directory-published 1 July 1859).  1860  and 1861 boards at 11 Bulfinch. (1860 B. D.) A notice was published that he would “resume teaching, on and after Monday, September 12th.” (Transcript (September 7, 1859): 3. GB)

1860 Feb.-Benefit concert so that he can return to Germany to study during the summer. On April 11th., 1860 Lang applied for a passport which described him as: Age-22; Stature- 5′ 7″; Forehead-high; Eyes-blue; Nose-large; Mouth-medium; Chin-short; Hair-light brown; Complexion-light, and Face-oval. His signature is quite legible with a flowing style. (Passport Application from ancestry.com) Lang left May 16 on the steamer CANADA with Mr. S. A. Bancroft. The officer in charge was Capt. Lang!  (Transcript (May 16, 1860): 2, GB) In September he returned from Europe. (Dwight (Oct. 6, 1860): 221) A “Mr. B. J. Lang, Professor, aged 30” arrived in Boston from Liverpool on the AMERICA, a ship of 984 tons, September 10, 1860. (Boston Passenger and Crew Lists, 1823-1943 and America Manifest) Dwight printed that “Mr. B. J. Lang has returned from a tour in Europe, which we doubt not has passed both agreeably and profitably to himself. His many friends are glad to welcome him home again.” (Dwight (October 6, 1860): 221) Not bad for one whose career is only two years old.

Father Lang “moved to Boston previous to the Civil War.” (Herald (June 28, 1899): 12, GB) 1862 Boston Directory listed his profession as “pianist” and that he boarded at 16 Warren Street.

1861 Early In February Lang gave a concert in Salem with the Mendelssohn Quintette Club, his Salem choir, the Amphions, and Miss Lang who was making for first public appearance. This was probably B. J.’s sister?

1861 Marries Frances Morse Burrage in Boston on October 10 by Rev. Chandler Robbins.  His age 23, her age 21. He moves into the Burrage home at 36 Edinboro Street.

1862 In October places an ad offering piano and organ lessons and listing the address as 36 Edinboro Street.

1862 First Boston performance Mendelssohn’s Hymn of Praise at Old South Church: January 30-only organ four-hand accompaniment

1862   Conducting debut: at Music Hall- Mendelssohn’s First Walpurgis Night: May 3, 1862. Grand orchestra, a choir of 150.

1862 Handel and Haydn’s finances in very poor shape. Zerrahn and Lang agreed to split “whatever remained in the treasury after expenses were paid.” (H & H Hist., Vol. 1, 199) They each received $41.69 payment for their work during the whole 1861-62 Season!

1862 Youthful Voices: A Collection of Hymns and Tunes, For the use of Sunday Schools, edited by Benjamin J. Lang published in Boston.

1862 In the fall Louis Moreau Gottschalk hired Lang to perform with him. Gottschalk was so impressed with Lang’s playing that he included him as a “collaborator for a series of twenty concerts, in which compositions for two pianos were the features.” (Transcript, May 9, 1909) The announcement for Gottschalk’s ‘Most Positively Last Concert in Boston’ on Saturday, Oct. 18, 1862 (which had to be moved to the Melodean Theater in order to accommodate the expected crowds with reserved seats at 75 cents and unreserved seats at 50 cents), also said “Mr. B. J. Lang, The Distinguished Pianist, has consented to assist Mr. Gottschalk in his Last Concert.”

1863 Jan. 1, 1863 shared with Zerrahn conducting of the concert at Music Hall celebrating Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation. The original proclamation had been issued on September 22, 1862, and it declared the freedom of all slaves in any state of the Confederacy that did not return to Union control by January 1, 1863 while the second part of the document listed the specific states which were effected-this second part was issued on January 1, 1863.  Age 25

1863 Played at the November 2nd. Dedication of the Walcker Organ of the Boston Music Hall. Age 25

1864 Lang has the idea that the Harvard Musical Association might sponsor orchestral concerts. These begin in November 1865.

1864 February-Promotes his own “Sacred Concert” at the Music                 Hall-uses a vocalist and the violinist Eichberg as assisting artists. Age 26

1864 Shakespeare’s Tri-Centennial Anniversary Birthday Concert: Music Hall, Saturday evening, April 23. First Boston performance of Mendelssohn’s A Midsummer Night’s Music complete with soli, female choir and orchestra.  Age 26

112 Boylston Street is probably the higher building just at the right edge of the photo. Courtesy Bostonian Society.

1864 Burrages and Langs have moved to 112 Boylston Street. Father Lang’s profession was listed as “pianofortes” at 514 Washington Street and he was a boarder at 3 Harrison Street. (1864 Boston Directory)

1864 August-begins as organist of Rev. E. E. Hale’s South Congregational Church. Age 26

1864 First child-Harry Allston Lang born October 4, in Boston. He was to die less than two years later, in August 1866 while his parents were in Europe. (New Boston Town History Questionaire, February 11, 1914)

1865 B. J., Frances, and their first-born, Harry Allston Lang were living with her parents, the Burrages at 112 Boylston Street. (Diary-Rosamond)

1865 February 2-Slavery abolished; April 10-the South surrendered; April 15-Lincoln shot and buried on the 19th. (Diary-Rosamond)

1865 Helped found Harvard Musical Association orchestra concerts.  Age 27. “It was he who first suggested” these concerts. (Observer, January 26, 1884).

June 14, 1865. At the end of his sixth season as organist with the Handel and Haydn Society, at a “pleasant social reunion” Lang was presented a gold guard chain. (H & H History, Vol. 1, 239) The Society’s Secretary and the conductor also received gifts.

1866 March: first Boston performance of Haydn’s Seasons-Gathered a chorus of 250 and hired an orchestra and three soloists (one from New York!).                                                                                                                                                     SS  CHINA. Cunard. Among the first single screw. First Class: 268 and Second (or forward) Class: 771. Sleeping berths were on the main deck below the saloons. (Norway Heritage, accessed February 15, 2019)

1866 Summer in Europe-left May 26 from Boston to Liverpool on the CHINA: B. J. and Frances accompanied by Miss Annie Keep (aged 21) and Mr. Richard Dixey. B. J. and Frances returned at the end of September on the CUBA. (BMT, October 6, 1866, p. 3) While the Langs were away, their first-born, Harry died on August 7th. Miss Keep married George G. Crocker, a lawyer in 1875 (Marriage Cert.)

1867 February-Boston and New England Conservatories open within a week of each other. February 1-HMA Concert: Beethoven Piano Concerto No. 2 (first Boston performance) and Liszt/Schubert Wanderer Fantasia for piano and orchestra with Lang as soloist.

1867 Father Lang, a piano dealer at 6 Temple Place and he “Boards at 93 Waltham,” but the entry for 1868 has this as his house. In 1865 and 66 he had boarded at 4 Dover Street and sold pianos first at 365 Washington Street, and then the next year, at 6 Temple Street.                                                    B. J. has studios at 246 and 554 (?) Washington Street and still lives with the Burrages. (1867 Boston Directory)

1867 B. J. Lang and J. C. Burrage arrive in Boston on September 12, 1867 on the CHINA. They had left July 31st. planning to be gone “six weeks.” (Diary 2-Rosamond)

1867 First surviving child: Margaret Ruthven- Nov. 27, 1867 at 112 Boylston Street. Benjamin’s occupation was “Musician.” (Birth Certificate)  Age 29

1869 Spring. April 6, 13, and 20. Presented three orchestral concerts at Mercantile Hall. Concertos in each: Mendelssohn Serenade and Allegro in B Minor with Miss Alice Dutton, his pupil; Beethoven Piano Concerto No. 4 with Mr. Hugo Leonard, a fellow Boston pianist; and the Beethoven Violin Concerto with Mr. Bernard Listermann.

1869 “After a long illness, [Lang] sailed to Europe with his family and several of his pupils, intending to spend about a year principally in Dresden. Fall and Winter: In Europe: gave piano recitals in Berlin, Leipzig, Dresden.” (History of H. and H., 288). Left Boston on November 30, 1869 “in S. S. SILESIA for Hamburg. The party consisted of Mr. and Mrs. J. C. Burrage, four Misses Burrage, Mr. and Mrs. Dixey, Mr. Tucker, Maidie and nurse Waldwell. Arrived Hamburg Dec. 12th. Christmas in Berlin.” (Frances M. Lang’s Note Book, Excerpts, p. 1). The four Misses Burrage were Helen, Emma, Ruth (cousin) and Marian. Also listed next to these names was that of Miss Emma Ware who might have been a Lang pupil. Age 31

1870 Census. Father Lang listed as “Traveling Agent” with Hannah “Keeping House.” Their Boarding House had one single female aged 29, a mother and son aged 53 and 18, two brothers, both Book Keepers aged 23 and 25, with two servants from Ireland. The address was only given as Ward 10.

1870 A note from Helen Bell to Mrs. Lang at 1 Otis Place has a note from Margaret saying that the family lived there before 1870. (Ms. Lang, Vol. 24, No. 3) The 1871 and 1872 Boston Directories list the Langs as still living with the Burrages at 112 Boylston Street.

1870 Spring: In Europe-the census taken July 19, 1870 was submitted by neighbors who listed B. J., aged 37 organist-in Europe, “Fanny,” aged 32-in Europe, and “Mary,” [Margaret] aged 2-in Europe(Census, 1870).“Mr. Lang arrived on Tuesday, after a year’s stay in Europe, with health thoroughly restored, enriched with musical experience and strong for the winter’s work.” (Dwight, September 24, 1870). He arrived in Boston on September 20, 1870 on the PALMYRA from Liverpool with his age being listed as 26,[?] and an “Estimated Birth Year” of abt. 1844.[?] Traveling with him were Miss Burrage, aged 28 a spinster and Mr. H. G. Tucker, aged 18. (Boston Passenger and Crew Lists, 1820-1943)

1871 Four Chamber Music Concerts-Globe Theatre-Thursday afternoons, alternating with the HMA Orchestra concerts-Jan. 15, Feb. 1, Feb. 16, and Mar. 2. Used Mendelssohn Quintette Club as assisting artists both as individuals and as an ensemble.

1871. Four Piano Concerts-Bumstead Hall-Monday afternoons-featured his students playing solos, duets and concertos. Lang played the orchestral reductions on a second piano.

1871 B. J. (Lel) was due to sail from New York on May 31-he arrived in Switzerland on June 12th.  “Maidie (Margaret) wouldn’t look at him, nor speak to him for a long time.” (Diary Excerpts) She was then three and a half years old.

1871 and 1872 Father Lang still a dealer of pianos, but he now had a home at 93 Waltham Street. B. J.’s teaching studio was at 635 Washington Street and he and his family still lived with the Burrages. (1871 and 1872 Boston Directories)

1871 Langs visited Wagner: Lunch mid July-offers support for Bayreuth. Age 33. On October 13 Lang and Frances arrived in Boston from Liverpool on the ALEPPO together with the father and mother of Frances and four of her sisters and Nurse Waldwell. Three of her sisters’ names are not listed, only their ages of 23, 20, and 18, but the name of the fourth sister was given as Margaret, aged 1. (Aleppo Manifest)

1871 Named as the first conductor of the Apollo Club at age 33-resigned in 1901, aged 63.

1872 “The Lang’s went away for the summer. No mention of where.” (Diary-Rosamond)

1872 Teaches for one year at the National School of Music.  Age 34

1872 First Home. Nov. 1st. moved into 8 Otis Place. “Many changes will have to be made.” (Diary-Rosamond) “Corner of Otis Place and Brimmer.” The studio still at 635 Washington Street. (1873 Boston Directory) Father Lang still listed as a piano dealer.

1872 Boston Fire: begins the evening of November 9, 1872-under control by Sunday 2 PM.

1873 January 9. Conducted the Boston Choral Union at Wait’s Hall; April 17-Elijah with the same choir. Another conductor took over the next year.

1873 Returns as a piano instructor to the New England Conservatory of Music. Age 35

1873 December: re-elected as conductor of the Chelsea Choral Society (Folio, Dec. 1873, 164)

1874. “June 25th. Today we went to Blue Hill [Milton] to spend the summer.” (Diary 2, June 25th., 1874)

1874  MARRIAGES:  MILLAR-LANG. “In Blue Hill, Milton, August ??, by Rev. Mr. Wright of Boston, assisted by Rev. Dr. Merison of Milton, Mr. Leslie Millar  and Mrs. [?] Henrietta M. Lang, both of Boston.” (Traveler (August 14, 1874): 3, GB)

1874 B. J.’s mother, Hannah B. Lang (maiden name-Learock) dies from cancer on September 25, 1874 at 93 Waltham Street, Boston-57 years, 7 months. She had been born in Salem. Her father was listed as John Learock, also born in Salem, and her mother was also named Hannah, and she had been born in Salem. (Death Certificate)

1874 Founded The Cecilia as an adjunct of the Harvard Musical Association-conducted for 33 years. Age 36.

1875 “June 12th. We moved to Milton for the summer.” (Diary 2, June 1875) B. J. then went to Europe from August 7 through September 18.

NYC to Liverpool; 200 in First Class and 1050 Third Class; Cunard; first to have bedrooms-one on the port and one on the starboard; did 119 voyages, first in 1870 at Dumbarton, sold in 1883. Three masts rigged for sailing and a single funnel. Wikipedia, accessed December 4, 2017.

RMS PARTHIA

1875 Trip to Europe: the Saloon Passenger List of the RMS PARTHIA sailing Boston to Liverpool lists B. J. Lang and Mr. George W. Sumner as departing on August 7, 1875. No other family members are listed. (BPL, Lang Prog., Vol 2). Frances’ Diary says Mr. Breed and Mr. Tucker went with him. (Diary 1875) While at Bayreuth Cosima shows (August 26) B. J. the opera house. During this trip he buys music by Saint-Saens for his own use and the use of the HMA. B. J. returned September 20, 1875 on the BATAVIA.

BATAVIA. Also built at Dumbarton in 1870 for Cunard, but with only two masts and the stack between them.

1875  October 25: B. J. conducts the world premiere of the Piano Concerto No. 1 by Tchaikovsky with von Bulow as the soloist.

1876 February 3: Soloist in the Saint-Saens Piano Concerto No. 2 with the Harvard Musical Association. This is the first of many French works that Lang introduced to Boston. In February 1882 Lang presented the Boston premiere of the Requiem by Berlioz; In January 1886 it was the Rhapsodie d’Auverge by Saint-Saens; in 1890, Eve by Massenet in March of 1890 and his Mary Magdalen in November of the same year, and then his Land The Promised Land in 1902; in 1894 it was Saint-Saens’ Samson and Dalila; also in 1902 the Psalm 150 by Franck; in 1905 Charpentier’s The Poet’s Life; in 1906 another St. Mary Magdalen, but this time by d’Indy; and finally Pierne’s The Children’s Crusade in February 1907 which he then asked to have performed again as his retirement concert later that year. Then there are additional works by the composers listed which were performed by the Apollo Club, his students and in chamber music concerts in which he played. The composers represented were: Debussy, Berlioz, Franck, Godard, Massenet, Perilhou Saint-Saens (5 works).

1876 Thursday afternoon March 30 concert produced by Lang at Mechanics Hall: he plays the solo part of the Tchaikovsky Piano Concerto No. 1 with the accompaniment played by Arthur Foote-also in this concert Lillian Bailey made her Boston debut, at the age of 16.

1876 May. Performs St. Saens Christmas Oratorio (Noel) at South Congregational. A year later, in May 1877, the same work is performed as part of the Handel and Haydn Society’s “Fourth Triennial Festival.”

File:Britannic.jpg

White Star Line. Four masts for sailing and two funnels.

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/25/SS_Britannic.jpg

This was the first of three ships named SS BRITANNIC, her twin sister ship was the SS GERMANIC.  The first voyage was on June 25, 1874. There were two classes: 220 Saloon passengers and 1,500 Steerage with a crew of 150 (one source says the capacity was 1,300, another says 1,200). Wikipedia, accessed December 4, 2017.

 

White Star diagram for Second-Class and Steerage. In Steerage the beds seem to be side-by-side and head-to-head. The Second-Class Cabin Plan shows 13 rooms, some with two beds, some with four, and some with six. Each room seems to have a washbasin and there appear to be three toilets. No toilets are obvious on the plan for the Steerage passengers. The ad said that a Surgeon and Steerage Matron were available on each steamer.

 

An old advertising card. It does show full sail and both stacks at work.

 

The BRITANNIC was built in Belfast in 1874. Made record-breaking crossings of 7-plus days. It was a single-screw steamship that did the Liverpool to New York route for nearly thirty years, carrying mainly immigrants.

1876  “June 24, 1876 B. J. L. and I sailed from N. Y. in the BRITANNIC.” (Frances M. Lang Note Book Excerpts, 6) Summer in Europe. Honored guests at Bayreuth for Ring premier. A letter from Frances dated August 9, 1876 from Bayreuth tells about the Festival. Apparently only the parents went on this journey as the letter is addressed to the children (?) Saw four operas three times each! They returned to New York on September 18, 1876 on the CELTIC from Liverpool. (Ancestry, All New York, Passenger Lists, 1820-1957) Arthur Foote and the Tuckers (newly-weds) traveled with them.

1877 “June 14th. To Blue Hill [Maine] for the summer. (In August they went to Stockbridge for a visit).” (Diary 2, June 14th., 1877)

1878 Second child: Rosamond Lang- Feb. 5, 1878 at 3 Otis Place (Birth Certificate). His occupation was listed as “Organist,” and her mother’s name was listed as “Fanny.” Age 40

1878  February 8, 1878 concert by Cecilia is conducted by Arthur Foote as B. J. had broken his left upper arm.

1878. June 3rd. “We moved to Lynn to the Red Rock House.” In April: “I took Maidie with me to Lynn to see Mrs. Pages rooms at the Red Rock House, where we may possibly spend the summer. I liked the whole place very  much.” (Diary 2, Spring 1878)

 

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fe/Verso.jpg

     July 13, 1878 B. J. arrived in New York from Liverpool on GERMANIC. Age 40. Listed as “J. B.” rather than “B. J.” (1851-1891 New York Port Ship Images, Ancestry.Com)

1878 Clark’s Boston Blue Book has Lang’s address as 3 Otis Place-Robert E. Apthorp is at #2, and William Foster Apthorp is not listed.

1879 June 5th. “We moved down to Lynn for the summer, and in our carriage which was overflowing with bags and boxes.” (Diary 2, June 5, 1879) September. “I sang many songs at the Peabody party last evening, and Lel played.” (Diary, Fall 1879) September 3oth. Moved [back] to Boston.

1880 Census gives the address as 3 Otis Place; age of B. J. as 40; age of Fanny M. as 38; age of Margaret R. as 12; age of Rosamond as 3; and three servants-Ellen O’Connell (age 50), Alice S. McGuire (age 19), and Ellen O’Gorman (age 19). Malcolm was born the next year.

1880 Boston Directory: William F. Apthorp, “music teacher,” boards at his brother Robert’s house at 2 Otis Place. Robert is in real estate. Benjamin Lang (father) is listed at 93 Waltham St, no profession. B. J. Lang, “teacher of music at 156 Tremont St.,” home at 3 Otis Place. Johnson Burrage, business at 74 Franklin and home at 112 Boylston.

1880 May 3rd. “Went down to Lynn to see about our rooms for the summer. Decided on the ones on the waterside. June 3rd. We all moved down to Lynn. We drove down with our dear horse ‘Fly.’ Baby [Rosamond] happy all the way…Aug. 12th. To Stockbridge. [Burrage family summer house] It is gay, every moment here. Music, parties, callers, etc…Sept. 30th. We moved to Boston.” (Diary 2, Summer 1880)

1880  June 17 Benjamin Lang, aged 63 (B. J.’s father) marries for the second time-to Clara E. Wardwell, aged 36. (Marriage Certificate) But, Frances had noted Father Lang’s 64th. Birthday on January 14, 1880. (Diary 2, January 1880) The 1880 Census listed Clara E. Wardwell as a “Boarder” with the occupation of “At home.” So it seems Father Lang married one of his Boarders. In the Census  his age is listed as 64. At this time in Father Lang’s Boarding House, there were two middle-aged couples and two single women aged 42 and 36 with two servants. (1880 Census)

1880 Berlioz’s: Damnation of Faust. Boston Premiere: Friday, May 14. Second Performance: November 12. Third Performance: November 30. Age 42. The Theodore Thomas “Unrivalled Orchestra” together with the “Thomas Choral Society” led by J. B. Sharland gave two performances of the piece on January 28 and January 29, 1881-two of the soloists were Lang’s friends: Georg Henschel and Clarence C. Hay. (Program) Lang gave later performances on May 14, 1885, May 25, 1887, March 15, 1899, December 2, 1903, July 2, 1903 for a Teachers’ Convention and December 13, 1904. (“Facts in Life of B. J. Lang”-looks like Margaret’s handwriting)

1881 “May 26th. To Lynn for the summer. Rosamond, Maidie and Lel drove in the buggy. But I went on the train. My baby should arrive fairly soon…Mother is here, also Emma (Mrs. Lang’s sister)…June 14th. After a night of pain, at five minutes past four A. M. our 2nd. boy was born. Thank God! Lel went for the Doctor at 2, when I left my room to occupy the big one. Dr. Flanders came promptly, and she came none too soon. No one in the house suspected what was happening. I was so glad that mother did not know about it. Lel went to her room at 6 o’clock in the A.M. and said,-‘Fanny wants to see you for a  minute, if you can come.’ She came immediately and was overcome to find me comfortably in bed with the new baby. (Next day). Baby performed all his functions, sneezed once, and slept. The nurse is a treasure” (Diary 2, May 1881) Third child: Malcolm Burrage Lang- June 14, 1881, Prescott Place in Lynn, MA. Benjamin’s occupation was listed as “Music Teacher.” (Birth Certificate). Age 44

1881 During the twenty-three years between 1858 and 1881 Lang returned to Europe fourteen times-this averages out to slightly less than every two years! (Brainard’s Musical World, July 1881, p. 98) I have found only eight!

1881 Summer. Henry Lee Higginson (1834-1919), founder of the BSO, and his associates bought a controlling interest in the Boston Music Hall during the summer while preparations were being made for the debut of the orchestra. The first concert was given on October 22nd. conducted by Georg Henschel.

1881 September 3-Last issue of Dwight’s Journal of Music.

1881 December 4th. “At church today Lel asked Dr. Hale if he would Baptise our baby next Sunday. Lel wants to have him named Siegfried…December 11th. Baby Baptised Malcolm Burrage Lang.” (Diary 2, December 1881)

1882. January 28th. “Last evening Lel had a long talk with Oscar Wilde at the St. Botolph Club.” (Diary 2, January 1882)

1882 “Lel is much exercised in his mind about whether or no to give up playing in public, and rest on his laurels.” (Diary 2, May 1882)

1882 “Waltham, near Tremont Street-Mortgage-Benjamin Lang to Benjamin J. Lang, for $10,000, buildings and land, Jan. 6, 1882.” (Journal (January 14, 1882): 6, GB) From 1876 through the late 1880s there is no profession listed after Father Lang’s name in the Boston Directories. His wife, B. J.’s mother had died the year before and this may have begun to affect him with the eventual result that B. J. had to assume responsibility for 93 Waltham Street.

1882 Berlioz: Requiem advertised by Cecilia for February 12, 1882. First Boston performance.

1882 Damnation of Faust. March 24, 1882. Second performance.

1882 Beethoven: Fidelio with soloists, full chorus and orchestra. March 28, 1882. Georg Henschel among the soloists.

1882 Bruch Odysseus by Cecilia with full orchestra and Georg Henschel-May 10, 1882.

1883 Schumann-complete piano works in five Thursday afternoon recitals in March 1883.

1883 “May 19th. We are packing now in real earnest. Leaving 8 Otis Place for good, also moving to Arlington Heights for the summer…May 24th. Moved to Arlington Heights for the summer…Poor Lel is having to do so much work at the 8 Otis Pl. house. He should be worn out.” (Diary 2, May 1883)

1883 June 2nd. Moved to Lynn for the summer. B. J.’s sister, Etta, very ill and is later sent to New York to be under a Doctor’s care. Late in the summer, Frances visits her mother in Stockbridge-Rosamond goes with her. (Diary 2, Summer 1882)

1883 Mother Burrage offers Langs the complete 3rd. floor at 112 Boylston Street for the winter. They move probably in the fall of 1883. (Diary 2, Summer 1883)

1883 “Lel took me to see his wonderful new Room (Studio)…Lel’s eye is badly infected. He can hardly see. He conducted the Cecilia rehearsal with his left hand over the eye.” (Diary 2, Fall 1883)

1884-85 Lang presents twelve lecture/concerts on the upcoming concerts of the BSO.

1884 “The Apthorps are to build a house on Otis Place near Mt. Vernon St.” (Diary 2, Winter 1884)

1884-1886 Johnson Burrage died in April 1881 and for the years 1884-1886, the Lang’s address was 112 Boylston Street, the Burrage home. (1884 and 1886 Boston Directories) It would seem that Frances and B. J. had moved back possibly to help settle the estate; because of the length of time involved, this may have included selling their own home on Otis Place. By 1887 Mrs. Burrage had been settled in her new home at 307 Boylston Street and the Lang’s had taken up temporary residence at the Hotel Kensington until they bought 8 Brimmer Street. (1887 Boston Directory)

1884 Mid-January Cecilia concert, The Transcript noted that Lang placed the choir in front of the orchestra; this had been done earlier with great success by the Apollo Club.

1884. Lang credited with having already taught over sixty pianists “who have become concert soloists.” (Observer, January 26, 1884)

1884. Despite vigorous protests which included legal action, the “Great Organ” was removed from the Music Hall to provide more platform space for the BSO.

1884. Spent summer at the Clark Farm in Weston. “We have visitors constantly.” Mr. and Mrs. had planned a Europe trip but canceled because of the chance of Cholera. She had been unhappy about leaving the children: “Mt heart drops into my boots.” The Apthorps did go. Later in the summer, Lang brought the BSO conductor Gericke “with him from Boston. Mr. G. almost no English, but Will Apthorp understood him better than the rest of us did. He was modest, handsome and really delightful.” In October Lang took Gericke to the St. Botolph Club. (Diary 2, Summer and Fall 1884)

1884. October 14th. “Moved back to Boston. At Mother’s again.” (Diary 2, Fall 1884)

1885. March 21-Bach 200th. Birthday Concert: Four keyboard concertos (one using harpsichord) and the Coffee Cantata.

1885  May 14, 1885. Cecilia presents Berlioz Damnation of Faust again but without Georg Henschel. Third performance.

1885 The Lang family and nurse Ellen Sheehan sailed for Europe June 13, 1885 on the S. S. CATALONIA from Boston. Went to Belgium, Germany and Switzerland. In October met with Cosima Wagner when she was in Munich. (Frances M. Lang’s Note Book Excerpts, p. 7) There is a passenger “Ben I. Lang” who arrived in NYC from Liverpool on September 21, 1885 on the ETRURIA. His date of birth was given as about 1839, but the occupation can not be read. (ETRURIA Manifest) There are no other Lang family members listed on that ship as Frances and the rest of the family were to stay the winter in Munich so that Margaret could study there.

1885. With the organ removed, a large sounding board was built over the stage to help project the sound of the orchestra into the hall.

1886 January 2-plays St. Saens Rhapsodie d’Auvergne Op. 73 with the BSO, Gericke conducting.

1886 “Letter from Lel telling me that Herkomer is painting his portrait.” (Diary 2, Winter 1886) Hubert von Herkomer’s (1849-1914) career was mainly in England, but he made two trips to America to paint portraits. During the second, December 1885 to May 1886 was when this painting was done.  He was very successful, later becoming Sir Hubert. “Sunday. MacDowell and Mr. Loeffler came, also many others. They admired Lel’s portrait.” (Diary 2, February 1889)

1886 Another summer in Europe. B. J. sent a notice to his piano pupils saying that he would be back by Monday, September 20. He arrived on September 20 in NYC on the UMBRIA from Liverpool to New York with his last address being Manchester, England. He was alone.

1886  Acted as one of the pallbearers at Franz Liszt’s August 3rd. funeral in Bayreuth.

1887 March-presents advanced students in the first set of four Pianoforte-Concerto Concerts at Chickering Hall.

1887 Berlioz-Damnation of Faust, March 25, 1887. Fourth performance.

1887 Arrived in New York on August 17 from Antwerp on the WESTERLAND-Lang’s age listed as “42, born abt. 1845,” and traveling with him was Mrs. Lang, aged 40; Miss M., aged 27; Miss R., aged 25; Master M., aged 20; and a maid, aged 24. (New York Passenger Lists, 1820-1957)

1888 Named organist of King’s Chapel. Age 50

April-presents four advanced students in the second set of Concerto Concerts at Chickering Hall.

June 7th. “Moved to Lynn for the summer…14th. Heat frightful. Never passed such a night. But Lel always sleeps through everything. Yesterday we all went down the Ocean Walk…Lel sails for Europe…Tried over Maidie’s new song for piano, violin and voice [no song with violin was published]…Wonderful letter from Lel about going to a Soiree at the Wagners.” (Diary 2, Summer 1888)

1888 European Trip. Visited a number of festivals including Birmingham and Bayreuth. Persuaded Edward MacDowell to move to Boston. Collected many new pieces for consideration by Cecilia and the Apollo Club-both officially still had music selection committees.                                               Typical ship fares: First Class-$35 and $40. Dutch ships First Class were $40, $50 and $60. Second Class-$26. Dutch ships Second Class was $32. Steerage was universally around $20. Their $20 is equal to our $532 while their $60 is equal to our $1,598. (As of 2019) (Herald (April 14, 1889): 7)

1888 The 1888 Boston Directory lists 8 Brimmer Street for the first time-the previous year the Lang’s address had been the Hotel Kensington (a map of “Parts of Wards 9 & 10” shows the Langs at Otis Place and Abby Davis at 8 Brimmer)

1889 June. “Moved to Lynn for the summer…July. Lel leaves tomorrow for Bar Harbor.” (Diary 2, Summer 1889)

1889 Fall. “Maidie to Mrs. Whitman’s to sit for the first sketch of a portrait…Went to Mrs. Whitman’s to see Maidie’s Portrait. Like it, excepting that it seemed, all of it too pink…Christmas Day. Lel greatly surprised and pleased with the Whitman portrait of Maidie.” (Diary 2, Fall 1889)

1889 “A beautiful Upright [?] Harpsichord arrived at the house…Lel had bought it.” (Diary 2, December 1889)

1890 “Miss Keyes [a family friend] has much improved the Carlo Moratti by filling in the cracks.” (Diary 2, February 1890)

1890 March/April-third set of Concerto Concerts-three concerts this year. (were there none in 1889?)  Herald review said this was the fourth series. (Herald (April 2, 1890): 4, GB).

1890 “Lel’s Concerto Concert was delightful…Lel has written to Frau Wagner to ask her permission to give Parsifal in concert form…Lel is writing a song…I have decided to give the Orchestral Score of Parsifal to Lel, as a surprise gift. It will cost $100…Copied music all day…We stayed at home this evening. Lel working on Parsifal cuts. ” (Diary 2, Spring 1890)

1890 May 22nd. Cecilia Concert. “Mr. Lang’s three songs seem to us to reach about the high-water mark in American songwriting. They show such genial melodic invention, such easy command of style, and are withal so essentially lyrical in character… Both in form and expression, they are songs pure and simple; the lyrical element always predominates. In a word, they are charming. They were capitally sung, with great expressiveness, by Mr. Winch.” (Cecilia Reviews) Aladdin’s Lamp; Sing, Maiden, Sing; and Cradle Song.

1890 June 5th. Moved to Hinsdale for the summer. “Mother and Emma to arrive tomorrow…Everyone here completely happy excepting Maidie who hates it…The piano arrived untuned. Most annoying…Lel arrived and is enchanted with the place, and the mountain views.” (Diary 2, June 1890)

1891 April 12th. Death of Eben Tourjee, Director of NEC, not yet 57. Carl Faelten. aged 44,  elected Director. He “severed ties with some of Boston’s most prestigious musicians, including Carl Zerrahn, B. J. Lang and Eugene Thayer, insisting on full-time teachers.” (McPherson, 50) B. J. had taught from the opening of the school in 1867, 24 years before.

1891  Presents Boston premiere of Parsifal on Wednesday, April 15. Age 53. Also performances on May 4, 1892 and January 6, 1903.

1891 June 11th. Went to Hinsdale for the summer. “The journey on the train was frightfully dusty. Lel is not coming until later, and meanwhile, the cook and a maid will look after him. Mother and Emma will arrive here tomorrow…June 26th. Lel and Maidie to N. Y. where they will sail on the UMBRIA for Europe. I returned to Hinsdale…Miss Keyes is here. She sketches every day…Letter from Europe. Maidie and Miss Otis very ill on the boat. Lel says that both Miss Otis and Mr. Hall are very satisfactory traveling companions…Oct. 1st. Returned to Boston.” (Diary 2, Summer 1891) In early August, the Society Page of the Herald wrote that “Mrs. Lang and her young daughter [Rosamond] and son [Malcolm] are at the ‘Red Rock House’ in Lynn.” Who was right?

1891 On September 14, 1891 B. J. and Margaret left Liverpool for New York on the UMBRIA. The list of passengers seems to show that Margaret shared a room with Miss Marien Otis.

1891 The Cecilia begins Wage Earner Concerts (tickets at 25, 35 and 50 cents). Except for 1897-1898, these continued until the 1909-1910 Season. (Hill, 9)

1892  Conductor Handel and Haydn Society, two years. Age 55-57

1892 Parsifal a second time, May 4; forces almost the same as 1891.

1892 “May. I went to Wilton N. H. to look at a possible Boarding place. Went to Petersham Mass and fell in love with the place.” When they moved for the summer they took a chest of books and a piano; first by train, and then Frances had to “bargain with the Stage Driver” to bring them from the train station in Athol. (Diary 2, Spring 1892) “Lel has gone to the White Mountains to visit the Kimballs…Miss Keyes is to visit…Lel has gone to York Harbor…Lel is going to give two concerts here. One will be for the benefit of the church…Today we drove to the wonderful Stone place. Gorgeous view and superb trees. Lel considers buying it. With every day we feel drawn to owning a place here.” (Diary 2, Summer 1892)

1892 Cecilia sings Dvorak’s Requiem under the composer’s baton Nov. 28 and 30.

https://greatships.net/scans/LE-MA02.jpg

https://greatships.net/scans/PC-MA31.jpg

1893 Lang and Foote in Bayreuth: in the orchestra pit. They possibly left on March 15, 1893 on the MAJESTIC from New York for Liverpool. The entry, however, is for M. B. Lang, but the birthdate of 1839 is as close as these lists get many times. (Ancestry, All New York, Passenger Lists, 1820-1957)

1893 “June 20th. We moved bag and baggage to Charles River Village. [Between Needham and Dover] Terrible frog noises at night. “We are to have tennis and croquet here very soon…We have a new boat which is a delight…We are tormented by mosquitoes. In fact, the food is poor and there seems always a shortage of water…Beginning to be very busy getting ready for our going to the Worlds Fair in Chicago.” After the Fair, they returned to Charles River Village. “All this month Lel has been talking about making improvements in our Brimmer Street house. He calls it an old hole and says it is depreciating…Lel has had organ stops of chimes put into the King’s Chapel organ…Lel stayed in Boston to go to Guilmant’s first organ recital…Oct. 7th. We left Charles River Village.”  (Diary 2, Summer 1893)

1893 Gave a talk on the “vices and virtues of piano playing” on Friday afternoon, November 10 at Chickering Hall.

1894 February “Lel will have to give up his studio and find another.” (Diary 2, February 1894)

1894 “April. Wrote Miss Hagar at Kendal Green that we would go there for the summer.” (Diary 2, Spring 1894) “June 14th. We went to Kendal Green for the summer…Many Wayland people have called. It looks as if we shall be gay…Lel and I now visiting the Whitney’s at Cohasset. I am reminded that if our precious Harry had lived, he would be now 29…Lel has written to Mr. Higgenson to ask the price of his Petersham house…Lel may buy land at Tenant’s Harbor. Everyone wild over the place…Lel has proposed to Malcolm and Mr. Byrne that they go with him to the Auction of a farm in New Boston N.H. and perhaps buy it if it seems a good investment. They are in high feather at the idea…Sept. 6th. They went to the New Boston Auction. On their return, there was great excitement over the news that Lel had bought the Farm. The cost $4000.” (Diary 2, Summer 1894) Returned to Boston October 7th.

1894 October. Lang begins fortnightly talks on the repertoire for the Symphony concerts. Plays four-handed arrangements of the pieces to be heard aided by Perabo.

1895 July. Is elected conductor of the Handel and Haydn Society.

1895 “Catherine Codman has painted a superb portrait of Bowler. [Maidie’s dog] Miss Keyes is going to varnish it, then shortly it is to be lent to an Exhibition.” (Diary 2, Fall 1895)

1895 “Maidie has shortened her Armida aria, which Miss Franklin will sing in January.” (Ibid)

1896 March 8th. “Maidie has joined the Episcopal Church, and was yesterday confirmed at St. John’s church in  Roxbury. She is very happy, therefore I am.” (Diary 2, Winter 1896)

c. 1895-96. Founding member of the American Guild of Organists

1896 June. As conductor of the H & H Society he is asked to prepare the music for the unveiling of the stature of the poet John Boyle O’Reilly. The “full orchestra and large chorus” perform Mendelssohn’s O Sons of Art and premiere a piece by Lang using the O’Reilly poem which began-“O Motherland, there is no cause to doubt thee.” (Herald (June 3, 1986): 7, NewsArc.)

Philip Hale announced Lang’s reelection as conductor of the Handel and Haydn Society in this manner: “So Mr. Lang will be the conductor of the Handel and Haydn next season. This reminds us that the Dutch have taken Holland. No thoughtful person suspected for a monment that either Mr. Lan or the Dutch would be defeated..” (Herald (June 10, 1896): 10, NewsArc)

1897 Lang reelected President and Trustee of the Oliver Ditson Fund.

Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Online.

Wikipedia, accessed February 15, 2019. 622 ft. long and 65 ft. 3 inches at the beam. The engines were five decks high! The largest liner when christened in 1893. Was the fastest liner afloat 1894-1898. 2,000 passengers total: 600 first, 400 second, and 1,000 third class. A crew of 424. The interiors represented the Victorian Age at its peak. Some said that the extreme decoration degenerated into “grandiose vulgarity.”

1897 On the CAMPANIA B. J. is listed as a musician. The ship from New York arrived in Liverpool on July 23, 1897.    B. J. and F. H. B. Byrne shared a room on the LUCANIA which left Liverpool on August 21, 1897. Francis H. B. Byrne worked at the Chickering Factory at 791 Tremont Street (1899 Boston Directory)                                                                                                                                 The Herald had a short paragraph in the Social Section: “Mr. B. J. Lang, who has returned from Europe, where he attended the Bayreuth festival, succeeded in securing the American rights for the production of Berlioz’s Troyen and a new and beautiful work by Humperdinck, the author of Hansel and Gretel.” (Herald (September 26, 1897): 27, GB) The Humperdinck was the Pilgrimage to Kevlaar which the Cecilia performed on January 13, 1898.

LUCANIA. Wikipedia, accessed February 15, 2019.

 

LUCANIA. Wikipedia, accessed February 15, 2019.

 

 

LUCANIA at sea. Wikipedia, accessed February 15, 2019.

1897 “Mrs. Page is painting a portrait of Rosamond. Price $250. Christmas Day. The great excitement was the unveiling from behind a green cloth, of Rosamond’s portrait. Lel was so surprised and pleased that he cried. Mrs. Gardner came in the afternoon to see it.” (Diary 2, Winter 1897)

1898 Fall. Wage Earner Concerts resumed by the Cecilia.

1899. January 8, 1899 issue of the Herald reported the worth of B. J.’s Real Estate to be $21,300 and his Personal Estate to be worth $85,000. His tax bill was $1,417.68. (Herald (January 8, 1899): 43, GB)

1899 “Dec. 24th. Sunday. Mr. and Mrs. Paderewski the first guests to arrive. She is a dear. He remembered our Tree and the Holy Family, and was much moved. He kissed my hand many times.” (Diary 2, Winter 1899)

“WFA”[William Foster Apthorp] ended his review with praise both for the Club and Lang. “If there be any constant here in Boston, the Apollo is the quantity…Sureness of attack, a well-formed habit of giving the final notes of phrases their full value, pure intonation, exquisite beauty and flexibility of tone – these are qualities for which the club’s chorus has long been noted; it has had a standard set for it, and seldom lapses therefrom.” (Undated review)

1900 “Lel told me that Roy Gardiner is to take Apthorp’s place as Music Critic on the Transcript.” (Diary 2, January 1900)

1900 April. The Cecilia was incorporated and the word “Society” was added to its name. (Hill, 8) “Lel in his efforts to raise money for the Cecilia has received $5000, from Charles Ditson.” (Diary 2, Winter 1900) “Mrs. David Kimball has told Lel that she will give $5000, toward the Cecilia fund.” (Diary 2, Spring 1900)

1900 Summer in Europe-due back September 15 (referenced in a letter from George Hutchins to Lee Higginson). B. J. and Malcolm left from New York July 22, 1900 as first-class cabin passengers on the CAMPANIA. (Herald (July 23, 1900): 1, GB) The rest of the family spent the summer at the New Boston farm. (Herald, Social Life (July 22, 1900): 31, GB)

1900 “Nov. 4th. Lel and I to New York. Had a fine room at the Waldorf Astoria. In the evening dined at the Homers, then to see L’Aiglon. The next day we drove to Grant’s tomb. Then made many calls. Back to Boston in the late afternoon…Lel and I are dining at the Apthorp’s this evening to meet Minnie Maddern Fiske the actress. She is here doing Becky Sharpe…Lel because of a slightly weak heart, is taking medicine prescribed by Dr. Sears. Maidie follows him around to see that he takes it.” (Diary 2, November 1900)

1900 November. “Last night Lel and I dined at the Henry L. Whitney’s in Brookline, and we went in an automobile!” (Diary 2, November 1900)

1901 January 31st. Sarah Janes, Father Lang’s sister, and B. J.’s aunt, dies. Her Requiem was held at the Advent Church on February 2nd. The Lang family was Unitarian; Margaret was the only Episcopalian. (Diary 2, Winter 1901)

1901 May 1-Resigns from the Apollo Club. Age 63

1903 Degree-Master of Arts from Yale.

1903 Mrs. J. C. Burrage, mother of Frances Lang died on August 7, 1903 at the age of “about 88 years.” (Herald (August 8, 1903): 3, GB)

1903 Parsifal-a third time.  “Mr. B. J. Lang’s private performance of the music of Wagner’s Parsifal at Symphony Hall, Boston, Tuesday, January 6, 1903.”

1904 B. J. (teacher-aged 65) and Rosamond (teacher-aged 24) returned from Europe (Liverpool) on the REPUBLIC arriving September 2, 1904. (Boston Passenger and Crew Lists, 1820-1943) Also listed next to the Langs were (1) John H. Gutterson, aged 39, music teacher, (2) F. H. B. Byrne and (3) Miss Alice S. Larkin, possibly a pupil. Lang made “more than 30 trips to Europe.” (Globe (April 5, 1909): 1) In 1881 he had made 14 trips (see 1881 entry). Thus he made an additional 16 between 1882 and 1904-I have found mention of only 4!                                                                                                            “Since the age of eighteen years he has been to Europe nearly every year…during which time he made the acquaintance of many of the noted living masters of music, from whom he feels that he has somewhat developed himself.” (1,000 Mass. Men, 366)

1905 Buys 6 Newbury Street which became teaching studios.

1907 Spring: Resigns from The Cecilia Society. Age 69

1908 Degree-Master of Arts from Harvard.

1909 Last appearance as a conductor. Age 71

1909 Died on April 4, aged 71.

1909 B. J.’s father, Benjamin Lang died on December 11, 1909, having had dementia for the last 20 years. He was then 93 years old and had been born in Maine. His wife, Hannah, had died in 1874. Benjamin Johnson Lang’s father who was named just Benjamin Lang, had been born in Scotland. No information is listed for his mother. (Death Certificate)

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. SC(G). WC.

BIBLIOGRAPHY. SC(G). WC.

WC-9,805.      09/01/2020.

_________About the Farm. Published for J. R. Whipple Company, Boston, Mass. in 1910. This is “An illustrated description of the New Boston Dairy and other industries at Valley View, Muzzy, and Hutchinson Farms, which are a part of the supply department of Young’s Hotel, Parker House, and Hotel Touraine.”

Adams, Mrs. Crosby. “Musical Creative Work Among Women.” Music January 1896; 165-172. Material on Lang: pp. 169-170. Photo on page 169-she would have been in her late twenties. The entry in Ebel (p. X) states: “Adams (Mrs. Crosby). American contemporary composer of piano music (Five Tone Sketches, Barcarolle, Tone Picture, etc.).”

Aldrich, Richard. “Apthorp, William Foster” in The New Grove Dictionary of American Music edited by H. Wiley Hitchcock and Stanley Sadie.London: Macmillan Press Ltd., 1986; 62. Apthorp published four major books on music and edited, with John Denison Champlin, Scribner’s Cyclopedia of Music and Musicians (1888-1890). Nelson points out that this article by Aldrich which was almost the same entry as Aldrich had first published in 1935 for the third edition of Grove’s Dictionary of Music and Musicians; Aldrich had also used the same information for articles that appeared in 1964 and 1984. “It is obvious that they [the articles] have not been updated at any time during the past fifty years.” (Nelson, p. 19) Nelson also mentions, “Apthorp is treated in more detail” in the American Supplement to Grove’s Dictionary “which also came out in 1935.” (Nelson; 19)

Allam, Dr. M. Mahdi. Joseph Lindon Smith: The Man and the Artist. Cairo: April 1949.

American National Biography, see Garraty.

Ammer, Christine. Unsung-A History of Women In American Music. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1980.

Ancestry.com. “Lang, Margaret Ruthven” an unsigned entry, one of over 75,000 found on this site.

Anonymous. Sketches of Some Historic Churches of Greater Boston. Boston: Beacon Press, reprinted 2010 by the Nabu Press.

Apollo Club Programs. Boston Public Library, Music Room Collection-has reviews clipped in.

       Vol.1     #1-50       Dec. 1871-June 1878.

       Vol. 2   #51-80     Dec. 1878-April 1883.

       Vol. 3    #81-104   Dec. 1883-May 1887.

       Vol. 4   #105-128  Nov. 1887-May 1891.

       Vol. 5   #129-151   Dec. 1891-May 1896.

       Vol. 6   #152-171   Nov. 1896-May 1901. End of Lang Era.

Apthorp, Mrs. Robert E., see Saturday Morning Club.

Apthorp, William Foster. By the Way-About Musicians, Vol. II. Boston: Copeland and Day, 1898. Articles of interest are: “Two Anecdotes of Von Bulow,” and “Musical Reminiscences of Boston Thirty Years Ago.” The text of the second is found in Swan. Book is available at GoogleBooks.

Apthorp, W. F. “B. J. Lang” in Music, August 1893.

Apthorp, William Foster. Musicians and Music-Lovers and Other EssaysFreeport, New York: Books For Libraries Press, 1972. Reprint of 1894 first edition.

Armstrong, Agnes. “American Guild of Organists Centennial.” The American Organist, July 1996, available online.

Ayars, Christine Merrick. Contributions to the Art of Music In America By the Music Industries of Boston 1640 to 1936. New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1937.

Bakos, Jennifer. “The New England Farmstead.” Yankee, September 2015, available online.

Baltzell, Winton James. Noted Names In Music. Boston: Oliver Ditson, 1927. The editor one of his tasks to include “the names of contemporary musicians, those of present-day significance, particularly those of American interest.” (Preface)

Barnabee, Henry Clay. Reminiscences of Henry Clay Barnabee. Edited by George Leon Varney. Boston: Chapple Publishing Company, Ltd., 1913

Barnes, Edwin N. C. American Women In Creative Music; Tuning In On American Music. Washington, D. C.: Music Education Publications, 1936.

Baer, Sarah E. “How to appreciate that which no longer exists: A case study in the life and lost works of Margaret Ruthven Lang.” A Masters Thesis, Brandeis University, 2008.

Baker, Terry. The History of the Apollo Club. Unpublished. Written around 1955.

Bauer, Emilie Frances. “Boston Notes,” The Musical Courier (July 5, 1899) p. 10.

Ed. Beckerman, Michael. Dvorak and His World. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993.

Betz, Marianne. George Whitefield Chadwick-An American Composer Revealed and Reflected. Hillsdale: Pendragon Press, 2015.

Block, Adrienne Fried. Amy Beach-Passionate Victorian. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Block, Adrienne Fried. “Lang, Margaret Ruthven” in The Norton/Grove Dictionary of Women Composers edited by Julie Anne Sadie and Rhian Samuel. New York: W. W. Norton Company, 1995. Has reproduction of the engraving of Margaret, which appeared in the “Century Magazine” of March 1898.

Block, Adrienne Fried. “Dvorak, Beach, and American Music” in A Celebration of American Music: Words and Music in Honor of H. Wiley Hitchcock, edited by Richard Crawford, R. Allen Lott, and Carol J. Oja. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1990.

Blunsom, Laurie Katharine. Gender, Genre and Professionalism; the Songs of Clara Rogers, Helen Hopekirk, Amy Beach, Margaret Ruthven Lang and Mabel Daniels, 1880-1925. Ann Arbor: UMI Dissertations, Brandeis University, 1999.

BMYB. The Boston Musical Year Book, edited by G. H. Wilson began with a review of the 1883-1884 Season. It later became The Musical Year Book of the United States with its fourth volume. For its final, Tenth Volume, Philip Hale wrote the review article for the Boston Musical Season.

Bomberger, E. Douglas. A Tidal Wave of Encouragement-American Composers” Concerts in the Gilded Age. Westport: Praeger, 2002.

Bomberger, E. Douglas. “Le concert Americain au Trocadero” Sonneck Society For American Music Bulletin, Vol. XXIV, No. 1 (Spring 1998) online.

Bomberger, E. Douglas. MacDowell. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013.

A Book of Choruses for High Schools and Choral Societies: see George Whitefield Chadwick.

Boston Evening News, Saturday, January 16, 1904. Article-“Boston’s Women Composers Take High Rank.”

The Great Organ in the Boston Music Hall. Being a brief history of the enterprise from its commencement, with a description of the instrument; together with the inaugural ode, and some account of the opening ceremonies on the evening of November 2, 1863; to which is appended a short account of the principal organs in England and on the continent of Europe. Boston: Ticknor and Fields, 1866.

Boston Public Library-Music Division. “Boston Music Hall Programs: 1870-1882.” BPL XX M 119.1 Compiled and donated by Allen A. Brown on August 14, 1894. This is really a “Miscellaneous Collection” from many Boston venues, along with some from other American cities and some foreign locations also.

Boston Public Library-Music Division. “B. J. Lang Concert Programs”-see Benjamin Johnson Lang Scrapbooks.

Boston Symphony Orchestra-Archive: Barbara Perkel. E-mail November 24, 2009, together with 24 pages of photocopies from the Archive.

Boston Symphony Orchestra Program. May 2/3, 1919. Ads for Margaret’s songs and various teachers associated with the Langs.

Bowers, Jane and Judith Tick. Women Making Music. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1986.

Boylston Club. The HMA has programs from sixteen seasons of this choir.

Bradley, William F. and Courteney Guild. History of the Handel and Haydn Society of Boston Massachusetts, Vol. II.  Vol. II concerns the 76th. through 119th. seasons (1890-1933) with Bradley covering 1890-1903 and Guild covering 1903-1933. New York: Da Capo, 1979.

“Brainard’s Musical World.” Published monthly from Cleveland/Chicago. In the 1880s it had two Boston Correspondents-Dux and Athenian, who gave short notices in an even-handed manner. In the July 1881 issue, it printed a short entry, No. 45 in its “Biographies of American Musicians” series which covered Lang’s career up to that point.

Briggs, Harold E. Richard Wagner and American Music-Literary Activity from 1850 to 1920. Indiana University Ph.D., 1989.

Bronsart, Hans von. Program notes for the Vox Box 2 (CDX 5067) release of von Bronsarts’s Piano Concerto in F-sharp Minor, Opus 10. No author credited.

Brooks, Rebecca Beatrice. “Historic Lyceum Building Renovated” on her website Salem, Massachusetts.

Brown, Coralynn. “Groton MA Vital records to 1850.” htpp://www. rays-place.com/town/ma/groton/gro-mar-a.htm. First accessed November 25, 2010.

Broyles, Michael. Music of the Highest Class-Elitism and Populism In Antebellum BostonNew Haven: Yale University Press, 1992.

Brush, John W. Legacy of Faith-A Short History of the First Baptist Church of Boston. Groveland, MA: Boyd-James Press Inc., 1965.

Broyles, Michael.“An Address by Professor Michael Broyles on the Occasion of a Sesquicentennial Re-enactment of the First Professional Chamber Music Concert In Boston Originally Presented by the Harvard Musical Association in 1845.” Given at the Association on October 23, 1995. Available on their website.

Bull, Storm. Index to Biographies of Contemporary Composers-Volume II. Metuchen: The Scarecrow Press, 1974.

“Hans von Bulow-A Biographical Sketch-His Visit to America.” Ten pages. New York: George F. Nesbitt & Co., 1875.

Bunting, Bainbridge. Houses of Boston’s Back Bay. Cambridge: The Belnap Press of Harvard University, 1967.

Burk, John N. “Wilhelm Gericke: A Centennial Retrospect.” The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 31, No. 2 (April 1945), pp. 163-187.

Burrage, Alvah A.  A Genealogical History of the Descendants of John Burrage Who Settled in Charlestown, MA in 1637. Boston: Alfred Mudge and Son., 1877.

 “The Ruth Burrage Room.” Newspaper article marked 1897.

K. S. C. “Hearing For Women Composers of Four Cities.” Musical America (May 10, 1913), 32.

Campbell, Margaret. Dolmetsch: The Man and His Work. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1975.

Carman, Judith E., William K. Gaeddert and Rita M. Resch. Art Song in the United States 1801-1976; An Annotated Bibliography. Ames, Iowa: The University of Iowa Press: The National Association of Teachers of Singing, 1976.

Carter, Morris. Isabella Stewart Gardner and Fenway Court. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1925.

Cecilia. Programmes and Notices Compiled by Allen A. Brown, Vol. 1  dated September 10, 1896 (in handwriting). Has a four-page, handwritten index arranged by composer, with pieces performed and date of performance. The first program is for the HMA concert of November 19, 1874 [when the choir was still part of the orchestra], and this volume goes through May 16, 1883. It is part of the brown Collection in the Music Room of the Boston Public Library.

Census: 1860. July 20th. listing for Benjamin Lang, age 44, Pianoforte Dealer; Hannah Lang, age 42; Harriet Lang, age 18; and Ann McKinnow, age 23, Domestic from Nova Scotia.

Census: 1880. June 5th. listing for Johnson C. Burrage, age 60, Mining; Emmaline, age 58, wife, “Keeps House;” Emma. daughter, age 27, “No Occupation;” Marion, daughter, age 24, “No Occupation;” and four servants originally from Ireland.

Census: 1900. June 7th. listing for Johnson C. Burrage, age 85 [?], born April 1815, number of children-6, number of children still living-4; also living at this address, Emma, daughter, age 49, born December 1850, never married; Marion B. Morse, daughter, age 47, now a widow who never had children; and a servant and a maid, both from Ireland.

Census: 1920. January 23rd. listing for Theodore Galacar, age 46, Insurance Agent; Rosamund L., age 41; Charles, age 13 and one-half; and a cook, waitress, and a nurse.

Chadwick, George Whitefield. Memoirs. Mostly undated and unpaginated. Part of the Chadwick Collection at the New England Conservatory of Music.

Chadwick, George Whitefield, Osbourne McConathy, Edward Bailey Birge, and W. Otto Miessner. A Book of Choruses For High Schools and Choral Societies. New York: Silver, Burdett and Company, 1923. A collection that contained “much original matter” including Margaret’s Spring Flowers [composer’s note-“Composed for this book”] on a poem by Nixon Waterman, which would seem to be her last published work. Chadwick, as chief editor contributed eight pieces, while Birge supplied two as did Miessner, while Mrs. Beach and Mabel Daniels each provided one. “The aim of this volume is to present to the high school students of the country a collection of choruses comparable by every artistic standard with the material offered for their study of literature.” The earliest pieces were by Palestrina, and from this era “examples of choral music [were selected to] show the development of each historic period, culminating in a broad survey of contemporary music.” (Preface, iii)Margaret’s piece was in a homophonic style-a vocal waltz.

Chamberlin, Joseph Edgar. The Boston Transcript-A History of its First Hundred Years. Boston: Houghton and Mifflin Company, 1930.

Champlin, John Denison and William Foster Apthorp. Cyclopedia of Music and Musicians. New York: Charles Scriber’s Sons, 1899. Vol. II Articles on B. J. and Margaret.

Chase, Gilbert. America’s Music: From the Pilgrims to the Present. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1955.

Chickering-The Commemoration of the Founding of the House of Chickering & Sons Upon the Eightieth Anniversary of the Event: 1823-1903.  Boston: Privately printed, The University Press, Cambridge, 1904. Engravings of the sons: Thomas E., C, Francis, and George H. B. J. Lang is listed just above Franz Liszt as one of the 78 members in the “Roll of Honor of the Chickering Piano.” (77) There are also photos of the entrance and interior of the Chickering Hall on Huntington Avenue in Boston.

The Jonas Chickering Centennial Celebration. A tribute to the life and work of Jonas Chickering, one of the world’s greatest inventors, in celebration of the hundredth anniversary of the founding by him of the house of Chickering and Sons in 1823. New York: Cheltenham for Chickering and Sons of Boston, Massachusetts, 1924. Used his portrait facing the first page.

“Christian Science Monitor,” March 25, 1911.Article-“Miss Lang Is For Modern In Music.”

Chute, James. “Van der Stucken, Frank” in The New Grove Dictionary of American Music, edited by H. Wiley Hitchcock and Stanley Sadie. London: Macmillan Press, 1986.

Cipolla, Frank J. “Patrick S. Gilmore: The Boston Years.” American Music, Autumn, 1988, Vol. 6, No. 3.

Cipolla, Wilma Reid. “Arthur Foote” in The New Grove Dictionary of American Music, edited by H. Wiley Hitchcock and Stanley Sadie. London: Macmillan Press, 1986.

Cipolla, Wilma Reid. “Marketing the American Song in Edwardian London.” American Music, Spring 1990.

Cipolla, Wilma Reid. E-mail 3/5/09 with total print figures for Margaret’s three most popular songs.

Claghorn, Charles Eugene. Biographical Dictionary of American Music. West Nyack, N.Y.: Parker Publishing Co., 1973.

Claghorn, Gene. Women Composers and Hymnists; A Concise Biographical Dictionary. Metuchen: The Scarecrow Press, 1984.

Clark, Frederic Horace. Iphigenia, Baroness of Styne. London: self-published in a private edition of 500 copies for the Pure Music Society. This is a novel based on the life of the author’s wife, the pianist Anna Steiniger (whose “autobiography” under the name of Iphigenia von Styne, it purports to be) and from his own life. He refers to himself as Leo St. Damian.

Cline, Judith Ann. Margaret Ruthven Lang: Her Life and Songs.  Ann Arbor: UMI Dissertation, Washington University, 1993.

Cline, Judith. “Margaret Ruthven Lang” in Women Composers: Volume 7-Composers Born 1800-1899-Vocal Music edited by Sylvia Glickman and Martha Furman Schleifer. New Haven: G. K. Hall and Co.,19??.

Cline, Judith. E-mail July 8, 2008.

Coburn, Frederick W. “Lang, Benjamin Johnson” and Parker, James Cutler Dunn” entries in Dictionary of American Biography. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1933.

Cohen, Aaron I. International Encyclopedia of Women Composers.  1981.

Cole, Fannie L. Gwinner.“Apthorp, William Foster”, “Gottschalk, Louis Moreau,” “Perabo, Johann Ernst” and “Sherwood, William Hall” in the Dictionary of American Biography. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1927.

Collins, William F. Laurel Winners; Portraits and Silhouettes of Women Composers. Cincinnati: John Church Co., 1900.

“Contemporary American Musicians: No. 77 Margaret Ruthven Lang.” Musical America, Vol. 30 #14, Aug. 2, 1919, 21

Cook, Susan C. and Judy S. Tsou, editors. Cecilia Reclaimed: Feminist Perspectives on Gender and Music.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994.

Cooke, George Willis. John  Sullivan Dwight: Brook-Farmer, Editor, and Critic of Music, A Biography.  Boston; Small, Maynard & Company, 1898.

Crawford, Mary Caroline. Romantic Days in Old Boston. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1912.

Crother, Stella Reid. “Women Composers of America-3, Margaret Ruthven Lang.” Musical America, June 19, 1909, Vol. 10, No. 6, 15.

_______________ “Women Composers Interpreted,” The Musical Courier (March 28, 1908) p. 18.

_______________”Contemporary American Composers-No. 77.” Musical America, Vol. 31 #14 (August 2, 1919: 21.

Cousins, Frank and Phil M. Riley. The Colonial Architecture of Salem. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1919.

DAHR-Discography of American Historical Recordings. “Margaret Ruthven Lang,” accessed September 15, 2018. This lists the 18 different recordings of Margaret’s songs made between 1907 and 1923 by Victor, Columbia, and one by Okeh. Matrix number, size, first recording date, title (all were Irish Love Song except one I Have a Dream), primary performer, and type of accompaniment. Some of these performances can be heard online.

Darling, Henry Herbert. The Harvard Musical Association, History From 1837-1912. The Harvard Musical Association, 1912 [?]

Davenport, Warren. “Musical Boston,” Boston Sunday Globe, April 8, 1894, 2. This article is unsigned as was usual, but Davenport was the Music Critic for the Globe at that time and had been a member of the Apollo Club in the previous decade.

Diary-1. B. J.’s Diary kept as a young man in Salem.

Diary-2. Entries are taken from an eighty-page manuscript prepared by Rosamond Lang Galacar in 1954 from the original Diaries of her mother Frances M. Lang. Many of these original Diaries are today in the Rare Book Room of the BPL.

Dictionary of American Biography. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1927. See articles listed by author on: William Foster Apthorp (Fannie L. Gwinner Cole), Otto Dresel (Frederick H. Martens), Julius Eichberg (Arthur Elson), Louis Charles (C. A. W.-can not find the name), Elson Louis Moreau Gottschalk (Fannie L. Gwinner Cole), Edward Everett Hale (M. A. DeWolfe Howe), Theodore Thomas (John Tasker Howard), Philip Hale (Edwin Francis Edgett), B. J. Lang (F. W. Coburn), George Laurie Osgood (Frederick H. Martens), James Cutler Dunn Parker (Frederick W. Coburn), Ernst Perabo (Fannie L. Gwinner Cole), Anton Seidl (John Tasker Howard), William Hall Sherwood (Fannie L. Gwinner Cole)

Downes, Olin. Article, Boston Post, August 25, 1907.

Dorfmuller, Kurt. Internationaler Biographischer Index der Muisk (World Biographical Index of Music). Munich: K. G. Saur, 1995.

Doyle, John G. Louis Moreau Gottschalk 1829-1869. A Bibliographical Study and Catalog of Works. Detroit: The College Music Society, 1983.

DuBois, Amy. Great-niece of Margaret and Great-Granddaughter of B. J. Lang. Interview held in Manchester, England, Wednesday, August 27, 2008. At that time, several photographs were made of Lang family material.

DuBois, Fletcher. Great-nephew of Margaret and Great-Grandson of B. J. E-mails and telephone conversations beginning in June 2005.

Dumm, Robert and Karen A. Shaffer. “Amy Fay, American Pianist: Something to Write Home About” in “The Maud Powell Signature: Women in Music,” Fall 1995, Volume 1, Number 2.

Duncan, Barbara. “Allen A. Brown” in Bulletin of the American Musicological Society, No. 5 (Aug. 1941): 12-13.

Dunham, Henry M. The Life of a Musician. New York: Richmond Borough Publishing, 1931.

Dwight, John Sullivan. “The History of Music in Boston” Chapter VII in Vol. 4 of The Memorial History of Boston, edited by Justin Winsor. Boston: 1881.

Dwight, John S, and Charles C. Perkins. Story of the Handel and Haydn Society of Boston, Massachusetts, Vol. I. Boston: Alfred Mudge & Son, 1883. Also New York: Da Capo Press, 1977. Chapters 1-3 by Perkins cover 1815-1851 while Chapters 4-15 cover 1851-1890. See also, Dwight.

Eaton, Quaintance. The Boston Opera Company. New York: Appleton-Century, 1965. Chapter 11 is entitled “Two Scribes-Philip Hale and H. T. Parker.” “Philip Hale’s reign over the ‘artistic’ pages of the Herald was absolute from 1903 to 1933; Henry Taylor Parker was immovably entrenched in his corner of the Evening Transcript from 1905 to 1934.” (102) Both men died in 1934.

Ebel, Otto. Women Composers: A Biographical Handbook of Woman’s Work In Music.  Brooklyn: F. H. Chandler, 1902.

Eckart, Richard Count Du Moulin, editor. Letters of Von Bulow. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1931

Edgett, Edwin Francis.“Hale, Philip” in the Dictionary of American Biography. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1935.

Edwards, Lee. “Hubert Herkomer” in The American Art Journal, Vol. 21, No. 3 (1989), 48-73. Published by Kennedy Galleries.

Elson, Arthur.“Eichberg, Julius” in the Dictionary of American Biography. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1937.

Elson, Arthur. Women’s Work In Music-Being an account of her influence on the art, in ancient as well as modern times; a summary of her musical compositions, in the different countries of the civilized world; and an estimate of their rank in comparison with those of men.Boston: The Page Company, 1903. The photo on the front of the Third Impression, April 1908 is of the Notman of Boston photo of Margaret Ruthven Lang-a photo that appeared in various magazines and books from 1898 until 1914.

Elson, Arthur. The World’s Best Music: The Musician’s Guide, Part 2. New York: The University Society, 1913.

Elson, Louis C. European Reminiscences, Musical and OtherwiseBeing the Recollections of Vacation Tours in Various Countries. Philadelphia: Theo. Presser Co., 1894. Chapters 7 and 8 are concerned with his visits to Bayreuth.

Elson, Louis C. The History of American Music, Revised Edition. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1915. Louis Charles Elson (b. Boston April 17, 1848 and d. Boston February 14, 1920)-studied in Boston and Leipzig, college teacher at New England Conservatory, administrator and music critic writer on musical subjects. (Baker, 167)

Elson, Louis C. The National Music of America and its Sources. Boston: L. C. Page and Co., 1899, Fifth impression, March 1911.

Elson, Arthur and Everett E. Truette. Women’s Work In Music. Boston: L.C. Page and Co., 1931. Arthur B. Elson (b. Boston MA November 18, 1873 and d. New York February 24, 1940), son and pupil of Louis C. Elson, graduate of Harvard and MIT, composer, and writer on musical subjects. (Pratt, 197)

Engel, Carl. “George W. Chadwick,” The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 10, No. 3 (July 1924).

Engel, Carl. “Philip Hale,” The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 22, No. 1 (January 1936).

Englefield-Hull, A. A Dictionary of Modern Music and Musicians. New York: Da Capo Press, 1971. Reprint of 1924 work. Article on Margaret written by Julius Mattfield of New York who was also the American sub-editor together with Dr. Otto Kinkeldey.

Ericson, Margaret D. Women and Music: A Selective Annotated Bibliography On Women and Gender Issues In Music, 1987-1992.  New York: G. K. Hall and Co., 1996.

The Etude. Cover of the July 1909 issue is devoted to “Women’s Work in Music” and has ten photos on the cover-in the lower left-hand corner is Margaret Ruthven Lang.  Margaret’s photo is No. 8 in my articles, “Photos.”

EveMassenet. Program note by Hermann Schmidt for the Arte Nova CD c. 1998 ANO 589640.

Farwell, Arthur and W. Dermot Darby. Music In America: The Art of Music, Volume FourPart of The Art of Music-In Fourteen Volumes. New York: The National Society of Music, 1915

Faucett, Bill F. George Whitefield Chadwick-A Bio-Bibliography. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1998.

Faucett, Bill F. George Whitefield Chadwick-His Symphonic Works. Lanham, Md.: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1996.

Faucett, Bill F. George Whitefield Chadwick-The Life and Music of the Pride of New England. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 2012.

Fauser, Annegret. Musical Encounters at the 1889 Paris World’s Fair. Rochester: University of Rochester Press, 2005.

Fay, Amy. Music Study In Germany In the Nineteenth Century, with a New Introduction by Frances Dillon. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1965. Dillon was part of the Mannes College of Music in New York City at the time of publication. This edition was an unabridged and corrected republication of the work first published by A. C. McClurg & Company, Chicago, in 1880. Dillon noted that “It is interesting to read the detailed presentation of the restrictive methods to which Tausig, and two of Amy Fay’s other teachers, Ehlert and Kullak, exposed their students. In each case, they advocated the Czerny-Reineke school, in which a quiet arm, a fixed wrist and exaggeratedly high fingers were typical…One discovers that all her teachers, with the exception of Franz Liszt, laid persistent stress on technique.” (Fay, x and xi) Fay then studied with the conductor-pianist Ludwig Deppe (1828-1890) who “was one of the first to interest himself in weight and muscular relaxation, the principle of ”muscular synergy,” which counteracted the existing system of the last half-century of keyboard methodology. it is a known fact that Deppe’s theories were to be adopted by Matthay in England, Steinhausen, Tetzel and Breithaupt in Germany, Jaell in France, Brugnoli in Italy and Leschertizky in Austria, all teachers of famous pianists.” (Fay, xii) When Fay returned to America she implemented his method in her teaching in New York, Boston and Chicago. This book was first published in 1880 “at the insistence and with the guidance of henry Wadsworth Longfellow, who personally brought the letters to his publisher. It went into twenty-one printings in America, and in 1886 was republished in London by Macmillan at the request of Sir George Grove.” (Fay, xiii and xiv) A French translation was made, and the German translation was “personally sponsored by Liszt.” (Ibid)

An edition published in 1922 by The Macmillan Company included a Prefatory Note by O. G. Sonneck. After noting the differences in America versus Europe of the 1870s and the 1920s, and that America now could provide a fine musical training, Sonneck does say: “Let the American music-student at some time in his career, but only when he is ripe for further study in a foreign country, sojourn a few years in Paris, Berlin, Leipzig, Munich, Vienna, Rome, London, and he will profitably encounter, whether it be to his taste or not, that indefinable something which the old world in matters of life, art, and art-like possessed as peculiarly its own in 1870, still possesses to-day and will possess for many, many years to come.”

Feldman, Ann E.  “Being Heard: Women Composers and Patron’s at the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition.” Notes (September 1990).

Fisher, William Arms. Notes On Music In Old Boston. Boston: Oliver Ditson, 1918. Has illustrations of Orso at age 11 and Carreno at age 19. It also has B. J.’s side portrait (same as used in Elson) along with photos of Julius Eichberg and Hermine Rudersdorff, John K. Paine, Carl Zerrahn (same as used in Mathews), John S. Dwight (same as used in Ryan) and Dudley Buck

Foote, Arthur. An Autobiography. Norwood: Plimpton Press, 1946.

Foote, Arthur. “A Bostonian Remembers.” Musical Quarterly 23 (January 1937): 37-44.

Foote, Arthur. “A Near View of Mr. Lang: How He Impressed An Associate of Many Years.” Boston Transcript, May 1, 1909.

Fox, Pamela. “The Benjamin Johnson Lang Family Papers: A Close Look at 75 Years of Musical Life in Boston.” Paper given at the Sonneck Society Meeting: Boulder, Colorado on April 18, 1986. “Summary of B. J. Lang’s Premiers: Works With Orchestra”- a supplement to this paper.

Fox, Pamela. “Hood, Helen Francis,” entry in The Norton/Grove Dictionary of Women Composers. New York/London: W. W. Norton & Company, 1995.

Fox, Pamela. “Margaret Ruthven Lang and Sexual Aesthetics of the Early Twentieth Century.” Paper given at the AMS Cleveland meeting, November 8, 1986.

Fox, Pamela.“Rebellious Tradition and Boston’s Musical Spirit of Place: Elitism, Populism, and Lives Apart.” Musical Quarterly. 1994, #78, pp. 220-249. A review of three books including Broyles Music of the Highest Class and Knight’s Charles Martin Loeffler.

Friedberg, Ruth C. American Art Song and American Poetry-Vol. I: America Comes of Age. Metuchen: The Scarecrow Press, 1981.

Friesen, Michael. “Organists and Organ Music at the 1893 Chicago World’s Columbian Exposition.” Stopt Diapason, nos. 17-21. This is the publication of the Chicago Chapter of the Organ Historical Society. These issues can be found: http://www.ohschicago.org/StoptDia.html

Fuller, Sophie. The Pandora Guide to Women Composers. London: HarperCollins Publishers, 1994.

Funeral notice. “B. J. Lang.” Boston Transcript, Apr. 9, 1909.

Galacar, Frederic R. Historic Boston. Boston: Smith and Porter [printer], 1916. This booklet contained 21 plates with brief descriptions of historic Boston locations, and it was given to the delegates and guests of the Springfield Fire and Marine Insurance Company, his company, at the 21st. convention of the National Association of Insurance Agents held in Boston that year. The only remaining copy is in the Massachusetts Statehouse Library, Room 341 according to OCLC.

Gann, Kyle. “What is American about American Music?” Article written for, and posted on American Public Media. Accessed: 11/3/11.         http://musicmavericks.publicradio.org/features/essay_gann02.html

Garraty, John A. and Mark C. Carnes, General Editors. American National Biography. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. Articles on William Foster Apthorp (Ora Frishberg Saloman), Carl Bergmann (David Francis Urrows), George Whitefield Chadwick (Victor Fell Yellin), Edward Everett Hale (Francis J. Bosha), B. J. Lang (Barbara Owen), M. R. Lang (Alan Levy), William Hall Sherwood (Herbert S. Livingston). Articles filed under the subjects’ names.

Gilman, Lawrence. Edward MacDowell: A Study. New York, 1909.

Gilmore, P. S. History of the National Peace Jubilee-1869. Published by the author, Cambridge: Welch, Bigelow & Co, 1871.

Glickman, Sylvia, editor. American Keyboard Music 1866 Through 1910. Boston: G. K. Hall & Co., 1990. contains Lang’s Meditation, Op. 26.

Glickman, Sylvia, editor. American Women Composers: Piano Music: Piano Music 1865-1915. Byrn Mawr: Hildegard Publishing Co., 1990. contains Lang’s Rhapsody, Op. 21.

Glickman, Sylvia, editor. Le Chevalier. Byrn Mawr: Hildegard Publishing Co., 2000. Three-page introduction by Sylvia Glickman and Martha Furman Schleifer.

Glickman, Sylvia and Martha Furman Schleifer. From Convent to Concert Hall: A Guide to Women Composers. Westport: Greenwood Press, 2003.

Globe, Boston.“Four Boston Composers,” February 5, 1902.

Globe, Boston.“Table Gossip,”  April 30, 1905.

Globe, Boston.“Table Gossip,” February 3, 1907.

Goodrich, Wallace. “Fifty Years of the Conservatory.” NEC Magazine-review, March/April 1917

Gottschalk, Louis Moreau. Gottschalk Illustrated Concert Book. c. 1863. Opens with an engraving of Gottschalk seated at a Chickering Grand Piano. A two-page biography is followed by two-and-one-half pages of excerpts from various critical notices. Then comes four pages of description of his “most prominent” pieces with a one-page list of his published and unpublished works written between 1842 and 1863. After engravings of various co-performers, the booklet finishes with three pages of ads.

Gottschalk, Louis Moreau. Notes of a Pianist. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1881.

Gould, Elizabeth Porter. 1848-1906. A collection of clippings, programs and a poem by Gould housed at the Harvard Musical Association-listed under Lang, not Gould. Most clippings have no citation as to their origin either of date or source. Covers mainly 1893-1909.

Grant, Mark N. Maestros of the Pen. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1998.

Green, Janet M. American History and Encyclopedia of Music-Musical Biographies. New York: Irving Square, 1910. Articles on Wilhelm Gericke, Philip Hale, Georg Henschel, Lillian Henschel.

Grieve, Robert. Picturesque Boston. Providence: Reid Publishers, 1889.

Guild, Courteney and William F. Bradley. History of the Handel and Haydn Society of Boston Massachusetts, Vol. II.  Vol. II concerns the 76th. through 119th. seasons (1890-1933) with Bradley covering 1890-1903 and Guild covering 1903-1933. New York: Da Capo, 1979. See entry also under Bradley.

Guion, David M. “From Yankee Doodle thro’ to Handel’s Largo: Music at the World’s Columbian Exposition.” College Music Symposium, Vol. 24, 1984, accessed August 4, 2015.

JH. Article in the Portland Maine Museum of Art magazine, c. 1986, “Recent Accession: A Portrait Drawing by Winslow Homer.”

Hale, Edward E. Jr. The Life and Letters of Edward Everett Hale. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1917.

Hale, Philip. Obit in “Time Magazine” of Monday, December 10, 1934.

Hall, Charles J. A Chronicle of American Music 1700-1995. New York: Schirmer Books, an imprint of Simon and Schuster Macmillan, 1996.

_____. History of the Handel and Haydn Society. A narrative from May 1890 until May 1897. List of program content from May 1890 until May 1912.

Handel and Haydn Society Records. Rare Book Room of the Boston Public Library. Series 1-Governance, Series 2-Financial, Series 3-Publicity, Series 4-Choral Records, and Series 5-Photos.

Hammann, James J. “History of the Farrand and Votey Organ Company”” The Tracker 32, No. 2 (1988): 19-30.

Harrison, Max. “Another Look at Hans von Bulow”-a review of Alan Walker’s Hans von Bulow. a Life and Times. “Musical Opinion,” July/August 2010, pp. 30 and 31.

Harvard Graduates’ Magazine Association. “Harvard AM Degree Citation,” Harvard Graduates’ Magazine,  (Vol. XVII, 1908-09): 481.

Harvard Musical Association. Bulletins of the Library of the Harvard Musical Association beginning with Bulletin No. 1, April 1934.

Haynes, Charles. Booklet notes for Mary Garden-A Selection of Her Finest Recordings. Pearl GEMM CD 9067, 1993.

Henschel, Sir George. Musings & Memories of a Musician. London: Macmillan and Co., 1918.

“Sir George Henschel.” Obituary in The Musical Times, October 1934.

Henschel, Helen. When Soft Voices Die-A Musical Biography. London: John Westhouse Ltd., 1944.

Hichens, Robert. The Pyramid-A Novel.  New York: Doubleday, Doran and Co., 1936.

Hill, Edward Burlingame. see Tyler

Hill, William Carroll. The History of the Cecilia Society Boston, Mass., 1874-1917. Boston: The Cecilia Society, 1918.

Hiller, Ferdinand. Program note by Eva Hanke (translated from the German by Roland Smithers) for Piano Concerto No. 2 in F-sharp Minor Opus 69, Hyperion CDA67655.

Hitchcock, H. Wiley and Stanley Sadie, editors. The New Grove Dictionary of American Music. London: Macmillan Press, 1986.Articles on: William Foster Apthorp (Richard Aldrich), Louis Charles Elson (Karl Kroeger), Wilhelm Gericke (Steven Ledbetter), Louis Moreau Gottschalk, (Irving Lowens), Philip Hale ((Wayne D. Shirley), Benjamin Johnson Lang (Steven Ledbetter), Margaret Ruthven Lang (Adrienne Fried Block), Anton Seidl (Hans-Hubert Schonzeler/R. Allen Lott), Theodore Thomas (Ezra Schabas), Frank Van der Stucken (James Chute). See also the second edition of 2001 listed under Sadie.

Hepner, Arthur W.  Pro Bono Artium Musicarum. [A History of the Harvard Musical Association 1937-1987] Boston: Harvard Musical Association, 1987.

Hixon, Don L. and Don A. Hennessee. Women in Music: An Encyclopedic Bibliography-Volume One-Second Edition. Metuchen and London: The Scarecrow Press, Inc. 1993.

Hollins, Alfred. A Blind Musician Looks Back-An Autobiography. Edinburgh and London: William Blackwood & Sons, 1936.

Hooper-Hamersley, Rosamond (Rozzy). E-mails from the daughter of Helen Lang Hooper dated July 9, 20, 2007. Rozzy is the granddaughter of Malcolm Lang, the great-granddaughter of B. J. Lang, and the great-niece of Margaret Ruthven Lang.

Horowitz, Joseph. Classical Music in America-A History of its Rise and Fall. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 2005.

Horowitz, Joseph. Dvorak in America. Chicago: Cricket Books, 2003.

Horowitz, Joseph.“New World Symphony and Discord.”The Chronicle review-The Chronicle of Higher Education, January 11, 2008, taken from the internet.

Horowitz, Joseph. Wagner Nights-An American History. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.

Howard, John Tasker. Ethelbert Nevin. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co.,????

Howard, John Tasker. Our American Music-Three Hundred Years of It. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1930 and 1931.

Howard, John Tasker. “Seidl, Anton” in the Dictionary of American Biography. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1937.

Howe, Granville, editor. A Hundred Years of Music in America. Chicago: G. L. Howe, 1889. (see Mathews)

Howe, Mark Anthony DeWolfe. The Boston Symphony Orchestra: 1881-1931. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1931.

Howe, Mrs. Julia Ward, see Saturday Morning Club. 

Howlett, D. Roger. Chair of the Program Committee, St. Botolph Club. E-mail November 30, 2009 concerning Lang as a member. E-mail January 4, 2010 concerning other members who were part of the Lang circle.

Hubbard, W. L., editor. The American History and Encyclopedia of Music; Vol. 1-Musical Biographies by Janet M Green. Toledo, New York and Chicago: Irving Square, 1908.

Hubbard, William Lines, editor. History of American Music. New York: Irving Square, 1913.

Hughes, Rupert. Contemporary American Composers. Boston: L.C. Page and Co., 1900.

Hughes, Rupert. “Music In America: IX-The Women Composers.” Godey’s Magazine, January 1896.

Hughes, Rupert. Songs By Thirty Americans, for High Voice. Boston: Oliver Ditson Company, 1904.

Hughes, Rupert.“Women Composers,” The Century Magazine, Vol. LV March 1898, #5.

Hughes, Rupert and Arthur Elson. American Composers. Boston: The Page Co., 1914.

The entry for Rupert Hughes in the History of American Music edited by W. L. Hubbard states that “One of the brightest writers of the younger generations is Richard Hughes. He became an assistant at the Criterion in New York and then went abroad to do research for a large publishing firm. Fiction and verse, essays and criticisms, which have emulated from his versatile pen have been frequently encountered in the magazines, while several books, among them Contemporary American Composers, and a very popular one entitled Love Affairs of the Great Composers, have served to make him known as one of the liveliest and wittiest of musical authors.” (Hubbard, p. 306)

Huneker, James Gibbons. The Philharmonic Society of New York and its Seventy-fifth Anniversary. New York: Printed for the Society, 1917. Photo of Anton Seidl. Grant mentions that “James Huneker [was] a writer of soft-core pornography.” (Grant, xx)

Huntington, Scot L. “In the Tracker-50 Years Ago,” The Tracker, Vol. 55, No. 2, Spring 2011.

Inventions, Piano. “Two Notable Pianofortes.” Transcript, September 30, no year. B.J. invented adding a second teacher’s grand under the student’s grand. He also invented a practice piano whose dynamic range was “pppppppp to pp.”

Jablonski, Edward. The Encyclopedia of American Music. Garden City: Doubleday and Company, 1981.

Jackson, John P. English Version of the Book Parsifal. New York: Edward Schuberth and Co., 1891.Preface of four pages-“The Story of the Grail.”

Jarman, Rufus. “Big Boom in Boston.” American Heritage, October 1969. Accessed October 10, 2020.

Jenkins, Walter S. The Remarkable Mrs. Beach, American Composer. Edited by John H. Baron. Michigan: Harmonie Park Press, 1994.

Jenks, Francis H. “Boston Musical Composers.” Boston: The New England Magazine, January 1890, New Series, Vol. I, No. 5.

Johns, Clayton. Reminiscences of a Musician. Cambridge: Washburn and Thomans, 1929.

Johnson, H. Earle. First Performances in America to 1900-Works With Orchestra. Detroit: Information Coordinators (for The College Music Society), 1979.

Johnson, H. Earle. Hallelujah, Amen! The Story of the Handel and Haydn Society of Boston. New York: Da Capo Press, 1981.

Johnson, H. Earle. “Gustave Satter, Eccentric.” Journal of the American Musicological Society, Spring 1963, Vol. 16/1, p. 61-73.

Johnson, H. Earle. Symphony Hall, Boston. New York: Da Capo Press, 1979.

Jones, F. O., editor. A Handbook of American Music and Musicians. New York: Da Capo Press, 1971. Originally published in 1886.

Jullien, Adolphe. Richard Wagner-His Life and Works. Neptune, New Jersey: Paganiniana Publications, 1981. Translated by Florence Percival Hall, and with an Introduction by B. J. Lang.

Kairoff, Peter. Program notes for “American Character-Piano Music of George Whitefield Chadwick,” Albany-Troy 745, 2005.

Karr, Ronald Dale. Lost Railroads of New England. Pepperell, Ma: Branch Line Press, 1996.

Kearns, William K. Horatio Parker, 1863-1818: His Life, Music, and Ideas. Metuchen, N. J.: The Scarecrow Press, 1990.

King, Donald C. The Theatres of Boston. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, 2005.

King, Moses. ed. King’s Handbook of Boston, fourth edition. Cambridge: Moses King Publisher, 1878, Bibliolife reprint.

Kinzey, Allen and Sand Lawn. E. M. Skinner/Aeolian-Skinner Opus List. Richmond: Organ Historical Society, 1997. Second edition.

Knight, Ellen. Charles Martin Loeffler-A Life Apart In American Music. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1993.

Krehbiel, Henry Edward. The Philharmonic Society of New York: A Memorial. New York and London: Novello, Ewer and Co., 1892.

Krehbiel, Henry Edward.“Anton Seidl,” Scribner’s Magazine, Vol. 23, June 1898. A three-page obit without a picture.

Kroeger, Karl.“Elson, Louis Charles” in The New Grove Dictionary of American Music. London: Macmillan Press Ltd., pp. 43 and 44.

Lahee, Henry C. Famous Pianists of Today and Yesterday. Boston: The Page Company, 1900.

Lang, Benjamin Johnson. “From Literature to Music.” Atlantic Monthly LXXIII (February 1894): 207-09.

Lang, Benjamin Johnson. Scrapbooks.*ML 46. L 383.Vol. 1:1861-73 (has many duplicates unbound at the end), Vol. 2: 1874-79 (has von Bulow programs from Boston and Philadelphia), Vol. 3: 1879-82, Vol. 4: 1882-86 (mainly Apollo, Cecilia, Handel and Haydn and concerts of his students), Vol. 5:1886-90, Vol. 6: 1891-96 (mainly programs of Apollo, Cecilia, Handel and Haydn. Also Annual reports of Cecilia), Vol. 7: 1896-1901, and Vol. 8: 1901-06. Donated by Malcolm Lang and Margaret Ruthven Lang on October 18, 1945.

“Lang Will Give Up Baton of Cecilia.” Boston Herald, Friday, January 20, 1907.

Lang, Frances M.  Diaries. 1876, 1891, 1892, 1898, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1905, 1906, 1907, 1908, 1909, 1910, 1911, 1912, 1913, 1914, 1915, 1916, 1917, 1918, 1919, 1920. Boston: Boston Public Library, Rare Book Room.

Lang, M. R. “Facts in [the] Life of B. J. Lang.” Two handwritten pages located in the Lang papers, Box 27, # 29 in the Rare Book Room of the Boston Public Library.

Lang, M. R. ” Musical America (Aug. 2, 1919) with a photo showing her left side, looking down.

Margaret Ruthven Lang Scrapbooks. Vol. I: 1887-1906, Vol. II: 1905-1915, Vol. III: 1915-1967, and Vol. IV: 1967-1969 (”67 mostly). Boston Public Library, Rare Books Room.

The Laurel Music-Reader:  see W. L. Tomlins.

The Laurel Song Book:  see W. L. Tomlins.

Laurence, Anya. Women of Notes-1,000 Women Composers Born Before 1900. New York: Richards Rosen Press, 1978.

Ledbetter, Steven.“Wilhelm Gericke” and “Lang, Benjamin Johnson” in The New Grove Dictionary of American Music edited by H. Wiley Hitchcock and Stanley Sadie.London: Macmillan Press Ltd., 1986.

Ledbetter, Steven. “Higginson and Chadwick: Non-Brahmins in Boston.” American Music, Spring 2001.

Ledbetter, Steven. Program Note for Tchaikovsky’s Piano Concerto No. 1 in B-flat minor, Opus 23.

Leichtentritt, Hugo. “Music in Boston in the ‘Nineties’” in “More Books” December 1946, The Bulletin of the Boston Public Library.

_______________ A Musical Life In Two Worlds, edited by Mark DeVoto. Boston: Harvard Musical Association, 2014. Wonderful comments about Nikisch whom Leichtentritt saw as a Harvard student, and then observed years later when Nikisch conducted the Berlin Symphony.

Lindsell, Robert M. The Rail Lines of Northern New England-A Handbook of Railroad History. Pepperell, MA: Branch Line Press, 2000.

Lueders, Edward G. “Music Criticism in America” in American Quarterly, Vol. 3, No. 2 (Summer 1951): 142-151. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.

Levien, John M. Impressions of W. T. Best. London: Novello and Co., 1942.

Levy, Alan H. Edward MacDowell. Lanham, Md.: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1998.

Liepmann, Klaus. “Benjamin Johnson Lang-Boston Musician Extraordinary.” Unpublished (?) and undated article by the Music Professor of MIT.

Locke, Ralph P. “Living with Music: Isabella Stewart Gardner” in Cultivation Music in America edited by Ralph P. Locke and Cyrilla Barr. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.

Lohmann, Ludger. Program note for Rinck: Works for OrganNaxos, 8.553925, 1997.

Lott, R. Allen. “‘A Continuous Trance’: Hans von Bulow’s Tour of America,” in The Journal Of Musicology, Vol. 12, No. 4 (Autumn 1994), pp. 529-549. Includes a complete list of all recitals, dates and locations; list of repertoire for the tour; which were solo, orchestral or chamber concerts.

Lott, R. Allen. From Paris to Peoria. Oxford-New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Lowens, Irving and S. Frederick Starr. “Louis Moreau Gottschalk” in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, edited by Stanley Sadie. London: Macmillan Publishers, Ltd., 2001.

Lowens, Margery Morgan. “Edward MacDowell” in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, edited by Stanley Sadie. London: Macmillan Publishing Ltd., 1980.

Lurie, Alison. V. R. Lang-Poems and Plays With a Memoir. New York: Random House, 1975. The flyleaf says-“V. R. Lang (called “Bunny” even by those who had never met her) was one of those rare people who are vividly remembered by everyone whose life they touch. Idiosyncratic in dress and manner, she was opinioned, charming, sometimes exasperating, sometimes lovable. A natural heroine who burned her candle at both ends, she gave marvelous parties and had an enormous circle of friends, ranging from strippers (once, when broke, she worked for a few weeks as a chorus girl at the Old Howard Burlesque House in Scollay Square) to Boston Brahmins.

As V. R. Lang, Bunny was a gifted poet who also had a genius for organization. In Cambridge, Massachusetts, in the early 1950s, she was one of the founders and the moving force behind the Poets” Theatre, and many she helped to promote-among them John Ashbery, Edward Gorey, Kenneth Koch, James Merrill, Frank O’Hara and Richard Wilbur-have since become famous in their fields.

Alison Lurie knew Bunny well in those days, and a few years after her friend died of cancer in 1956 at the age of thirty-two, she published privately this moving and witty memoir.”

Lynn, The First Church in Christ-In Commemoration of the 300th Anniversary. Lynn, Mass.: 1932.

MacDougall, Hamilton C. “The Free Lance,” The Diapason, July 1, 1943, 13.

Maitland, J. A. editor. Grove’s Dictionary of Music and Musicians. In five volumes. London: 1921.

Mann, Brian. “Teresa Carreno” in Women Composers, Volume 6-Keyboard. New York: G. K. Hall, 1999.

Marrazzo, Randi, editor. The First Solos: Songs By Women Composers-Vol. 1: High Voice. Bryn Mawr: Hildegard Publishing Company, 2000. Has Irish Love Song, Op. 22.

Marrazzo, Randi, editor. The First Solos: Songs By Women For Low Voice. Bryn Mawr: Hildegard Publishing Co., 2003. Has There Was An Old Man Who Said, “Hush!”

Marden, Jay. The owner (in 2014) of the Lang farm in New Boston, N. H. Telephone conversation on July 16, 2014.

Martens, Frederick H.“Osgood, George Laurie” in Dictionary of American Biography. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1927.

Martin, Charles F. New Hampshire Rail Trails. Pepperell, Ma: Branch Line Press, 2008.

Mathews, William Smythe Babcock, Editor-in-Chief. The Great in Music-A Systematic Course of Study in the Music of Classical and Modern Composers: First Year. Chicago: Music Magazine Publishing Co., 1900. The article on Margaret’s songs and piano pieces was written by Mr. Karleton Hackett; this followed a two page “Her Ideals as Stated by Herself” and a photo portrait. The compositions evaluated were: A Song For Candlemas, Op. 28, The Harbor of Dreams, Arcadie, Chinese Song, Revery for Pianoforte, Op. 31, A Spring Idyll, Op. 33, and Waltz of the Princess, Op. 18, No. 3.

Mathews, W. S. B., Associate Editor. A Hundred Years of Music in America; An Account of Musical Effort in America. New York: AMS Press Inc., reprinted from the Chicago edition of 1889.

McAllister, Jim. “Of Lectures and Lyceums” on his website Salem, Massachusetts, The City Guide. Accessed November 10, 2016.

McCarthy, S. Margaret William, editor. More Letters of Amy Fay: The American Years, 1879-1916. Detroit: Information Coordinators, 1986.

McCord, David. H- T- P Portrait of a Critic. New York: Coward-McCann, Inc., 1935.

McPherson and James Klein. Measure by Measure: A History of New England Conservatory from 1867. Boston: New England Conservatory, 1995.

Meggett, Joan M. Keyboard Music by Women Composers: A Catalog and Bibliography. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1981.

_________Men of Progress; one thousand biographical sketches and portraits of leaders in business and professional life in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Boston: New England Magazine, 1896.

Metcalf, Frank J. American Writers and Compilers of Sacred Music. New York, Abingdon Press, 1925.

Methuen Memorial Music Hall Website. http://www.mmmh.org/2_9_Historical-Timeline.html

Methuen-Campbell, James. Chopin Playing: From the Composer to the Present Day. New York: Taplinger Publishing Company, 1981.

Milinowski, Marta. Teresa Carreno-“By the Grace of God.”  New Haven: Yale University Press, 1940.

Miller, Margo.“Oldest B.S.O. Subscriber recalls Gentle World of the Past-Life With Liszt and the Wagners.” Boston Sunday Globe, February 19, 1967,  A-27.

Mitchell, Jon Ceander. TransAtlantic Passages. Philip Hale of the Boston Symphony Orchestra 1889-1933. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2014.

Morrison, Bryce. Program note for Liszt, a CD by Stephen Hough on Virgin Classics,  VC 7 90700-2.

Mullins, John J. “Composer Margaret Lang. 101, just ‘wants to live forever.’”Newspaper article dateline “Boston (AP).” No date cited in the clipping, but it is marked “sent from Canada.” The original article appeared in the Boston Globe of Sunday, February 19, 1967.

Musical America, April 27, 1907, 4. “B. J. Lang Conducts the Cecilia Society of Boston for Last Time.”

Musical America, June 19, 1909, 15. “Women Composers of America-3. Margaret Ruthven Lang.” Author-Stella Reid Crothers.

Musical America, March 9, 1912, 23. “Music Library For Boston Students.”

Musical America, May 10, 1913, 32. “Hearing For Women Composers of Four Cities.”

Musical America, August 2, 1919, 21. “Contemporary American Musicians-No. 77 Margaret Ruthven Lang.” Author-Stella Reid Crothers. This article is shorter than the “Women Composers of America-3” listed above.

Musical America (March 9, 1912): 23. “Music Library for Boston Students.”

“Musical Boston.” See Davenport.

Musical Courier, January 1895. “Boston Music Notes-Margaret Ruthven Lang.”

Musical Courier, July 5, 1899. “Music In Boston.” Editorial comment on how some of the Boston newspapers had handled the murder by B. J’s father

Musical Courier (March 28, 1909): 18. “Women Composers Interpreted.”

Musical Record. Published by Oliver Ditson with its first issue, Saturday, September 7, 1878. Un. of Florida has issues through December 1900.

Musical Observer, January 26, 1884.“Mr. B. J. Lang.”

The National Cyclopedia of American Biography. New York: James T. White & Co., 1897. Articles on B. J. and Margaret Lang, Philip Hale, and William Apthorp.

New England Conservatory Magazine-review. December 1916-January 1917: “Passing of J. C. D. Parker,” 45 and 46. March-April 1917: “Fifty Years of the Conservatory,” 89.

New York Tribune (September 19, 1892): 4. “The World’s Fair and American Composers.”

Nutter, Charles Read. History of the Harvard Musical Association. Boston: Harvard Musical Association, 1968.

Obituary-B. J. Lang Dies of Pneumonia. Boston Globe (April 5, 1909): 94.

Obituary-B. J. Lang. Boston Herald, April 5, 1909.

Obituary-Benjamin J. Lang Dead. Boston Transcript, April 5, 1909.

Obituary-B. J. Lang. Musical America (April 10, 1909, Vol. IV, No. 22): 8.

Observer, January 26, 1884. Article about Lang’s career up to this point.

O’Donnell, Laurel. 5oth. Anniversary Concert Program loaded on her Western Massachusetts History Website, accessed August 14, 2016. http://www.hampdencountyhistory.com/springfield/orhpeus/cutter.htm

Oja, Carol J. B. New York: Institute for Studies in American Music, 1982.

Orpheum Theatre. In “www.frontrowking.com/venues/boston.”

Osborne, William. American Singing Societies and Their Partsongs. Lawton: ACDA, 1994.

Owen, Barbara. “An Eliot Organ in Boston, Massachusetts” in Fanfare For an Organ Builder-Essays presented to Noel Mander to celebrate the sixtieth anniversary of his commencement in business as an organ-builder. OXFORD: POSITIF PRESS, 1996.

Owen, Barbara. The Great Organ at Methuen. Richmond: Organ Historical Society, 2011.

Owen, Barbara. “The Opening of the Great Organ in Boston Music Hall.” Tracker (Vol. 40, #3, 1996). Has drawing of B.J. by Winslow Homer.

Owen, Barbara. The Organs and Music of King’s Chapel Boston 1713-1991. Second edition. Boston: King’s Chapel.

Paderewski, Ignace Jan and Mary Lawton. The Paderewski Memoirs. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1938.

Palffy, Eleanor. The Lady and the Painter. New York: Coward-McCann, Inc., 1951. 

Patterson, Ada. Maude Adams. New York: Meyer Bros. & Co., 1907.

Pearson, Edward Hagelin. Alma Gluck-Recordings, the CD booklet for Marston 52001-2, 1997.

van Pelt, William T. The Hook Opus List. 1829-1916 in Facsimile. Richmond: The Organ Historical Society, 1991.

Pendle, Karin. Women in Music-A History: Second Edition. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001.

Perkins, Charles C. and John S. Dwight. Story of the Handel and Haydn Society of Boston, Massachusetts, Vol. I. Boston: Alfred Mudge & Son, 1883. Also New York: Da Capo Press, 1977. Chapters 1-3 by Perkins cover 1815-1851 while Chapters 4-15 by John S. Dwight cover 1851-1890. See also Dwight.

Perry, Bliss. Life and Letters of Henry Lee Higginson. Boston: The Atlantic Monthly Press, 1921.

Phoenix CD. Unsigned program note for Phoenix CD set JDT 148: Edward MacDowell-Works for Piano performed by Alan Mandel.

“Pianofortes, Two Notable.” About two of B. J.’s inventions. See: Inventions.

Pratt, S. Brainard. Threescore Years and Ten: 1827-1897. Boston: Press of Samuel Usher, 1897.

Pratt, Waldo. American Music and Musicians. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1920.

Pratt, Waldo Selden and Charles N. Boyd, editors. Grove’s Dictionary of Music and Musicians-American Supplement Being the Sixth Volume of the Complete Work: New Edition with New Material. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1946.

Pruett, Laura Moore. Louis Moreau Gottschalk, John Sullivan Dwight, and the development of Musical Culture In the United States, 1853-1865. Dissertation, Ph.D., Florida State University, 2007.

Radell, Judith and Delight Malitsky. “Clara Kathleen Rogers” in Woman Composers, Volume 6-Composers Born 1800-1899; Keyboard Music. New York: G. K. Hall & Co., 1999.

Radell, Judith and Delight Malitsky. “Clara Kathleen Rogers” in Women Composers, Volume 7-Composers Born 1800-1899; Vocal Music New Haven: G. K. Hall & Co., 2003.

Rand, John C. One of a Thousand…One Thousand Representative Men…of Massachusetts, A.D. 1888-’89. Boston: First National Publishing Company, 1890.

Rees, Brian. Camille Saint-Saens-A Life. London: Chatto & Windus, 1999.

Rezits, Joseph. “Stephen Albert Emery” in The New Grove Dictionary of American Music. London: Macmillan Press, 1986.

Ritter, Frederic Louis. Music In America, edited and new introduction by Johannes Riedel. New York: Johnson Reprint Corp. 1970. Originally published in 1890, Ritter taught at Vassar, composed, conducted choral societies, and wrote on musical subjects.

Robbins, Phyllis. Maude Adams, An Intimate Portrait. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1956.

Rogers, Clara Kathleen. Memories of a Musical Career. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1919.

Rogers, Clara Kathleen. The Story of Two Lives.  Privately printed at the Plimpton Press, 1932. Her professional name as a singer was Clara Doria.

Rose, Julie K. The World’s Columbian Exposition: Idea, Experience, Aftermath. The University of Virginia. http://xroads.virginia.edu/ma96/wce/tour. (accessed August 5, 2015)

Ryan, Thomas. Recollections of An Old Musician. New York: E.P. Dutton and Co., 1899.

Sablosky, Irving. What They Heard: Music in America, 1853-1881 From the Pages of Dwight’s Journal of Music. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1986.

Sadie, Stanley and John Tyrrell. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians-Second Edition2001. Articles on: B. J. Lang, Margaret Ruthven Lang, William Foster Apthorp (Richard Aldrich/Ora Frishberg Saloman)

Saerchinger, Cesar. International Who’s Who in Music. New York: Current Literature Publishing Company, 1918.

Salem Choral Society. Program for December 29, 1886, for Gounod’s Redemption. Offered on eBay during August 2017 for $36.

Sammarco, Anthony Mitchell. Boston’s South End. Charleston: Arcadia Publishing, 1998.

Sampson, Davenport, & Co. Salem Directory, 1869; a City Record of the Names of the Citizens and a Business Directory. Salem: Geo. M. Whipple & A. A. Smith, 1869.

Saturday Morning Citizen, Beverly, Massachusetts, September 3, 1887, p. 3 Gen B) Article on Mrs. William F. Apthorp.

Saturday Morning Club of Boston, the Story of-Organized by Mrs. Julia Ward Howe and Mrs. Robert E. Apthorp. Privately printed, 1932.

Schabas, Ezra.“Theodore Thomas” in The New Grove Dictionary of American Music, edited by H. Wiley Hitchcock and Stanley Sadie. London: Macmillan Press Ltd., 1986.

Schier, Stephen J. and Kenneth C. Turino. Images of America: Salem Massachusetts Volume II. Charleston, S. C.: Arcadia Publishing, 1998.

Schleifer, Martha Furman, editor. Margaret Ruthven Lang-Nonsense Rhymes and Pictures. Bryn Mawr: Hildegard Publishing Co., 1997.

Schmidt, Arthur P.-Company Archives. Library of Congress. General Correspondence, Box 44.

        Folder 11: Margaret Ruthven Lang: 1901-1906 – 33 items.

        Folder 12: Margaret Ruthven Lang: 1907-1922 – 13 items

        Folder 13: Margaret Ruthven Lang: 1923-1931 – 28 items

        Folder 14: Margaret Ruthven Lang” 1932-1949 – 57 items. Mostly royalty receipts.

Schonberg, Harold C. The Great Pianists (Completely Revised and Updated). New York: Simon and Schuster, 1963.

Schonzeler, Hans-Hubert and R. Allen Lott. “Seidl, Anton” in The New Grove Dictionary of American Music, edited by H. Wiley Hitchcock and Stanley Sadie. London: Macmillan Press Ltd., 1986.

Scrapbooks of programs for performances by B. J. Lang-donated to the Boston Public Library, Music Division, by Malcolm Lang and Margaret Ruthven Lang on October 18, 1945. *ML 46. L 383.

Vol. 1: 1861-72 (this has many duplicate programs unbound at the end of the volume)

Vol. 2: 1874-79 (this has the Von Bulow programs from the 1875 concerts in Boston and Philadelphia)

Vol. 3: 1879-82

Vol. 4: 1882-86 (mainly programs from the Apollo Club, the Cecilia, the Handel and Haydn Society and of concerts given by his pupils where he often performed the orchestral part of a concerto)

Vol. 5: 1886-90

Vol. 6: 1891-96 (mainly programs from the Apollo Club, the Cecilia and the Handel and Haydn Society. Also annual reports of the Cecilia)

Vol. 7: 1896-1901

Vol. 8: 1901-06

Sears, Elizabeth Ann. The Art Song in Boston, 1880-1914. Dissertation submitted to the Catholic University of America, 1993.

“Seidl, Anton.” Article in Grove’s Dictionary of Music. Third Edition edited by H. C. Colles, 1957.

Shepp, James W. and Daniel B. Shepp. Shepp’s World’s Fair Photographed. Chicago: Globe Bible Publishing Co., 1893.

Shirley, Wayne D. “Philip Hale” in The Grove Dictionary of American Music. London: Macmillan Press Ltd., 1986, 307.

Sitwell, Sacheverell. Liszt. London: Cassell and Company, 1955.

Smith, Corinna Lindon. Interesting People-Eighty Years With the Great and Near-Great. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1962. Smith was the daughter “of G. H. Putnam, the New York publisher, and the wife of the painter Joseph Lindon Smith, whose work you can see in the Gardner Museum and whose charming letters, often decorated with little drawings, attest to an affectionate, fruitful, and flattering friendship. ([Mr.] Smith was, in fact, Mrs. Gardner’s first choice to direct her museum after her death, but as he was not available she settled on Carter instead.)” (Vigdeman, 11 and 12)

Smith, Rollin. “The 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago,” article in “The Tracker,” Organ Historical Society.

Social Register Boston 1929. Vol. XLIII, No. 5, November 1928. New York: Social Register Association, 1928.

Sourek, Otakar. Antonin Dvorak-Letters and Reminiscences. New York: Da Capo Press, 1985.

Spalding, Walter Raymond. Music at Harvard. New York: Coward-McCann, Inc., 1935.

Starr, S. Frederick. Louis Moreau Gottschalk. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2000. Over 500 pages and no mention of B. J. Lang.

Stebbins, Richard Poate. The Making of Symphony Hall Boston-A History with Documents. Boston: Boston Symphony Orchestra, 2000

Stewart-Green, Miriam. Women Composers; A Checklist of Works for the Solo Voice. Boston: G.K. Halland Co., 1980.

Steinberg, Michael. The Concerto-A Listener’s Guide. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Stopp, Jacklin B. “The Secular Cantata in the United States: 1850-1919.” Journal of Research in Music Education, Vol. 17, No. 4 (Winter, 1969).

Storer, H. J. “The Advance of Musical Education in America,” article in The Musician, Vol. XII, No. 10, October 1907 published by Oliver Ditson in Boston.

Sutro, Florence E. Women in Music and Law. New York: Self-published, 1895. Has photos of many women composers-mainly American. Margaret, a young Mrs. Beach, right-side view of Clara Kathleen Rogers, and also Irene Hale.

Swan, John C., editor. Music in Boston-Readings From the First Three Centuries. Boston: Trustees of the Public Library of the City of Boston, 1977. Sections from the writings of Apthorp: “Musical Reminiscences of Boston Thirty Years Ago” from By the Way, Vol. II,  About Musicians, Hale: Boston Home Journal, 1889-91, and Parker: Eighth Notes. 

Syford, Ethel. “The Apollo Club of Boston,” New England Magazine, April 1910, 158-165.

Syford, Ethel. “Margaret Ruthven Lang,” New England Magazine, xlvi/March 1912, 22-23.

Tawa, Nicholas E. The Coming of Age of American Art Music; New England’s Classical Romanticists. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1991.

Tawa, Nicholas E. Arthur Foote: A Musician in the Frame of Time and Place. London: The Scarecrow Press, 1997. This quote is from Arthur Foote, “A Near View of Mr. Lang,” Boston Evening Transcript, (1 May 1909),  3 and 4.

Tawa, Nicholas E. From Psalm to Symphony; A History of Music in New England. Boston: Northeastern Press, 2001.

Tick, Judith. American Women Composers Before 1890. Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1983, 1979.

Tischler, Barbara L. An American Music-The Search for an American Musical Identity. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Todd, F. Dundas. World’s Fair Through a Camera-Snap Shots By An Artist. St. Louis: Woodward and Tiernan Print Co., 1893.

Tolles, Bryant E. and Carolyn K. Tolles. Architecture in Salem. Hanover: University Press of New England, 1983.

Tomlins, W. L. The Laurel Music-Reader. Boston: C. C. Birchard & Company, 1912. Original copyright dates of 1906 and 1908, this volume was in response to the success of The Laurel Song Book-May it prove a worthy companion volume, its equal in excellence, interest, and popularity.”(Introduction, p. v). Two pieces by Margaret were included: To the Red-Breast, words by John Keble, and White Butterflies, words by Algernon Charles Swinburne. Her first piece is a short, fourteen measure, homophonic chorus in six-eight which she lists as her “Op. 38,” while the second is twenty-eight measures in length, and also in homophonic style. At the end of this second chorus is a footnote-“This song with piano accompaniment is published in our sheet music collection-the Laurel Octavo.”This success of this collection and The Laurel Song Book led to The School Song Book edited by Osbourne McConathy first published in 1910 which “was adopted in over five thousand cities and towns.” (Ayars, 46)

Tomlins, W. L. The Laurel Song Book. Boston: C. C. Birchard & Company, 1908. Subtitled-“For Advanced Classes in Schools, Academies, Choral Societies, etc.” Original copyright dates of 1900 and 1901.  The aim of this collection was “to give to the young student of this country a collection of songs and choruses representative (in so far as is possible to a work of limited compass) of the best musical art of the world, and more especially of the art of our contemporary American composers…In the hope that a book representing much of the art and life of America today, and giving to the student so unusual a combination of the beautiful in the sister arts of poetry and music, may be found acceptable and helpful, the editor offers this work to the educators and musicians of the country.” (Introduction,  iii and iv) Among the ninety “Songs and Choruses” included were two by Margaret: To the Fringed Gentian, words by William Cullen Bryant, and True Freedom, words by James Russell Lowell. Both of these works were homophonic in nature. There were also seventy-seven “Folk Songs and Hymns” included in the collection.The company of C. C. Birchard was founded in order to publish this collection. “The aim of this songbook was to furnish school music with texts of definite literary value and subjects that would interest and inspire American youth, emphasizing joy, hope, brotherhood and courage as the dominant emotions of American life. This volume was the pioneer in the use of the art songs of the great composers, as distinct from the purely folk song type of material, drawn largely from central European sources, which at one time predominated in music readers used in the schools. This book brought out for the first time in a school book works of many American composers. Texts were selected from the great poets and writers of the English-speaking world.” (Ayars, 45)

Thompson, Oscar. “An American School of Criticism: The Legacy Left by W. J. Henderson, Richard Aldrich, and Their Colleagues of the Old Guard.” Musical Quarterly, 23 (1937), 428-439).

Thompson, Vance. The Life of Ethelbert Nevin. Boston: Boston Music Co., 1913.

Tyler, Linda L. Edward Burlingame Hill: A Bio-Bibliography. New York: Greenwood Press, 1989.

Upton, George P. “Musical Societies of the United States and Their Representation at the World’s Fair.” Scribner’s Magazine, Vol. 24, No. 1, July 1893.

Upton, George P., edited by. Theodore Thomas-A Musical Autobiography: Vol. II-Concert Programmes. Chicago: A. C. McClurg & Co., 1905. Includes the complete programs, repertoire and artists, for the 1892-93 Columbian Exposition in Chicago.

Van Pelt, William T. The Hook Opus List, 1829-1935 in Facsimile. Richmond: The Organ Historical Society, 1991.

Vernon, Roland. Program note for Nimbus CD “Richard Crooks In Songs and Ballads.” (see Discography)

Vigdeman, Patricia. The Memory Palace of Isabella Stewart Gardner. Louisville: Sarabande Books, 2007.

Yankee Magazine article on the Lang Farm in New Boston, look under Jennifer Bakos.

Yellin, Victor Fell. Chadwick Yankee Composer. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1990.

Villamil, Victoria Etnier. A Singer’s Guide to the American Art Song 1870-1980. Metuchen, N. J.: The Scarecrow Press, 1993.

Youthful Voices: A Collection of Hymns and Tunes for the use of Sunday Schools-Music edited by Benjamin J. Lang.Boston: Walker, Wade and Co., 1862.

Wagner, Cosima. Diaries: Volume I- 1869-1877. Edited by Martin Gregor-Dellin and Dietrich Mack, translated by Geoffrey Skelton. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1978.

Walker, Alan. Hans von Bulow-A Life and Times. London: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Whipple, George N. “A Sketch of the Musical Societies of Salem” in Historical Collections of the Essex Institute, vol. 23. Salem: Essex Institute, 1886, online.

Williams, Alexander W. A Social History of the Greater Boston Clubs. Barre Publishing Co., Inc., 1970.

Winslow, Helen M. Literary Boston of Today. Boston: L. C. Page & Company, 1902. Half chapter and photo of Edward Everett Hale. In the 19 chapters, the only poet set by Margaret was Louise Chandler Moulton who had two of her poems set. Chapter includes her photo and a photo of her Drawing room.

Ed. Winsor, Justin. The Memorial History of Boston. Vol. 4 contains the 49 page Chapter VII-“The History of Music in Boston” by John Sullivan Dwight.

Wister, Frances Anne. Twenty-five Years of the Philadelphia Orchestra. Philadelphia: Edward Stern and Co., 1925.

White, Trumbell and William Ingelhart. The World’s Columbian Exposition. Boston: John K. Hastings, 1893.

Who Was Who in America? Vol. 1: 1897-1942. Chicago: A. N. Marquis Co., 1943.

Who’s Who of American Women-Volume I (1958-1959) Chicago: A. N. Marquis Co., 1958.

———. Highlights of the History of the Cecilia Society (1874-1946).

Wood, Nathan E.(its Minister). The History of the First Baptist Church of Boston (1665-1899). Philadelphia: American Baptist Publication Society, 1899.

The World’s Columbian Exposition: The Official Site-A Virtual Tour.  Downloaded August 111, 2015. http://xroads.virginia.edu/~ma96/wce/tour2.html

Zeller, Herb. Librarian, Apollo Club. E-mails November 20, 29, 2009.

ADDENDUM TWO – ROYALTY PAYMENTS FROM SCHMIDT

ADDENDUM TWO – ROYALTY PAYMENTS FROM SCHMIDT

WC-280. 01/01/2020.

From the Library of Congress collection.

Dec. 17, 1921

205 In the Twilight @ .03 $6.15

100 The Harbor of Dreams @ .04 $4.00

148 Five Songs @ .075$11.10

Jan. 24, 1922

Rental orch. Parts Heavenly Noel $5.00

Dec. 20, 1924

1777 Irish Folk Song (med.) @ .05 $88.85

Dec. 21, 1925

1015 Irish Love Song (med.) @ .05 $50.75

May 21, 1928

1000 Irish Love Song (in F) @ .05 $50.00

Apr. 21, 1931

320 Young Lady of Parma @ .01 $3.20

May 20, 1932

505 Irish Love Song (in F) @ .05 $25.25

Nov. 21, 1932

103 Rhapsody @ .065 $6.69

Dec. 19, 1933

210 Irish Mother’s Lullaby (low) @ .05 $15.50

Feb. 20, 1934

305 Day Is Gone (high) @ .05 $15.25

Oct. 20, ????

518 Old Man in a Tree @ .015 $6.22

Nov. 20, 1934

505 Irish Love Song (med.) @ .05 $25.25

Jan. 25, 1935

505 Irish Love Song (in F) @ .05 $25.25

Sept. 25, 1935

1028 Irish Love Song (Women)@ .01 $10.28

Mar. 20, 1936

260 Oriental Serenade@ .025 $6.50

May 20, 1937

305 Day Is Gone (mezzo) @ .05 $15.25

312 Grant We Beseech Thee @ .015 $3.74

Nov. 22, 1937

502 Irish Love Song (high) @ .05 $25.10

Mar. 21, 1938

503 Irish Love Song (D) @ .05 $25.15

Apr. 20, 1938

303 Irish Love Song (med.)” @ .05 $15.15

(Apr 20, 1938)?Australian Broadcasting Irish Love Song

1 1/2d. $.28

May 24, 1938

525 Irish Mother’s Lullaby (A flat)” @ .05 $26.25

210 Summer Noon @ .05 $10.50

Aug. 30, 1938

Two “Irish Love Song” broadcasting fees $1.81

Jan. 3, 1939

Rental of orch. Parts Heavenly Noel $3.00

Feb. 20, 1939

Rental Heavenly Noel (Presser)$2.50

Oct. 20, 1940

Performing fees $12.25

May 20, 1941

Australian broadcast 4 1/4d. $.07

May 20, 1941

US broadcasting fees Irish Love Song $1.05

May 20, 1941

249 Irish Love Song (in F) @ .05 $12.45

Aug. 22, 1941

Performing fees $14.54

Dec. 19, 1941

1000 Heavenly Noel @ .025 $25.00

Jan. 24, 1942

250 Irish Love Song (low) @ .05 $12.50

Aug. 24, 1942

301 Day Is Gone (high) @ .05 $15.05

Oct. 20, 1942

Performing fees $15.53

Mar. 19, 1943

250 Irish Love Song (in F) @ .05 $12.50

May 19, 1943

507 Irish Love Song (Wms. 516) @ .01 $5.07

Aug. 20, 1943

Performing fees $16.25

July 20, 1944

249 Irish Love Song (high) @ .05 $12.45

Oct. 20, 1944

Performance fees $12.25

Dec. 18, 1944

252 Irish Love Song (medium) @ .05 $13.60

June 21, 1945

Acknowledges a check for $21.75

July 7, 1945

Performing Fees $20.00

Nov. 20, 1945

254 Irish Love Song @ .05 $12.70

Dec. 18, 1946

252 Irish Love Song @ .05 $12.60

Apr. 18, 1947

318 Irish Mother’s Lullaby (Trio) @ .0125 $3.82

Dec. 17, 1947

215 More Nonsense Rhymes @ .10 $21.50

Apr. 20, 1948

520 Irish Love Song @ .05 $26.00

July 8, 1948

Broadcasting Fees $26.95

Transcriptions $4.50

Jan. 20, 1949

150 Summer Noon (med.) @ .05 $7.50

250 Irish Love Song (med.) @ .05 $12.50

Apr. 15, 1949

250 Irish Love Song @ .05 $12.50

Oct. 20, 1949

271 Irish Love Song (high) @ .05 $13.55

June 20, 1950

250 Irish Love Song (low) @ .05 $12.50

Dec. 14, 1951

150 Day Is Gone (B flat) @ .05 $7.50

Dec. 14, 1951

Broadcasting fees $9.40